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TOFOORAPHICAL, HISTORICAL, AND BIOGRAPHICAL, 



OF BACH COUNTY. 



BY S. N. BREWER, ESQ. ^ 

AiflOT of tte loftradiietenr Vdiime to the Bwntiei of Bngtond and Wales; DeUaeatioiia 

of Qloocettenhlre, &e. ftc. 



ILLUSTRATBO 

WITH ENGRAVINGS, BT J. & H. S. BTORER, 
APISR OEIGINAL DRAWINGS, CHIBPLT BY MR. PETRIB, OF DUBLIN. 



•* Itwaiaefeoeenplottof tetikkuMi, 
Amensit wMe waree lett, Uke a little neit, 
ilf if it had br Nature^ oanning band 
Bene dwywlj pfcked oat froa aU the iMt" 



VOL. II. 



i 



PRINTED FOR SHERWOOD, GILBERT, & PIPfiR, 

PATRRN08TBR ROW : 

■OLD ALSO BT R. MlLMKEN, J. CUMMIMO, M. KEENE, G. P. ARCHER, M. N. 
HAROir, R. M. TIMS, B. DUODALE, D. LAWRENCE, HODOES AND M*ARTRVR, 
WBITLET AND TTRRELL* AND THE OTHER BOOKSELLERS IN DUBLIN | ALIO 
BT THE BOOR8BLLERS IN WATERPORD, CORE, LUIBRICBL, CLONMBLL, COLE* 
tUINB, NEWKT, AND BELPA8T. r 



1826. I, C> 



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LONDON : 
COB AND MOORE, PRfNTKRi, 27, OLD CRANOB. 



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TO HIS GRACE 
RICHARD-GRENVILLE-BRYDOES -CHANDOS TEMPLE. 

DUKB OP BUCKINQHAM AND CHANDOS, K.G. ftc. «tc. 



WHOSE PATBONAOE OF THE UTERARY INTERESTS OF IRELAND 



n injaunDLT ivincxd bt 



THE COLLECTION OF MANUSCRIPTS, RELATING TO THE 
ANTIENT HISTORY OF THAT ISLAND, 



PltUtVtD 

AS THE MOST ESTEEMED TREASURES EVEN IN THE 
PRINCELY LIBRARY OF 8T0WE, 



THIS VOLUME 

IS, WITH PERMISSION OF HIS GRACE, 

Mon ■ m r tnfu txr iraotittD» 

AB A SMALL TmiBUTB TO ■» PUBLIC AND PRIVATB VIRTU El» 
BY HIS GRACE'S iMOST OBEDIENT SERVANT. 

J. N. BREWER. 



PREFACE 



TO THE BECOND YOLUMG OV THK BBAUTIB8 OP IRELAND. 



On completiiig the second volume of the BeantieB of 
Ireland^ I have to perform the pleasing duty of repeating 
my former acknowledgment of literary obligationa to 

OOLONBL HBRVET DB MONTMORENCY^ from whOM W 

tenaive tqpographical and genealogical coOectioas I have 
derived mnch original and ourioua b 



W. BmkW Mason, Esq. has been unremitting in his 
efforts to serve this publication. The ability of Mr. Mason 
to afford valnable intelligence on sobjects relating to the 
Statisties of Ifehuid> will be readily appreciated by those 
niio have inspected his '' Statistical Returns for the Barony 
of RathviHy, in the connty of Carlow," printed by order of 
ihe House ai Commons, as a specimen of a work, that, 
when compkied, cannot faQ to prove of great national 
impmrtanoe. 

To SHWfULO Grace, Esq. I am indebted for an 
undeviating politeness of attentions, highly conducive to 
the advancement of my unifertaking. 

The honour of several communications from other 
persons, whose names are likewise calculated to reflect credit 
on the work to which they have contributed intelligence, 
shall be duly acknowledged in pages prefatory io the con- 
dndittg volnme.***Aad here let me remark that^ without the 



L^* 



PREFACE. 

advantage of such communications, it is scarcely possible 
for a topographical work to be performed in a manner 
bearing any resemblance of a satisfactory character. The 
mere tourist writes an account of what he sees, and his 
merit depends on the fidelity and spirit of the portraiture. 
But the present work is obviously of a different, and more 
comprehensive, kind. Its objects are not confined to a 
description of the country, with notices respecting the 
manners of the people. It aims at presenting a compendium 
of county and local history. To collect the intelligence 
that public sources may supply, concerning the history of 
particular places, is one of the first duties of my under- 
taking, and is readily performed. But the most valuable 
funds of information on such subjects, can be derived only 
from the possessors of estates, or persons long resident at 
the respective places which it is desirable to notice.. Thus, 
the local examination that would prove quite, adequate. to 
the purpose of the tourist, is by no means sufficient for the 
satis£BM2tory execution of the taisk m which I am engaged. . 

I profit by the opportunity of dwelling upon this cir- 
cumstance, as most parts of Ireland are new to topographical 
inquiry, and many persons, capable of affording the in- 
formation required, withhold such intelligence, not from a 
deficiency in literary liberality of manners, but from an 
erroneous impression respecting the nature of the work to 
which their communications would be of importance* 

As I am now arranging my collections for Connaught 
and Ulster, I shall deem myself much honoured and favoured 
if the above remarks procure me any additional correspon- 
dents on the topography of those provinces. , 

Some casual errors are scarcely to be avoided, in a work 
treating on subjects so multifarious as those embraced by 
these volumes. One or two typographical mistakes, in 
regard to figures^ have been discovered in the parts already 



PREFACE. 

published. It appears^ also^ that^ in following the authorities 
of Walker and Ryan> I have mis-stated the birth-place of 
Turlough O'Carolan. My authorities assert that the bard 
was bom in the small town of Nobber; but it is said, in 
some papers published by the Iberno-Celtic Society, under 
the name of their Transactions, that he was, in fact, a 
native of Newton, distant from Nobber about three miles 
and a half. 

It is an advantage of a work published in progressive 
parts, that time is allowed, before its completion, for a 
discovery of the errors peculiarly unavoidable in topo- 
graphical labours. A notice of every inaccuracy that can 
be detected shall be carejfuUy inserted in the final volume ; 
since it is my anxious desire to render this work as correct, 
as it is, I trust, in every respect impartial* 

J. N. BREWER. 

PiLLBRTON House, Warwicmhire, 

March 30, 1826. 



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OF 



IRELAND. 



PROVINCE OF LEINSTEIL 



COUNTY OF CARLOW. 

JLHra small and inland connty was made shire-gronnd by King 
John, under the name of Catberlougb^ or Caterlogb . Its greatest 
lengthy as computed by Dr. Beanfort^ is twenty-six miles^ and its 
extreme widtb twenty-tbree miles. On tbe east and north-east 
its bonndaries meet Wexford and Wicklow. Kilkenny adjoins 
its borders on tbe west. On tbe north and aortb-west lie Kil- 
dare and tbe Qaeen's Connty. This district comprehends the 
aniient territories of *' Hy Cavanagh and Hy Drone,*' being the 
northern part of the principality of Hy Kinselagb. Its most 
antient 6unilies are tbe Mac Morongh-Kavanaghs 5 the O'Ryans ; 
tbe O'Nolans, and the O'Mores ; tdso tbe Walls, or Davals 5 
tbe St. Anbins ; De La Fraynes 3 De Berminghams ; De Carews ; 
Landys, or De La Landes ; the Graces 3 and tbe Butlers. Since 
tbe time of Qneen Elizabeth tlie following, amongst other families, 
bare likewise obtained property and influence in this connty : 
Tbe Bagnals ; Eustaces ; Burtons 3 O'Briens of Thomond 3 Pon- 
8onby8 3 Hamiltons3 Cokes 3 Bernards 3 Vigors' 3 Vicars' 3 Bur- 
dctt8 3 Bunburys^Beresfords3 Bmen8 3 fiagotS3 andBrownes. 
Mr. Wakefield notices amongst the principal proprietors of 

VOL. II. R 



2 BBAUTIB8 OF IRELAND. 

landed estate^^ at the present time, the families of Karanagh ^ 
Braen } Burton ; and Rochfort. 

This county, after the Strongbonian settlement, became a 
palatinate in the family of the earl marshal. After the death of 
William the Marshal, £arl. of Pembroke, and of his five sons 
successive earls, Carlow fell to the share of his daughter, the 
wife of Hugh le Bigot, Earl of Norfolk; who, in her right, suc- 
ceeded to the dignity of Earl Marshal of England. This earl, 
residing in the latter country, confided the seneschalship, or 
stewardship, of Carlow, as did in like manner the Lord De Carew, 
Baron of Idrone, the superintendance of his estate in this county, 
to .Donald-Mac Art Kavanagh, one of the antient proprietors of 
the soil, and a vassal of those noblemen. Instead of executing 
these trusts with fidelity, I>onald»Mac Art seiaed the first favour- 
able opportunity of shaking off his alliance to his employers, and, 
assuming the title of Mac Morough, claimed the sovereignty of this 
entire quarter of Leinster, founding his pretensions upon his de- 
scent from Donald Kavanagh, who had borne the same title, and 
was the illegitimate son of Permod Macmorough, last King of Lein- 
ster. Froisard gives a lively, and not uninteresting, character of 
this turbulent chieftain, concerning whose descendants sope 
further particulars occur in our description of Borris, the most 
distinguished seat in this district. In the present place it may 
be sufficient to observe that the troubles occasioned by Donald's 
assumption of local sovereignty, form a prominent feature ijql th^ 
history of the county of Carlow. 

The general aspect of this county is agreeable, but partdces 
less of this sublime and highly-captivating than is witnessed in 
many other parts of Ireland. In compensation of this deficiency 
there are few harsh effects of contraat; and the English traveller 
is often reminded of the e(|oable but grateful scenery to which ba 
is accustomed in the midland districts of his native country. 
The chief elevations approaching towards the character of monn* 
tains, rise on the west side of the river Barrow, and in the 
southern part of the county, on the borders of Wexford. This lat- 
ter range commences ou the north with the rocky acclivities of 



/ 



[LBiNaras.] oonwTV of.oablow. 8 

Mount-Leiiister^ and terminates in the Blackstairs mountains^ 
procipitoQS im ateeat and of a sable hie. The interior of the 
canBty is either flat or gently nndalating^ and the soil of a «al<* 
careoos and rich nature. The navigable river Barrow iows 
throogh the county from porth to south 3 and the Slaney crosses 
it towards ft)ke east { both, rivers adding at once to the fertility 
and beauty of oontigpaous flistricts. 

The €oiipty is divided into five, baronies, named RavUfy; 
Caiherlogk, or Carlo w; Idrane; Forth; and St^ MnUWi, or 
Molin*8. These are again subdivided into fifty, parishes, the 
whole of which are in the diocesa of Leighlin. 

The ^antity of cultivated and uncultivated land is thus 
stated in Mr. Wakefield's Account of Ireland. Cultivated land, 
1^,516 acres; umcuitwated land, (mountain and bi^) 19,817 
acres. Totpl number of ^cres 1?5,733, Much bariqr^ oi an 
excellent quality, is grown in this county, together with consif* 
derable quantities of other grain. Largei tracts of Tiob pastwrti* 
land are occupied as dairy-farms, and the butter of Carlow has the 
reputation of being the best that is sent to the Dnbliii m^ket« 
" The Dairies," observes the writer hst quoted, '* consist of from 
twenty to fifty oows^ and, during the season, produce licwt. of 
butter per cow.*' Great care is taken in the breed ef cattle, and 
the dairies are firequently let to persons who agree to giv^ a cer* 
tain sum pi^ aimum, for wh^t may be termed the usufruet of eaek 
cow. The butter is usually sent to Dobliii by means of the canal, 
and lai|;e quantities are thence forwarded to London. The ftma 
are fteqfiiendy large, and are often stocked with fine flecks of 
lottg-woolled sheep, many of which are fattened for market. 

Tl^is (Com^ty contaii^ numerous seats of gentry, several of 
whidi are highly e89ibellishe4« The princqMd subjects of aiti* 
qnarian gratificadoq consist in vestiges of ecdesiastiQsI apd niU* 
tary structures, not often on an extensive scale. 



b9 



O BEAUTIBS OP IRELAHD* 

thereby^ Lord of Cariow. AU&o«g1i few partUmlArs liave If^n 
pretorred coBcerniiig its i^emote history^ it is etident ihaX thk 
eaibtle waft long regardtd as one of tbe prindptil protectioris 6f 
the English pale in Letaster. Among the acmsatioild presented 
against Oenld, eighth Earl of Kildare^ atd his brother Jadies 
Fitz^Gerald^ for which -they trere altidnted by an act of the Parlia- 
ment held at Drogheda in 1494, was that of their haTing seised 
on tki Kmg't Castle of Cariow. We have already stated that 
Rory^Oge 0*More burned the town of Cariow in 1577^ &nd it 
most be added^ that he^ at the same time« captured its protecting 
fartress.* In the civil War of the setenteenth century the castle 
was alternately possessed by the two chief contending parties^ 
bnt did not, at that era> fbrm the scene of any very important mili- 
tary ttansactioas^ and has sinCe^ until lately, renudhed in majestic 
solitude, free ftom any efforts towatds inhabitation. 

This noble pile was constructed on a slight eminence, upon 
the west side of the town, overhanging the river Barrow. It 
was of a square form, flanked wkh a circular tower at each angle. 
The doors were remai'kably low and narrow, and the apertures for 
the admission of light consisted chiefly, or entirely, of loop^hcdes. 
From the grandeur of its proportions^ and the favourable charac*' 
tcr of its situation, which allowed a free view of its massy towers 
and ringed sides from the various roads which lead to the town, 
this august pile constituted a feature of peculiar magnificence in 
the architectural display of Cariow. But folly and presumption 
have recently deprived the pictorial examiner, and the antiquary, 
of an object so well calculated f6r their gratification.^-^The maaor 

* A tomb has been recently discoverefi* of good workmanahip^ tbe top 
of wbich presents a recnmbent figure, clothed in armour; and round the 
odge the follawing uMcripfion appears, in gothic charaeterg. *< Hie 
Jacet RobertsB Uartpoie ConstahnlMriuB Ae Catbertagfa Se^nageaaiim 
internit 3 Octobris 1594." Sir Robert Hartpole, constable of the Castle 
of Cariow, was settled at Shrule in the Queen's County, ef which county 
he was goYernor. Tradition represents him as a sanguinary, as well 
as a very vigilant officer, in repressing popular commotidns. In tbe 
Lord Deputy's state leitcfrs be is recofdinended to the <}iieeti, atf eitthl«d 
to her espealal fisvottr aad prlnorty rowa#d. 



[L^INSTBB.] county aF CABLOW, 7 

of Catlow^ includiog this noUa monvmetit of mtiqutey^ i)«t6ed> 
in consequence of an nnredeemed mortgage, from a late Earl of 
Thomond to the family of a Mr. Hamilton, bis Lordship's law 
agent, who are the present proprietors. By this family a lease 
of the castle was granted, in the year 1814, to a physician, named 
Middletott, who had formed the project of establishing in Garlow 
a makon de Stmt^ for the reception of lunatics, and who speedily 
oommenced operations, with a view of rendering the boilding 
amenable to his purpose. As the loop-holes in the walls were 
not sufficient to give the requisite light and ventilation, and as 
the thickness of the walls contracted undesirably the space of the 
rooms, this person, confiding in his own skill, ilndertook to en« 
large the windows and diminish the thickness of the walls, with-' 
out calling professional knowledge to his adsistattse. For the 
latter object he laboured by a process rather new in practice^ 
namely, that of blasting the walla with gunpowder. He had tiot 
proceeded lar in bis impr&vemenu, when the pile, which had for 
so many ages derided the efforts of the battoHng rtim, yi«ddMl 
to this more fearful mode of assanlt^ and more than otte hidf oi' 
the castle fell to the ground ! Only the western side, cowprisifag 
two of the angular towers,, is now remaining.* 

A large and commodious house, for the tise of the governor, 
was built by Sir John ViUiefs, in the vioinity of the castle. In 

* This tremendoas downfall occurred ai the hour of diae ia the noriv* 
kig, a time at which the workmen had iu»pended their laboor, and happily, 
no life was lost. The huge masses of ruin incumber the whole of the 
monnty except the west side, and mix with cottages at its basO) which 
are lafstldr ia stSe to many of dieve ponderous fragments. A mftn who 
wac a witnotft •f this naoiiMl Accident, ^sidilbed tke s^^ectacle to^ltf^' 
present writer in Yory lively terms, and obsSrvod ftaitUa downfall waa 
■o slow in operation that a person had sufficient time .to escapis fro A the 
sphere of destruction (as. was the case with himself) after- viewing 
lite portentods and amasing nodding of the towers. The immense pile 
gf'adtfall y disparted into vast massetf, which brokd with di^culty into 
fragtterits leis^ mighty. Many gigantic pieces of the rotfl rolled to the 
very doors of souse humble cabins, on.iM oppotiSs jMer of vroadaliim 
base of the cuatle-nuHiai. • ^ 



8 BBAtTTlBS OP tlBLAND. 

the same neighboarhood nuty also be seen the raias of a cbapel/ 
dedicated to St. MichaeL 

The Parochial Church is a pbun bat spacious buildings having 
at the west end a square tower of stone, sarmonnted by a spire 
of heavy and unpleasing proportions. The interior oontaina 
several sepnlcbral monuments^ but not any that would s^ypear ta 
be of public interest. The Roman Catholic chapel is a large and 
respectable structure. There are meeting-honses for Methodists 
and Quakers. 

. In this town is a College, for the education of youth of the 
Roman Catholic persuasion, founded by the late Dr. O'Keeffe, 
R. C. Bishop of Leighlin, and other divines of the same chorcb. 
The foundation is designed for the tuition of 100 boys, fifty of 
whom are educated for the priesthood. The buildings are very 
spadous, but not of an ornamental character, with the exception 
of the chapel, which is a neat and well-preserved structure^ 
living a contiguous burial ground. About seven acres of land 
are attached to this scholastic institution. The buildings are 
secluded and well-placed, the college-precincts being surrounded 
with high walls. 

The Court-house, in which the county assizes are held, was 
built, subsequent to the troubles of 1798, on the site of a former 
gaol. This is a mean building, as regards its architectural cha- 
racter, but is commodious, and comprises a good ball-room. 
Among recent institutions, creditable to the taste and the huma- 
nity of the inhabitants, must be noticed a reading-room and a dis- 
pensary. 

Carlow was incorporated by King James I^ and is governed 
by a sovereign and two seijeants. This town returns one member 
to the imperial parliamentr 

Oak Park (formerly called PayneMiownJ, the seat of Henry 
Bruen, Esq. representative of this county in parliament, is situated 
at a short distance from Carlow, towards the north. The house, 
which is a spacious building with wings, is handsome and con- 
venient. The grounds are flat, but enriched with extensive woods 
of full-grown oak. The family of Coke was seated at Paynestown 



[lbinstbb.] couutt op oablow. 9 

tbroagh many gcDerations. Thomas Coke, Esq. dying wHhoat le- 
gitimate male issae, his estates passed to the late Earl of Kenmare, 
by whom this place was sold to the father of the present owner. 
A small friary of Franciscans^ not noticed by Archdall, was 
founded here by the family of Coke. The convent stood in the 
vicinity of the mansion, but was levelled with the ground by the 
first possessor of this estate of the name of Bmen. 

BaowNB HiLh, the seat of WiUiam Browne, Esq. is distant 
from Carlow one mile and a quarter, towards the east, and was 
bnilt by the late Robert Browne, Esq. after the plan of Mr. 
teeters, architect. The demesne-lands are well laid out and 
planted. Browne-hill and the contiguous seat, termed Viewmount, 
occupy the site of a former monastery, called St. Kieran's Abbey, 
three towers of which building were standing about seventy years 
since* The latest remains were, however, taken down by the 
&mily of Browne, and the materials used in erecting Viewmount- 
hoose and the park wall at Browne-hill. At the period of the 
suppression, an ancestor of the Earl of Tfaomond obtained a grant 
of St. Kieran's Abbey, and the lands attached to that religious 
house. The line of the Browne family settled at this place derives 
from the house of Rokewood Hall, Abbess Roding, and Weald 
Hall, in Essex. In the year 1650, Robert, second son of John 
Browne, of Wickham and Abbess -Roding, Esq. passed into Ire- 
land, and his descendant, the late Robert Browne, Esq. purchased 
the estates in this county, now in the possession of the present 
proprietor.* 

Viewmount, noticed above as a seat contiguous to Browne- 
hiD, is also the property of Mr. Browne, but is in the occu- 
pation of ■ ■ Bennet, Esq. This seat, as the name indi- 
cates, commands an admirable prospect over the surrounding 
country. Here resided, very generally respected and beloved 
until the fatal year 1798, Sir Edward Crosbie, Bart, unhap- 
pily the victim, at that period, of the intolerance and sus« 

* Vide Geneal. Mems. of the family of Montmorency, by Colonel 
Her fey De Montmorency* I Vol. 4to. Paris 1817, p. 319* n* 



10 BKAIXriM W IBSLAND. 

pkiOD^ whM^ hi times of ebil eommotion^ nrely Cn) to iafeel 
tke imiidB of sabordinate instrameiiti of offiee> " sraad with 
farkf mtkority."* 

la the mioity of Viewmoaiit is one of the ki^eet Cromlechs 
to be seen in Irehind^ which is described in the folhming words 
by the late Mr. Beiioford^ in the work apon Irish Antiqnities^ pvb'- 
lisbed under the same of Grose. *' It consists of so imme&se 
fock'-^tone, raised on an edge from its native bed, and sapported 
OB the east by three pillars. At a distance is another piliar^ 
by itself, nearly ronnd, and five feet high. The dimensions 
of the supporters and ooveriBg-'StOBes are as follow : 

ft. in. 
Height of the three supporters 5 8 

Thickness of the upper end of the coyer- 

ing stone 4 6 

Breadth of the same 18 9 

Length of the slope itiside 19 O 

Ijength of the oatside 9Q \0"f 

Cloughgrknan, the estate of J. S. Rochfort^ Esq. situated on 
the borders of the river Barrow> is a domain abounding in natural 
charms, and further enriched by some noble vestiges of antiquity. 
The lucid course of the Barrow is here adorned with several well- 
wooded islets ) and the mountains of the Queen's County, a 
lovely range of elevations, clothed with wood to a considerable 
height, terminate the demesne towards the west. The grounds 
attached to the mansion are finally diversified by inequalities of 
surface, and ornamented with thriving plantations, and much tim- 
ber, often of a venerable growth. The house is of modem 
erection, and is a plain building, respectable in character, and ex- 

* For partieolan respecting the fate of Mw ifendemaii (a fate that 
bat long^ since aflTorded cause of lamentation to all parties), see ** An 
Account and impartial Narration of tiie Apprehension, &c. of Sir Edward 
Crosbie, Bart, published in Justice to his Memory by his Family.'* Printed 
at Batit, and neprifited at Dublin. 

f Grose, vol. i. article Pagan Aatlqs4 ia whkb work Is an Mgtaving, 
bat not after a correct drawing, of this remarkable cromlech. 



[lbinstbr.} covnty of caslow. 11 

tftmeiy eommodliHH^ but scarddy wtetky of its sitaatioB bn n 
demesne of sach distingaished btauty. 

Cloilgligrciian was an antlmt eiijtate of the bmn^ bf Ormtede, 
attd was purchased of the Dnke of Ofuonde by the great grand-* 
toher of the pfeseat propi'ieter^ about the year 1680. FhHn tkk 
demesne the ttro Earls of Attab^ namely, RidUrd,* son of the first 
Dttke of Ormdnde, and Charles the last dake*i bfotheri tookthetitki 
of Baron in the Irish peenq;^. The remains of the deserted castle 
are still standingi netr the modent residence of Mr. RooMort^ 
wbkh is Approadied through one of the aolient embattled gate^ 
ways. The rdias of the castle are overgrown with ivy, and com-' 
stitate one of the moat piotares^ue objects in this comity. \ 
decayed churchy also, mbgles its pensive beteities with the nn- 
mcToaa charms of the scenery on this favonved spot. The Castle 
of Clonghgrenan was takm io the year 156i, by Sir Peter Carew 
flrom Sir Bdmnnd Batler> who was then in rebelltoii against 
Qoeen Elizabeth. In the year 164^, this lortitess Was besieged by 
the Irish, but was relieved by Colonel Sir Patrick Wemys. H^e, 
in 1M9, previous to the battle of Rathmines, the Marquess of 
Ormonde^ then proprietor of this manor> assembled and mus^ 
tered the united Protestant and Catiiolil) royalist army. 

In a ford of the river Barrow, at the distance of about on« 
quarter of a mile from the castle of Cloughgrenan, there weM 
found, in the year 1819, sevehd tdics of a very remote age, oad'^ 
sisting of brazen 8Word8> dhiefly broken or mdch bent| atrow^ 
beads ^ a scull, and other human bonei.* 

BuLLUxoiiT, the residence of the family of Vigors, is situated 
on sloping ground upon the bank of the river Barrow. This 
demesne, which comprises a d^ghtfbl walk along the borders of 
the river, is highly adorned with thriving plantations. 

* MS. information of J. S. tlochfort Esq. It is to be regretted tliat 
ihe worlLmen who discovered these andqoities had privately disposed of 
nsaily the whole, before the circamstaoce vras known to Mr. Rochfort. 
One entire sword, and two broken swords, were obtained by that fettfle- 
man, and are now in his pessession* They are sharp*^intaii add two 
edgady the brass^ of which they are chiefly composed, appaaring to be 
alloyed with tin. 



1% BRAUTIB8 OF IRKLANH. 

Oakryhundbn^ distant from Carlow four miles, is the aatient 
mansion of Sir Richard Botler, Bart. 

BoRRis Castle, the superb seat of Thomas Kavanagfa, Esq. 
is (Ustant from the town of Carlow about twelve miles, towards 
the sonth. This is, in every respect, the finest and most interest- 
ing residence in the county of Carlow. The estate of Borris 
would appear to be formed by the hand of nature for the site of 
a baronial mansion. The extensive demesne abounds in inequa- 
lities of sur^e, and is richly wooded. The river Barrow flows 
along its borders, and a mountain-stream penetrates the interior, 
rolling over a bed of broken rocks. The Black-stairs mountains, 
which terminate the prospect towards the south-east, form a 
boundary^ in that direction, of unusual grandeur. 

The house, originally a large and square but unornamented 
building, was erected by the grandfather of the present proprie- 
tor, and the chief architectural alterations were carried into effect 
by the late Walter Kavanagh, Esq., his elder brother, the archi- 
tects employed being the Messrs. Morrison. By those gentle- 
men it was correctly perceived that a mansion of modem features 
would bear no afhnity of character to the bold, august, and pic- 
turesque scenery of this demesne. They adopted, therefore, as 
the model of their improvements, the English baronial mansion 
of the sixteenth century, turretted and rich in detail, examples 
of which style may be seen at Hatfield and Burleigh. Without 
disputing the judgment of these tasteful and able architects, it 
may, perhaps, be doubtful whether, considering the prevailing 
tone of the sarroanding scenery, and the high antiquity of the 
family seated through almost countless generations on this 
demesne, a model of a date still more remote might not have been 
selected, with an increased degree of effect in congruity of key- 
ing. The abode of the Kavanaghs, placed amidst the natural 
grandeur of Borris, must have appeared congenial to the family 
and the country, if castellated in the magnificent taste of the 
third Edward. Still, the building, as altered after the designs of 
the Messrs. Morrison, is so very splendid a specimen of the 
order of mansions which it is intended to represent, that few 



[lbimstir.] county or caslow. 13 

spectators wiU bi\ to rest contented with the efforts of the arcfai*- 
tects. ConveDienoiB^ in this noble residence, is carefnlly blended 
widi ornament} and, contrary to the perverse custom in many 
decorated dwellings, it may be safely affirmed that the genius of 
the builder is most forcibly displayed in the interior. The prin- 
cipal apartments are spacious, appropriate, and chastely^ although 
sumptuously, adorned. 

The demesne of Borris has constituted, for numerous suc- 
cessive ages, the chief residence of the senior representatives 
of the posterity of Donald Kavanagh, natural son of Der- 
mod Mac-moroogh, the last King of Leinster.* The descendants 
of that distinguished personage have performed prominent parts 
in the afilurs of Ireland, at many eventfiil junctures. Owing to 
the troubled state of the country, and the antient claims of this 
potent race, we chiefly, until recent more settled and pacific ages^ 
recognise the name in conjunction with scenes of turbulence, but 
are often constrained to admire instances of individual heroism. 
Happily, for several generatiens, the sameardouroffseunily feeling 
has been employed in genuine patriotism, and such acts of local 
beneficence as fall more peculiarly within the sphere of the 
topographer's consideration. 

We forbear from following the varied fortunes of this very an- 
tient and illustrious family through the centuries briefly succeed- 
ing the introduction of the Anglo-Normans by King Dermod, and 
observe that, on the 4th of November, 1550, Charles, or Cahir, 
Mac Art Macmorough Kavanagh, of Polmonty, chief of the name, 
in the great council-chamber of Dublin, and in the presence of the 
lord lieutenant. Sir Anthony St. L^er, and other official and dis- 
tinguished persons, submitted himself, and publicly renounced 
the title and dignity of Mac Mobouoh, as borne by his ancestors. 
Upon which occasion, as was usaal in those times, he '^ parted 

* The reader will recollect that in onr notice of Fems {County of Wex' 
ford) we have presented some remarks of the Chevalier De Montmorency, 
•howiflf^ that in Ireland, from the earliest periods down to a date so recent 
am the sixteenth centnry, illegitimacy was, for many political reasons, 
not viewed in a humiliating light. 



14 . b«4lutibb or hkbulhd. 

witii a poriian of his estates/' ^Four y^rs aubseqaent l;^ bjs 
MbmissioQ, tbla diieftaiii wits crested by Qqeen Mei^ a peer for 
hit, by the title of Baron of Balygmi, ia the coQQty of Wexford. 

Notwithstandiag this ioereasiiig aaiity between the ehieftain 
and the English goy^omeot, we find different meipbers of the 
sept esgaged in ambitious straggles for power at varions subset 
qnent periods. In the year 1559^ Hugh Mac Morough cldmed 
the discarded chieftainship^ aad repaired to arms in support of 
his preiteiisipnB. Tt^ assumption of this title had now ceased 
to he merely a snbjeot of contentictn between rival individuals^ BnA 
tkB hand of government interfered to eroeh so serious an eft>rt itt 
ifidepeadenee^ {^ Nicholas Bagenal> knight-marsbali. mur^hed 
a body of troops against the aspiring Hngh| and a desperate 
conflict ensued, which, we are told, was '^ so well fongbt on both 
sides, that the loss, as well as the victory, ia uncertain.*' 

Donald-fipaniagh ftke Spaniard) was a torbuleni personage 
of the sept of Kavnnagfa, in the latter part of the sixteenth cen- 
tury.* In the year 159i5, this Donald, in conjunction with 
Pbeagh Mac Hugh O 'Byrne (often noticed in oor description 
of the County of Wlcklow) ravaged the entire country from 
Wicklow to the gates of Dublin. His aggressions remained for 
some time unavenged, but, in the year 1600, Sir Oliver Lambert, 
the British general, invaded the lands of Donald-Spaniagh, and 
made a prey 9f lOOQ cows, 500 garrons (small horses), and a 
great store of sheep. This daring toparch died at his castle of 
Clonmolin, in the year 1631, or 1639, and was succeeded ia 
the family domain by his son. Sir Morgan Kavanagh of Borris. 

Bonris Castle, in the year 1649, was garrisoned by the parUa- 
meutarians j and the building then experiencing a siege by the 
Irish, Sir Charles Coote, with some difficulty, threw into it a 
reinforcement of men and provisions. After the restoration of 
King Charles II. Bryan Kavanagh, Esq. was suffered to remain in 

« Tk9 epUkei of Sjfoniagh wm frvqveatly applisd ky ikm old Inali» 
not be^aaao the penon so termed wiui born or bred in Spaia, but on ac* 
c^ant of bU baling a yellow or sallevr conplexioo, resembliDf » as was 
supposed, that of the Spanish people. 



[LIIN8TIB.] COUMTY OF CABLOW. 15 

vaiAoleBted peaseMion of Us 9»MHb Which eoiapkisad Am barany 
of St. Molio*8, and 90W form this leheritaace of the representatm 
of ^is distinguished fftmilys Tbpmas Kavanagh, Esq. brother-iii'* 
law, and maternal eonsin-gorman, of tho late marqoMS, and of 
the present earl, of Ormonde. 

Dnring the insnrreotion in 1796^ this part of the coantry was 
oaposod to mi^y of those eitcesses which must be expected to stain 
the annals of ^Eustious contention . At that lime the house of Borris 
was phced in a state of defence, and successfully withstood atu- 
mnknoBS attack and a formal siege from the insurgent party.* 

KxiiLrsTOWN, or Kbllbtstown, is distant from Carlow about 
fiye miles towards the south-east. The more anttent name of 

* The eTent9 coonected with the attRch ^f Borrii Castle are thus stilted 
in Mr. Hay's Hist, of the iDsurrectioo of 1708. '< As the ioBuraentshad 
•ot a safficiency of i^anpowder to aodertake any new attack, they remain^ 
ed iaactiYe in their leveral encampments for some days; but in order to 
obtaia a tapply of that article, it was reset ?ed to make an attack 00 
Borris, the seat of Waiter Kavana^, Esq. ia the coanty of Carlow, where, 
it w«e sapposed, lay a great qaaatity ef arms and ammuaitieB. A detad^ 
■leot accordiaifly proceeded from the camp on Viaegiu'-hUl to that om 
Lacken-hill, where, receivinff reinforcement, the united party moved 
forward to the attack of Borris, where they arrived after a night's march, 
early on the morning of the 12th. The cavalry stationed there fled on the 
approach of the insargents, but a party of the Donegall militia, who had 
taliea up their quarters ia the house, defended it with great bravery, 
keeping up a constaat fire from the upper windowsi apd losing but one 
Ban in the course of the contest. The cannon the insurgents had brought 
with them were too small to have aay eifecton the ca«tle» as the oaly hall 
discharged by one of them, rebounded from the wall, and an attack by 
musketry was of course considered inelTectu^. As Qo hopes then remain- 
ed of taking the mansion by assault or battery, considering the atrength 
and thickness of the wall, and that the lower windowa were also lately 
hailt up wilh sarong mason-worki the assailants set the oatar-oAces 00 fii«« 
ia hopes of forcing the gan^a to dislodge themselves for their protection 1 
bat this manmnvre proving iaeifectnal, and the iasaiieats haviag oKpea* 
dad all their aBuaaailion ia aseleis effsrts* and bavinir harat some boasea 
in the village^ retamed to the several encan^pments from which they bail 
beaa detached ia the county of Wexford."— Hist, of the Insarrectiai^ &«• 
p.p. 190—191. 



16 BBAVTIBS OP IRBt^AHD. 

this plaee is Cili'mHa-Mr-ioial^na^ntoen, the cbarch of the poor 
moarning Monster women ; allosive to a sanguinary battle fought 
here^ in^ or aboot, the year 478, in which the Momonian warriors 
were defeated and slaughtered by the Lagenians. We are told 
by the Irish annalists that this battle was fought between the 
men of Leinster, headed by Lughaidh, tbe monarch, grandson 
of King Niall of the nine hostages, and Eocha, King of Munster, 
and his forces. — At Kellystown are the remains of a pillar-tower, 
standing in an elevated situation. This structure is formed of 
the grit stone of the country, and measures internally twelve 
feet diameter. Near the tower are the ruins of a church 5 and both 
fabrics were dedicated to St. Patrick, who has the credit of having 
been their founder. The church is, likewise, built of grit-stone, 
and the arches are plain and semi- circular. Here is the place 
of sepulture of the Mac Cumins, or Cummins, a subordinate sept, 
formerly seated in this part of. the country. The tombstones to 
persons of this name are numerous, but the most antient inscrip- 
tion now remaining is to '' Hugo Mac Cummins, A.D.MDCin."* 
The antient baptismal font still remains in this ruined church, 
and is rudely cdt from a single stone, in the shape of an ill-de- 
signed vase. 

TuLLow, TuLLAOH^ or TuLLYOPHSUM, a Small town, seated 
on the river Slaney, near the eastern borders of the county, pre* 
sents the remains of a monastic building and a castle. Concern- 
ing the religious house at this place little is now known, except 

* The following remarks may be usefol, in conveying to the English 
reader intelligence concerning tlie deriyation of the names of several Irish 
tepts*— 8t« Cominens, bishop and abbot of iEodrom (Antrim) died A.D. 
068. Another sainted personage of this name (fonnder of the monastery 
of Kilcuifflin, in the modern barony of Clonlish in the King's Coonty, 
formerly called Disert-Cuimin) died A.D. 608. No doubt the sept to 
which we have alladed above, bearing a pecaliar veneration to one or other 
of those saints, chose him for their patron, and adopted to his honour the 
name of Mac Cumin, or rather Mac-giola-Cnimin, the son of the servant 
of Cuimin ; which, like the Mac-giola- Patrick of the dynasts of Ossory, 
and others, continued to be the hereditary surname of that particular race. 
M8S. of Chev. De Montmorency. 



j\ 



[itSINSTBR.] COUNTY OF CABLOW. J? 

tluditB inittates folkved the role of St. Aogostine^ and that thdrpos* 
a e eti o nfl were graaled^ tt some time sobseqneot to the dissolution^ 
to Thomas Earl of Ormonde.* The Castle of Tallovr was erected 
late in the twelfth century, by order of the Anglo-Norman goteni-* 
ment, nndar the inspection of Hogh De Lacy, Earl of Mcath. 
nis fortress was held by Colonel Batler» in 1650, against Oliyer 
Oomwellj bat, after a valiant resistance, was taken by the par- 
liament forces under Colonels Hewson and Reynolds. As was 
nam] in the ferodous wars of the soTenteenth century, the re- 
daction of the castle was followed by the infliction of detestable 
craelties on the subdued garrison. — A monastic establishment 
exists here, ft)nnded within the last thirty years. 

The following seats are conspicuous in the vicinity of the 
town of ToSlow.-^Adriitan, the residence of Mr. Flnlay. Af&unt^ 
wMe$iey, the handsome seat of Sir Richard WoUesley, Bart; 
ad|oiniog which is Castfemare, formerly a seat of the Kavanaghs^ 
now of the l&mily of Eustace. — Raikrusk, a manor belonging to 
Viscount Frankfort de Montmorency, is distant from TuUow three 
miles ; and, within one mile of that demesne, is Baljfmmmery, 
the seat of Mr. Swift. f Some ruins of CMiie-Orace are still to 

* Theobald, the grandfoo and heir of Sir Edmund Butler, of Roiera 
and Clongbrenan Catties, wai created, in 1603, Viteount TulUopkeUm. 
The titles of Ormonde and Ossory were likewise secured to him, but his 
lordship dying in 16iS, without issue by his wife, the Lady Elisabeth 
Batler, only child of Thomas, tenth Earl of Ormonde, K. 6. his line be« 
cane extinct. Richard, the fifth son of the first Duke of Ormonde, was 
ia 1639, created Baron of Clongfarenan, Viscount Tnllow and Earl of 
Arran, but died without issue male in 1685. These titles were in 1698^ 
again revived in the person of Charles, the second and youngest son of the 
justly celebrated Thomas Earl of Ossory, and brother of the onfortunata 
Puke of Ormonde, who was attainted in IT 16. This Earl of Arran also 
died without issue male in 1758, when these titles became a second time 
extinct. 

f This seat would appear, from its name, to have been originally a 
convent of nuns. It is not improbable that this is the place called by Dr. 
O'Halloran KHliadan (the dowry-church) a.id which was unknown to 
the author of the Monasticon. The foundation is said to have been made 

VOL. !!• e 



18 BBAUTIKS OP IRBLAND. 

be seen, Which bnildiof^ was^ prohablyy founds by the Grace 
famSy/who were among the earfiest landed jxroprietors m this 
amnty. This antieht stmctare, and a considerable estate around 
it^ have been, however, for a very long period in the possession of 
the Earls of Ormonde. In the years 1968 and 1S75, we find 
two persons named William le Gras governors of Cariow for the 
Roger Bigots, the foarth and fifth Earls of Norfolk, lords palatine. 
LniGHLffN, nsnally termed Old Lbiorlin, now a small viU 
lags, was formerly a place of considerable importance, and is 
still an ejnscopal see, bat united to the diocess of Ferns. A 
monastery was established here, early in the 7th century, by 
St. Gobban, which was sarrendered, according to Archdall, by 
the founder to St. Laserian^ first bishop of LeighHn ; who '' at one 
time had 1500 monks under his jurisdiction.'* Here was, also, a 
Priory, dedicated to St. Stephen 3 which, as we are told by the 
annalist Thady Dowling, *' was founded by Burchard, a Nor* 
wegian captain."* This foundation was dissolved in 1439, by 
consent of Pope Eugene IV. and its estates were annexed to the 
deanery of Leigfalin. 

by St. KieraD, before the arrival of St. Patrick, and the nunnery to have 
been the oldest in the island. MSS. of the Chev. De Montmorency. 

* Dowling, the friar and annalist, adds further that, in his time, tho 
tomb of this Burchard, or Bouchard, was remaining, with his effigies re- 
posing upon it, and an inscription in Latin, of which that writer preserves 
a copy. It would appear to be extremely probable that the whole of the 
pkrticttlars pfesented by Dowling, respecting *' Burchard, the son of Gor- 
niondils," are founded in error, proceeding from misinterpreted tradition. 
It most be nearly superfluous to observe that the monument to which he 
alludes, if ornamented with the effigies of the deceased person whom it 
was designed to commemorate, could not, according to all rational con- 
clusion, be of greater antiquity (ban the latter part of the twelfth century. 
The Chevalier De Montmorency, in some learned and ingenious MS. remarks 
upon the subject, is of opinion that the tomb in question *' had been raised 
in honour of an AngIo>Norman chief, named Bouchard, seated at Wexford, 
which place by the Irish was called Lough Gormond; according to which 
hypothesis the inscription preserved by Dowling may be thus translated : 
*' Here lieth Interred the ducal founder of Leighlln. 
*' Behold, Bouchard of Gormond (Wexford) a man grateful to the church." 



\ j 



k 



[lbinstsr.] cQONrrY of cajuiOw. 19 



The eoelesiafttical institiitaoiii of LeigUiaapcedilyledtotfao^ 
fomation of a populo&s. tosmi; btttvaiioai calamitiea, arisiiig * 
from iatefitine warfare^ interfered witb the prosperity of theiji*.- 
lialHtanfta. Amongst these It mp^ be noticed that the town was 
attwsked and wasted, by the people of OiMory, imthftyeor ^8^ 
and was destnoyed by fire in 1060* Many adfantages were ob— 
tued for the inhabitants by the exertions of Bishop Herlewbik > 
In M216, this prolate, writes Dr. Ledwidi, '^ had the town- in<» * 
corporated, and obtained lor the bnrgesees jpriyikges similar t» 
those enjoyed by the peopleof Bristol, with liberties exlending 
about a mile aadt a half round the town. Large steaes de&iie 
the Mtsat of these liberties, and on .them were.theie woods; 
'' Tsmunas Bnrgeas; Leehlinen. hie lapis est." One of these 
stonee stands near Lcighlin. bridge, another near Wells, and a 
tMed in the monntuns." ., 

In 1389", the taown was again destroyed in party waifrnei bat 
was 8^ far reeorered in the ye^B 1400, as to possess eighty*si& 
bmgage tenements. Amongst its bnildings, at the sametime^ 
are mentioned' an episeopal palace, a deanery-hoase, and auKH. 
nastery. The erection of a bridge orer the river Barrow, in the 
foorteenth cehtary,* by gi^ng a new* direction to the great soiith- 
erhroad, obviously accelerated the decay of this town, whicb 
now retains no vestige of: its former importance, except the. 
calfcedral. 

The CUtUkidrai Church of Le^hlin is a small, bat decent, 
stmctnre, of cmciform arrangement, and in the pointed style* . 
We are told by Ware that the antient cathedral having been de« 
stroyed by fire, the whole was rebuilt by Bishop Donat, who died 
in 1185. This stractaie falling to decay, the choir was again 
re-edified by bishop Saandera,, who was advanced to this see in 
1597. The work of the latter prelaite oonstitates the chief part 
of the present cathedral, a^ch also acts as the paroeUalohnrch. 
Several bishops were here interred, but without existing monu* 

• See article Leightin Bridge, 

c 2 



to BKAirVlSS OP laBIiANJV. 

meots.* At a tnalldittaiioe firom tkcchvich it a well^ dedicated 
to St. Laserian, now shaded by trees $ in the Yicinity of which ie 
a stone cross^ of rude workmanship. 

Leighlin was constitated an episcopal see abont the year 632, 
by St. Laaerian, otherwise called Molissa^ who was consecrated 
a-lMshop by Pope Honorias^ and appointed by that pontiff legate 
of Ireland. The bterests of the see experienced great injory from 
the freqnent wars which harassed this district, bnt these evila 
were as constantly repaired by the active exertions of several spi- 
rited and able prelates, nntil the latter years of the sixteenth cen* 
tary, at which time bishop Daniel Kavanagh (who jDcceeded to thia 
see in 1567, and diedio 1587«) by granting long leases, and other 
nnJQstifiable acts, committed irremediable damage on the episcopal 
property. In the year 1600, after a vacancy of nearly three 
jmmtp tiHaaee was united to the bishopric of Ferns ; which union 
haa ever since subsisted. For a list of the prelates who sat at 
Leighlin we refer to the " History of the Bishops of Ireland" by 
Sir James Ware. An ennmeration of the bishops who have held 
this see in conjnnction with Ferns, is presented in our account 
of the latter place. 

- The diocess of Leighlin^ accordingtoDr. Beaufort, ^'is of avery 
iwngalar fbra ; in some places but six, and in none above thirteen 
nitles broad, though it is thirty-nine miles long, from north to 
south." It comprises eighty-nine parishes \ seven of which are 
in the county of Wtddow $ forty-nine in Carlow ; twenty-seven 
Ml Uie Queen's County ; and six in the county of Kilkenny. 

• Tiwre are^ however, in thk reclatw catbedral church, nameroofl 
■epulchral inscriptioDS to memben of Beveral families len^^ seated in 
Deighboiirinf districts, inclnding the distinavished family of Kavanagh. 
Hw most antfent inscription Is to— JEaoafiaf A, daughter to Maurice^ ton 
ofDwnat^ who died A. D. 1500. On the tomh of Marif^ wifo of Richard 
Vigorit who died A.D. 1703-4, are the foUowiDg lines; 

ThoQ dast and clay, tell me I say, 

Where is thy beaaty fled? 
Was it in vain ? or doth it fain 

The favenr of the dead ? 



[bBlirtTBB.} COtNTT OV CABLOlT. H 

Vh» Cluipter is composed of a deaB$ preeeator; ohaneitior ; 
treasorerj arehdesooB^ and foor probeaduries. 

Lbiohxjk-Bbidob is tke namo giT«B to a small post and hit 
town, distant about two miles from Old Leighlin, aad sitaated on 
tlie banks of tbe nvfsr Barrow. The origin of a settlement at this 
place may be traced to the twelfth oentary . — Aboat the year 1181; 
a castle was erected here by John de Clahnl, or de Claville, with 
the sanction of Earl Hogh de Lacy. The remains of this bailding^ 
chiefly consisting of a square tower, richly clothed with iry, are 
still to be seen, in the immediate yicinity of the bridge. This 
was usually termed the Biack Castle, A second fortress was bulk 
at " New Leigblin*', in the year 1406, by Gerald, fifth Earl of 
Kildare, on whidi the founder bestowed the appellation of ^Pite 
CmUe, in contradistinction to the name of the structure erected 
by ]>e Claville.— In 1577> '' tbe cas»tle of Leighlin'* was taken by 
Rory*Oge O'More, the turbulent dynast of Lmx, who, at the 
same time, destroyed the town by fire. The same fortress was 
again taken by Colonel Hewson, for Oliver Cromwell, in 1649.' 

A monoitery for Carmelite friars was founded on a spot near 
the Black CasUe, upon the east bank of the Barrow, by De Cmew, 
baron of Idrone, towards the close of the reign of Henry III. 
After the suppression of religious houses this monastery, then in 
the hands of the government, was occasionally occapied by Sir 
Edward Bdlingham, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, who, in the year 
1547> surrounded the abbey with a wall, and built here a fort. 
It is vrorthy of remark that Sir Edward Belliogham estabHsfaed at 
this place (as likewise at Abbey-Leix) harrat, or studs of horses, 
of an improved and better breed than had before been known in 
Ireland, for the use of his own household, and for the public 



The most curious vestige of antiquity in this ndf^bourhood 
consists in a Raih^ ezlubiting the extensive remaiBS of ab eartk^ 
work, formerly a place of inhabitation. Some funendums have^ 
been found here, composed of earthen ware, and contaiabg. 
nothing more than a small portion of dust.^ 

The Bflige of Leighlin, comprising ten arches, waa built by 



BBAirrnss of ikkland. 

Maavtoe Jakit, a^Mnmi ol^tlife oatliedralof Kildare^ aboat Ibe year 
1320. A churchy raceotiy erected^ oceopieatkaaitetof the abbey. 
Tbiaia aeaall and pkm bvUdia^, iaaomedflgreeimitefcifeiif tbe 
ipolntod elyle of arcbitec(ore« 

At DvfthzCKHBY, near the vilUg^oiBagmaf^bridge, (wbene 
a stone-bridge is constructed over tbe river Bsinrow) ia tbe antient 
4eat of tbe Bagenak^ whicb very respectable fiunily first/settled ia 
this connty abortly after tbe year 1559, tbe date of a wett*leiiglit 
'battle between tbe forces of government, noder tbe commatid 
of Sir Nicbolaa Bagenal^ knight-marsbal, and tbe foUowem of 
Hagb Mac^Moroagb Kavanagb. — Tbe late proprietor, Beaoohamp 
Bagenal, Esq. M.P. bequeathed this demesne to -^-«- Ryan, Esq. 
•tbe present owner of tlic estate, who> as we are ibformcd, is tbe 
lineal male representative of tbe cbief of tbe O'Eyana^ topandiB 
lof Urone (in wbicb barony Dunledntey is sitnated) a| tbe^peiied 
of tbe Anglo-NiMrman invasion. 

Wblls, nominally a fair town» but^ in reality* a snaUanii 
bnmble village, in tbe barony of Idrone, contained a nonaatip 
'0difice> of which considerable traces remain. Tliere exists a tra-< 
.dttton that Wella was formerly endowed with borei^h ffancbtsea, 
and was tbe aaaize town of tbis county. Here is one of tbe stone 
manorial crosses of tbe 17tb century. 

BuBTON Hall, tbe bandsone seat of tbe Burton family^ is 
'Stunted on the banks Of a small river, which forms tbe liaenf 
boundary between tbe counties of Garlow and Kildare. Tbe 
manaion occupies a pleudng eminence, and is iq>proached through 
.a long and wide avenue of well-grown trees^ flanked with deep 
■woods^ cut into numerous vistas, Tbe park in the rear comprises 
two hundred acres of land, enclosed by wallsj and ia ornamen- 
tally planted. 



KND OP COUNTY OF CARLOW. 



[lbinstsb.] cohmtt or KihPAM. :« 



COUNTY OP KILDARE. 

This '' midland county of Leinster** is conUgaoii9> on the weat» 
to tbe KiDg*8 and Qaeen*8 Counties^ Crom the latter of which dis" 
icieta it is chiefly separated by the river BariQw. On the north 
lies Meath^ the line of division between Kildare and that diatrict 
being partly formed by the Blackwater. On the east are the 
counties of Dublin and Wicklow. Its southern extremity unitet 
with the borders of Carlow. The greatest length, aa elated by 
Bfr. Rawson^.inhis ^'Statistacal SBrvey/'is Aboat thirty ^twomiles^ 
and the extreme breadth twenty-<^ne miles . The number of Baro^ 
Hies and half-banuues is fourteen ; and the names by which they 
are distingaished are aa follow : Carhmry. ; Clame ; Cormell ; J^oti 
Opkaieif ; E09i Narragh and RAeb^ni Jkm^hy and Oughi0ra»y ; 
KUeuilm ; KUkea and Moone / Nftk N^m ; Norih Salt / Souii 
NoM ; Smik Bait ; fVeit Opkai^ ; fTeH Nutr0gh and BMtm. 
These baronies are subdivided into 1\3 parishes^ 5t7 of which 
ara mder the see of Ihiblida^ and .56 nndar that .of i(ildare« . 

Nearly one fifth part of this oouinty is occupied by bog^ indftt* 
ding a oonaiderable porti(m of tbe gi^^t chain of morasses tennod 
the Bog of Allen* .In other parts the oonn^ry has a aurface slightly 
undnkting^ but in no instance do^a it asaumen mowtainoua cha>- 
iMfcer. The natural soil is a strong and prodpctive clay* and 
thave is mnch rich pa8tui»^o«nd. This district is |d)undandy> 
watered. The river Barrow^ which paases tfhrouifb more thaa 
tWMity miles on the.south and weat^ is n^vigabl^ £ro^ Monfts t^ 
revan> where 't> meets tbe Grand Canals . 

The Liffey.windfl through .the northneasliern parts^ and the 
Boyne rises in the Bog of AUeo. .The minor streams are very 
nmnerons ) and tbe Grand Canal penetrates the^dc^ary plains et 
Allen, commuiucating ita advantages to the central parts of thA 
county. 

Pew minerals have been discovered in this dia^iot. Qoppjor 



M BSA0TIS8 OP »Bli4HD. 

is found in tine Murry^ or Red^ Hills near Kildare ; and the connty 
contains marbles of different colonrs, which are snsoeptiUe of a 
high polish. There are several manniactories of cotton^ and one 
establishment for the mannfactnre of woollen cloth ; hot the chief 
reliance of the inhabitants is on agricoltore and granng. The 
fiurms are often large, bnt the modes of husbandry are^ in too iiany 
instances, by no means conspicuous for excellence. A correct 
idea of the aspect of an ordinary farming est^i^lishment in this 
county, may be acquired from the following remarks by Mr. 
Rawson. *^ The farm*hoasea in general consist of a loi^ 
thatched building of one story, containing a large kitchen and 
fire-place in the centre, and lodging rooms at either end. The 
front-door looks to the bams and stables at the right, behind 
which is the haggard^ and on the left side are placed the cow and 
bnllock houses. In the centre of the front yard are the dnnghiUs i 
and the pig-tronghs are near to the front door. The tenant con^ 
standy executes all bnildings and repairs*' ' The fields into which 
the fhrms are divided are usually small, and in the uplands are 
sometimes divided by quick-set hedges, bnt more frequently by 
dykes, mounds of earth, or walls. 

The poor, except on certain favoured spots, inhabit cnbioa 
of the most wretched description ; but the condition of this nu- 
merous class, in regard to an honest emulation in dress and per- 
sonal appearance, was much improved when Mr. Rawson printed 
his remarks on this county, and continues to experience a progres* 
sive amelioration. That writer presents the following observatifms 
on the stateof the peasantry in this county.— ^''Oatmeal, potatoes, 
^ggs, herrings, with some milk and batter, constitute ^ food 
of the lower orders ; their fuel is turf; their clothing a home* 
made frize coat, cotton waistcoat, and corderoy breeches, yam 
stockings and brogues for every day : for the unmarried, white 
stockings and shoes for Sundays and holydays. Even in the dog- 
days, Pat sweats under a heavy friaecoat, and if he had three 
<^M^» &c. he would mount them all. — ^The appearance of the 
women is much bettered ; within these twenty years they were 
I'aggtd and barefoot -, even on Sunday, if a girl appeared so well 



[^niirfrsB.] covmyy op kildahs. U 

dreMed as* to have shoes and wUte stockings, she was p(£itei 
«t } now no conntcy girl is seen witbont them.*' 

The English langaage is very pn eraH^i^^spoken. In noticbg 
the tnanners of the inhabitants, theantbor last cited obseryes, 
that '' the cnstoms of gossipred and fosterage are in the greatest 
force. Gossips will fight most fiercely for each other ; in all con- 
Tersations they call each other by the endearing name 5 not to 
have gossips to stand for children, when baptized, wonld cast 
moch reflection on the parents." 

That this district was amply popolated at a very remote date, 
h proved by the great number of raths, or earthworks, still to 
be seen. In after-times, daring the wars of the pale, and the 
contentions bettreen powerfiil iamOies of English descent, Kil- 
dare was often the scene of sangninary encounters | and the re- 
mains of military and ecclesiastical struetores, connected with the 
history of those periods, enrich several parts of the connty. 

Ptolemy places the Ganci in this tract of country. In r^ard 
to its occupants at periods less remote, we may observe that 
Kildare comprised a portion of the antient Fmige, or Offaly / 
especially in its south and south-west parts. The north and north- 
east divisions belonged to Hy-Cualan, and to Meath. The an- 
tient proprietors of the first were O'Conor-Failge ; O'More ; and 
O'Dnnne ; and of the last-mentioned division a branch of the 
O'Kellys; O'Gallan, Lord of Naas ; and O'Melaghlin. On the 
arrival of the Anglo-Normans, Earl Strongbow, in right of his 
wife, became lord paramount, or palatine, of Kildare ; which 
dignity, after Strongbow's death, descended to his son-in-law, 
William the marshal. Earl of Pembroke. This latter nobleman 
subdivided the freehold of this county amongst his relations and 
knights, without encroaching, however, on those parts of O' 
Melaghlin's territory which Henry II. had bestowed on De 
Lacy. To William Fitsgerald he granted O'Gallan's lordship 
of Naas, driving the old proprietor into Ulster. The remainder 
of the county he divided between De Hereford 5 Myler Htzhenry; 
De Hiepo; De Pippiird^ D*Angelo (otherwise Nanglc}) and 



M 



BBAVrUBS OF lABIiAKD. 



De Bermioghav. Some particidars concerning the imrthcr Uaai* 
missions^ and the descent oi, property in this co«aty, will moel 
dflsitablybe given in our notice of respective towns and estates* 

In the Anhappy intestine wars of the 17th centnry^ and in the 
tronUes of the year 1798^ Kildare largely participated. 

Although in many parts flat^ and greatly disfigured by so wide 
an extent of bog as that which pervades its western divisionsj the 
eastern and middle districts of this county are pleasant, and are 
ornamented with numerous seats of nobility and gentry. His 
firaoe the Duke of Leinster is the principal landed proprietor. 
Among other possessors of considerable estates, may be men- 
tioned the Marquess of Drogheda ; the Earl of AJdborough -, the 
Earl of Mayo ; Lord Gloncurry i Sir Gerald . Aylmer, Bart 3 and 
Robert La Touche, Esq. 

Population or the ConNTV or Kiu>are. 

The number of houses and inhabitants, according to the re- 
turns made in obedience to the act of 1812, was as follows : 



Btronlci, Half Daronie*, or Pftrifhet. 



Carbury, • • . . 

Claine, 

Conneli, Great, 

Ikeathy and Onghterany, • . • . 

ICillcuUen, 

Naas, North, • • . • 

Naas, South, 

Moone and Kilkea, 

Narragh and Rheban, West, . . 
Narragh and Rheban, East, . . 

Ophaley, East, 

Ophaley, West, 

3alt, North, •••....«•«. 

Salt, South, 

Total. . . . 



number of 
House*. 



1,47^ 

1,054 

1,029 

950 

520 

1,040 

654 

1,483 

1,051 

1,089 

1,144 

1,522 

995 

561 



14,564 



PopolatioD. 



8,940 

6,470 

6,216 

5,616 

2,778 \ 

6,048 

3,758 

9,077 

6,622 

6,318 

6,253 

7^674 J 

6,903 

3,465 



85,133 



[lBIKSTBB.] . C<I(UI^TV OF KUiDikMS. VI 

•AcMurding'to ihe retiiniB obtained in the year little 4Wtotel 
lumber of booses ia tbis conaty irss, at tbat tine» 15,8753 and 
the total nniaber of inhabftaots lOl^Tl^* Thus, on theaotheri^ 
of these returns, the increase of inhabitants between the two 
above-named periods^ oinst be stated as 16,583. 

KILDARE, 

Now a small and poor town, possessing few attractions for the 
traveller not imbued with a love of antiqnarian inquiry, is boldty 
seated on elevated groand ; and its ecclesiastical mins, amongst 
which a round tower rises in aspiring grandeur, indicate to tbe 
approachbg visiter a degree of importance, for the reality of which 
he seeks in vain on a closer inspection. The domestic buildings 
are chiefly of a humble description ^ the town has little tmde % 
and the whole interest of the place d^[»ends oa the relics of past 
ages, and the historical events' OQOnected with those veiitigiss. 

The reputation of St. Brigid, and the religious instituiuiM 
established by t^at celebrated saint^ first raised Kildare to its an* 
tient eminence in the list of cities. St. Brigid, whose birtii b 
jilsced in the year 453, is said to have beea the IHegHtmale 
daughter of an Irish diiefiain^ and to have reoeived the vml, in 
the fourteenth year of her age, from the hands of St. F^lrick Ima- 
^fj or from one of bis immediate disciples. She founded ibere 
a nunnery $ and the foundation of an abbey speedily sneoeeded. 
A bishopric was shortly^ after ereete^ and dther religious fomb- 
dations subsequently todk place. Before enterbg on m distindt 
notice of these institntions, it may be dedird>le 'to present a brief 
survey of the annals of the town whidi arose nnder^iheir .auspices. 

The existence of revered and distinguished monasftie institu- 
tions, and the circumstance of this place being constituted tbe 
^ee of a biakop, natoraUy led to the construction of a popdous 
town. But the rich offerings made by the pious to altars of cele- 
brity, and the ' Tsluable articles of personal property reposited, 
on the appearance of public danger, in sacred baildings of high 
repute, uniformly exposed the inhabitants of such aitowu to evib 
more than commensurate with their advantages, inn^es when- the 



tS kSAtTIBS or IRSLAND* 

sword wai too potent for the law. Tliese penalties were fiitallf 
lekperienced by the town of Kildare^ in instances so reiterated 
and simihr^ as scarcely to demand individnal notice, in any other 
than a work of elaborate topography. The horrors of conflagra- 
tion> after acts of rapine and nrarder, inflicted by the Danes, 
were so often repeated thronghont the 9th, the 10th, and the 
early part of the 11th centories, that humanity sickens over 
the recital.* Whilst the tenure was so precarious, it will bis 
readily supposed that little provision for durability was made in 
constructing domestic buildings. To that cause, if the habits of 
the times do not in themselves afford a sufficient explanation of 
the circumstance, may be attributed the frequent destruction of 
the town by accidental fire, in the above disastrous ages. 

Shortly after the entry of the English, in the 12th century, 
Kildare received the important addition of a castle, under the 
protection of which building the town, for some time, attained a 
greater degree of security than it had before experienced. A new 
monastery was likewise founded by the Norman lords into whose 
possession the town now passed ; and, whilst the place assumed 
a warlike character,- it maintained its antient reputation for sanc- 
tity of religious institutions. Long periods of tranquillity were 
not, however, permitted, even to the powerfal, whilst the 
country was divided into various rival interests, and the dceptre 
swayed with a weak or careless hand. In 1294, the town and 
castle were reduced by the Irish, under Calbhach O'Conor ; but 
the prosperity of the place soon revired ; and, in the year 1309, 
a parliament was held here. So great were the severities inflicted 
during the disturbances of Queen Elizabeth's reign, that the town 
was in a state of ruin in the year 1600, and destitute of inhabi- 

* If annali uiaally accepted ai aathority, be« as we bellevef entitled 
to confideoce* in regard to the dates of raehoccorrencee, Kildare wae not 
free for one af e, between the years 8S3, and 1016, from the predatory 
visitatieni of the Danes, whose raTages equally involTed in rnin the mO' 
nasterles and the town. How can we suppose that the lofty and well ez« 
ecnted round tower, at thisplace, was erected by this marauding people 
between the same years? 



[LBINtriS.] •OUHTY OF KILDAM. %9 

tanto, KiUare never entirely recovered from tbe calamities of 
tluit on) Init the cattle was repaired, and garrisoned^ in the civil 
vnirs ol dn 17th centnry, at which time tliis place again 
became the scene of military contest. It was not, as we believe, 
at any period the assize town of the county. It is supposed that 
Hie present town occupies a site more towards the east, than an- 
tient Kildare. This town was constituted a boroagh in the rdgn 
of James I ; and is governed by a sovereign, two portrieves, and 
a town clerk. Kildare is still the see of a bishop, and gives the 
title of Marqoess and Earl to his Grace the Dnke of Leinster. 
. The Numitery established here by St. Brigid, is said to have 
been foanded before the year 484, and the fonndation of the 
AUey took place nearly at the same time. The inmates of both 
were placed nnder the same roof, but were '' separated," writes. 
Archdall, '' by walls. The nuns and monks had but one church,. 
in common, which they entered at different doors. St. Brigid 
presided as well over the monks as the nuns ; and, strange to 
tell ! the abbot of this hoase was subject to the abbess for se- 
veral years after the death of the celebrated founder, which hap* 
pened in the year 523, on the first of February, when her feast 
is celebrated. She was interred here, but her remains were after*- 
wards removed to the cathedral church of Down."* 

The nuns of this convent were celebrated as the guardians of 
uk mattmgmikaUe fire, so termed, observes the fabulous Giral* 
dns Gambrensis, writing in the 12th century, *^ because the 
nuns and religious women are so careful and diligent in supplying 
and recruiting it with fuel, that, from the time of St. Brigid, it 
hath remained always unextinguished^ through so numy succes- 
sions of years ; and, though so vast a quantity of wood hath 
been in such a length of time consumed in it, yet the ashes have 
never increased ! * ' This fire was, however, extinguished by order 
of Henry de Loundres, Archbishop of Dublin, in the year 1220. 
When the influence of that prelate ceased to operate, the fire was 

* Mod. Hib. p. 333.— It will be recoUected that monks and noni were 
not permitted to inhabit buildings immediately contfcvoai, in any other 
con vents under the rules of St. Briffld or St.. Gilbert. 



30 BKACriM OF IKBLAlfO. 

again kiiuUedj and it continued in repate mitil the snppreMion 
of monasteries in the time of Henry VIII. '' Perhaps^*' writes 
Sir James Ware^ '' the archbishop put oat this fire^ became ther 
coBtom not being used in other ]^aces> it might seem to have taken 
its original from an imitation of the Vestal Vin^ns, whom Noma 
Pompilins first instituted, and dedicated to the holy mysteries of 
Vesta, for the preservadon of a perpetaal fire.'* That the custom 
bad a pagan original is unqnestionable* Vestiges of the adoration 
of the element of fire, amongst the antient Irish, (as we have ex- 
plained more fully in our introductory pages) are still percq»tible 
in the festival of Beliem, in which a relic of ceremonials is pre- 
ser?ed long after the primitive incitement and design are forgotten • 
In adapting this sacred custom of heathen times to Christian ages, 
we are told, by Ware, that the successors of St. Brigid ** pre* 
tended that the fire was preserved for the benefit of the poor and 
strangers." A small part of the Chapel of St. Brigid (locally 
termed the Fire House) in which this ceaseless fire was maintained, 
is still existing near the pillar tower. It was a low and narrow 
cell of stone, of considerable, but unknown, antiquity. 

The religions house founded by St. Brigid was doomed, as 
we have already suggested, to experience numerous acts of rapine 
from the Danes, attended with circumstances of most barbarous 
atrocity. It also snfiered, in early ages, from the repeated 
assaults of native hands. But the high reputation of its inmates, 
and the consequent benefactions of many affluent and distangnished 
indh'idnals, enabled it to revive, often vf ith added lustre, flrom 
these calamities; and, amidst all its vicissitudes of fortune, it 
remabed in great public esteem until the dissolution in the. 
16th century. 

Some copious materials towards the history of this monastery 
have been collected by Mr. Acchdall, amongst which are the- 
foilowing entries, under the annals of respective years. . A*D. 
520, died St. Naithfraich, who was the first iMM>t of Kil- 
dare, and is said to liave been coachman to St. Brigid! A.D. 
5^, died St. Blatha, or Flora, cook to St. Brigid ! A.D. 638^ 
'' Aid Dubh, or Black Hugh, King of Leinster, abdicated his 



[lbinstbr.] county or kildakk. 31 

throne^ atid' took on him the Angttstijie habit in this Abbey. ' He 
was afterwards chosen abbot and Inshop of Kildare/ ' A. D. Qdf 
*' Itt this y«ar Cormac, the learned Archbishop of Cashel, and 
Kiag of MiiDSter> did bsqneath his horse to this abbey, with its 
splendid furaitare, one oonee of gold> aad an embroidered vest- 
ment." A.D. lias, " In this year Diarmoid M'Moiiogh, King 
of L«iaster> foreiUy took the abbess oat of her ckriater, and at the 
same time compelled her to marry one of his own people. It ie 
sttd no less a nnmber than 170 inhabitants of the town and dibbey 
were destroyed, during the oommisrion of this unprecsdented 
acL" la the 34th year of King Henry VIII. the bnildings and 
.estates of this institution were granted to Anthony Deeringe, a^ 
the anneal i«nt of «£S : 10 ; 8. Irish money. 

On the sooth side of the town stood a monastery for friars of 
the Franciscan order, commonly called GVoy Abbey. This reU^ 
gions house, according to Archdall, was partly erected in the yeav 
1260^ by Lord WilUami de Vescy, the buildings being completed 
by Gerald Fitzmaarice, Lord Offaley. The latter nobleaum was 
buried here in 1^6. The interment of the following distifl^nisLedi 
persons in the church of this friary, is also noticed by Mr Ardn 
dall. P^ter, Lord de Beradngfaam, 1308. John Fitz^Thomns, 
first Earl of Kildare, 1316.* Tliomas Fits-John, second Earl 
of Kildare, 1328.— Richard, third Earl of Kildare, 1339.~6erald> 
Earl of Kildare, 1410.— On the dissolution of reKgiows houses^ Ais 
monastery, and its appurtenances, were granted m cupUey toge* ' 
ther wift the bouse of the White Fiiars, to Daniel Svtton, at 
the aonisal rent of 2«. 3i?. Irish money. 

A moTuutery for Cttrmeiites, m HlaU FriMrs, was founded > 
here by the de Vescy family, in the year 1290. Few records arw 
preserved concerning this friary^ 

Th^ Cafhedral of Kildare has long been in a ruinous state, 
with the exception of the choir, which is of small dimenmone, 
and is destitute of architectural interest. We are told by Mr. 
Harris, under the article '' Bishops of Kildare,*' in the works of 

« 

* For some doubts as to the correctness of Mr. Archdolly ia regard ta 
the interment of this carl, see our account of Uaynooth* 



39 lIBAIMriSi OF IRKLAN0. 

Sir J. Ware, enlarged by th^t writer, tlmt this cathedral was re^ 
paired and adorned, ** at no smal} charge," by Ralph of Bmtol, 
who sat in this see from 1233 to 1^32. According to the same 
anthority, the boildings again fell to decay in the rdgn of Henry 
VII. at which time they were repaired, under the anq;>ice8 of 
Bishop Lane. The progress of their subsequent dilapidation is 
not accurately stated, but it appears that the iinal blow of rain 
was inflicted during the civil wars of the 17th century. The 
walls of the nave are still standing, and exhiUt arches, and other 
traces of architecture, in a simple and unomamented modifi- 
chtion of the pointed style. . The north side of the tower, which 
rose. between the nave and choir, is levelled with the ground, and 
is said to have been beaten dovm by a battery, placed against it 
in the rebellion of 1641. The south transept yet remains ; but 
in a state of ruin. The choir, which, as we before remarked, 
affords no gratification in an architectural point of view, has been 
much altered at different times, and acts as the parochial church. 
Within the walls of this structure is the sepulchral vault of 
the Earls of Kildare, but these illustrious dead are now desti- 
tute of any monumental record. The late respected William- 
Robert, Duke of Leinster and Marquess of Kildare, father of 
the present duke, was interred here, with much funeral pomp, 
in October, 1805. 

( In the church-yard is the lofty pedestal of a stone cross, the 
shaft of which, as we are told by Harris, was converted into a 
step, leading to the communion table. Immured in the walls 
are numerous fragments of sculptured monuments, chiefly of 
marble, removed from the interior of the church. These comprise 
some, pieces deserving to be noticed for merit of execution, 
amongst which may be mentioned the following subjects :— Christ 
represented on the cross, angels embradng him ; Christ rising 
from the tomb, which a soldier guards $ Justice trampling on 
the devil, who vainly strives to turn the balance of the scales. 
At the distance of about thirty yards from the west end of the 
cathedral, and in the contiguity of St. Brigid*s Chapel (or the 
Fire*honse) stands a stately object, one of the finest pillar ^towers 



[lIIMITSH.] eOONTY OF KILDAftl. S3 

in IrelMid. This roand tower is said to be 132 feet in height^ 
tiros exceeding in elevatiouj by three feetj Trajan's column at 
Rome. The eDtraoce is by a circnlar arch^ fourteen feet from the 
groond^ At the top is now seea a ^' gothic** battlement.* 

The bUhoprle of KUdare is said to have been founded^ with 
the assistance of St. Brigid, by St. Conloetb, who became the 
first bishop. St; Conloethdied on the third of May^ 519 5 and> 
according to his biographers> was bnried near the high altar of 
his own chorch; bnt his bones> 281 years afterwards, were 
** translated into a direr gilded shrine, adorned with precious 
«tones.'* 

Concerning the annals of this diocess, for many ages after 
the death of St. Conloeth, no researches, hitherto made, have 
discovered any more nsefal intelligence than fugitive hints, which, 
however keenly pursued, yield no information of solid value, 
in the esteem of the ecclesiastical antiquary. We present a list 
of the prelates who have filled the see of Kildare, from the latter 
part of the twelfth century to the present time : 

Bishops of Kildarb. 

Ob. 
Malachy 0*Birn 1176 

Suco* 

Nehemiah 1 177 

Cornelius Mac Oelan, often called Cornelius 

of Cloncurry 1206 

* This battlement we ascertain to be a modem addition, from the fol* 
lowing passage in Ware's works enlarged by Harris* volii. p. 1S8. **' The 
4ower of KUdare having been pointed and repaired within tliese few years, 
bad then a regolar neat battlement raised on it» which before was only an 
irregular broken wail, as appears by the scheme given thereof by Sir Tho- 
mas Molyneaz, and which I myself very well remember." From this re- 
mark we are authorized in believing thai considerable freedoms have l>een 
taken, at various times, in making additions to many of these . cnrioht 
fabrics 1 and it is liighly probable that such improvementM involve those 
decorative particulars in tlie pointed style, and scolptural oraanienls> 
whAih are , in some instances, to bo witnosied. 

TOL. II. D 



34 BfiAUTIBS OF IRBLAND. 

Slice. 

Ralph of Bristol* \9I^ 

JolmofTaoDtoa « 1233 

Simoa of Kilkenny. 1258 

See VacaMfor seven }f ears, 

Nicholas Oasack 1279 

Walter le Veele 1299 

Richard Hulot 1334 

Thomas Giffard 1353 

See Vacant about one year, 

Robert of Aheton f 13GG 

Henry of Wessenberch 1401 

John Madock 1405 

William 1432 

Geoffry Hereford 1449 

Richard Lang 1464 

David 1474 

James Wale 1475 

William Barret (date ofsucc, unknown) 

Edmund Lane % 1482 

Thomas Dillon 1523 

Walter Wellesley 1531 

William Miagh 1540 

* This prelate is said by Harris^ to *' have beeo at ^reat expense us 
repairiag and beaatifying bis cathedral." 

f A considerable degree of obscurity prevails io the diocesan annain 
at this period. Robert of Aketon is said to have been succeeded by a 
bishop George, who died in 1401. Between Henry of Wessenberch and 
the ensuing prelate in onr list, it Is also said there occurred a bishop Tho- 
mas, vrho died in 1405« 

X This bishop, as is observed by Ware and Harris, " founded a College 
at KUdare, in which the dean and chapter might live after a collegiate 
manner. It is recorded in the registry of Archbishop Alan, that Lane sat 
in this see upwards of forty years. From whence it is evident that Wal« 
and Barret were» for a long time, bishops without a see. For though a 
bishop resigns, yet he holds the title.*' 



£lkinster.] county op kildarr. S5 

See yaeani tme ffear and seven moikths. 

Succ. 
Thomas Lancaster 1550 

Thomas Leverous * 1554 

See Faoant one year and five m&ntis. 

Alexander Craik f 1560 . 

RobertDaly 1564 

Daniel Neylan 1583 

William Pilsworth v 1604 

RobertUsher} 1655 

William Golbourn 1644 

Thomas Price 1660 

Ambrose Jones .«...'• > 1667 

Anthony Dopf^itag 1678 

William Moreton ...^ 1681 

Welb<8-6 Ellis 1705 

Charles Cobb 173 1 

George Stone • 1743 

Thomas Fletcher 1745 

Richard Robinson 1761 

Charles Jackson 1765 

George L. Jones 17dO 

Charles Lindsay 1804 

The bishopric of Kildare extends to the length of thirty-six 
tniles^ and is^ in its broadest part, twenty-three miles in width. 
The number of parishes within its limits are eighty-ooe : namely, 

* Bighop Leveroas was thrust from his see by the coatentioDS of viokni 
parties (as also had been his predecessor) and supported himself for soma 
time by keeping a school at Limerick. He died at NaaSy in the 80th year 
of his age. 

+ This prelate will long be nnpleasantly remembered for the irrepa- 
rable iiyaries he committed towards the antient see of Kildare, by ex- 
changing the principal estates of the bishopric, with Patrick Sarsfleld, for 
eome tithes of small valae* Forther alienations of the episcopal property 
were made by William -Pilsworth, promoted to this see in 1601. 

X Sob of Henry Viher^ primate of all Ireland. 

]>8 



36 B&IHTIBS OF 4KmhAHD, 

fifty-six ]i| th^Toopty of Kildare 3 eighteen in the King's County } 
and seven in the Qaeen*s County. 

The chapter consists of a dean j precentor ; chancellor ; 
treasurer, and four canons. The archdeacon is not a member 
of the chapter^ but has a seat in the choir, and a voice in the 
election of the dean only ; as have, also, the seven prebendaries 
of this cathedral. . The Bishop of Kildare, who has not any epis- 
copal residence, holds the deanery of Christ Church, Dublin, 
m cmnmendam with his bishopric ^ which union has prevailed since 
the year 1681. He also ranks as second, amongst the suflfragans, 
to the Bishop of Meath ; the rest taking their seats according to 
the date of ordination,* 

As a native of this town, may be mentioned David O'Buge, 
provincial of the Carmelite order in Ireland, who died, and was 
interred at Kildare, in the monastery of his own order, where 
he had formerly been a friar. He was one of the most distin- 
guished scholars of his sera, and is thus described by Bale, after 
the epistles of John Bloxam* " 0*Bnge was a philosopher, rhe- 
torician, and divine $ and the most learned in all that country'* 
(Ireland), *' both in the civil and canon laws } and as such was 
by many called the lamp, the mirror, and the ornament of all 
the Irish nation.'* A list of his works is given in Sir James Ware*8 
'' Writers of Ireland." He flourished in the early part of the 
fourteenth century. 

* This practice *' obtained in several ParliamentSi viz. in thoie of the 
tweoty-Bcvenih of Queen Elizabeth, and eleventh of JameB the first. It 
was controverted before the Privy Council, March the 15tb, 1639. But 
the Lords-juftices, and Council did not think proper to a<yadge the ri^ht. 
In refardthe Parliament was to assemble the day following, and that they 
had not time to enter into the merits on either side. Yet, to avoid the 
scandal and distorbance which might arise from a contention in the boose, 
they made an interim order, that the Bishop of Kildare, without prejudice 
to the rights of the other Bishops, should be continued in the possession of 
precedence neit after the Bishop of Meath, and before all other Bishops, 
although connecrated before him 1 and that be should talLe place accord- 
ingly* until the same be evicted from him upon the discuNioD of the right.*' 
Ware*s Bishops, p. 380. 



[liBINSTim.] COtTNTY 0V KILDA1I«. 37 

In tbe Tidaity of KiMare is ihe Curragh ft fine imdalating 
dowDf eomprebendtng Dearfy fire thousand acres of land. This 
plaiir has been long celebrated as the principal race-ground of 
fe'eland, and is said^ in elasticity of tarf, and other circmnstances 
favoarable to racing, ta be at least equal to die plains of New- 
market. The gift from government of two annual plates of 100/. 
each was procured through the suggestion of Sir William Temple, 
with' a view of improving the breed of Irish horses. 

His Majesty^ King George IV. attended a '' Curragli-meet* 
ing*'^ih the year 18^1 ;-— an erent that will long be remembered, 
with much pride and gratification, in the annals of the Irish turf. 

On this plain are still to be seen numerous earthen works, 
most of which appear to have been sepulchral. Engravings of 
several of these vestiges are inserted in the fourth volume of 
Crough*8 edition of the Britannia ; in which work it is observed that 
*' on the longridgeof the Curraghis achain of fourteen small raths, 
or circular intrenchments, withoot any ramparts, in aline nearly 
east and west, and about three miles in lengtb/** Many fad* 
tastic traditions, or legends, have- long prevailed concerning a 
stupendous heathen raonumeni;, or ** round row of huge stone»,*' 
which once existed on this plain. From the writings of Giraldns 
it would even appear that some relics of the structure were to be 
seen, in the twelfth century. The assertion of such a traveller 
is, however, of little account. Whatever may have been< the 
fact when Giraldns wrote, not the slightest traces of such a w<n4c 

* In the saiae work it is observed, tbaty on the. western extremity of 
tbie ridce, it a large circular don, or nth, near which is a small tomulot 
with a cavity at top. ^ Tbii/' coatiaaes the. writer '* leenu to have been 
what the Irish denominated a eud^ or kitchen, being tbe place where they 
dressed their victuals, which was done by lighting a fire in the cavity, round 
which was a number of stakes, suspending on the top the skin ofta cow^ 
or some other animal, filled with water,, in which was put the flesh to bo 
boiled, after the manner of the antient Scots. A number of these hollow, 
or crater mounds, are found in various parts of the kingdom. They are 
denominated by the Irish cud (pronounced koocky) or kitchens ) but by 
the English settlers brandrets, or fire-hearths.*^ Brifanoia, &c* edited by 
Goof bi vol* iv» p« 838. 



38 BIAUTIM OF IBBI.ANO. 

are now to be "discovered. Many towers, forming tie barsb fe« 
mains of defeasible dwellings, chiefly built by tbe Fitzgeraldsr 
are spread over this part of the conntry. After ?iewing these, 
the eye is agreeably relieved by thenumeroos villas, and sporting 
lodges, raised in modern times, in the vicinity of the Carragh, 
by noblemen and gentry attached to the pleasures of the tnrf. 

Several military conflicts have taken place on the Curragh of 
Kildare. One of the most distinguished occurred in 1234, a| 
which time Richard Marshal^ Earl of Pembroke, and Earl-Pala* 
tine of Leinster, then in rebellion, was slain in battle by the 
Viceroy^ Lord Geoffrey de Monteinarisco, aided by Fita^^erald, 
De Lacy, and De Borgh. 

MoNASTBBRVAN is B Boat, but uot large, town^ situated on tbe 
river Barrow, and likewise on the Grand Canal, at the distance 
of thirty miles from the Irish metropolis } thus appearing to occupy 
a beneficial site for traffic on the great water-line of thoroughfare 
from Dublin to the south of Ireland. There are in this ndghbourr 
hood several docks and storehouses^ with other preparations for 
commercial interchange ; but^ with the exception of a whiskey 
distillery of some importance^ the chief trading profits of Monas- 
terevan are derived from the outlay of travellers at its aumeroBs 
inns. Over the river Barrow^ which is here a shallow stream, 
is a bridge of five arches, called the Pass Bridge; and there 
are, also, three bridges thrown over the Grand Canal, and the 
several cuts from that navigable water. 

The antient importance of this town was derived from its mo- 
nastic foundation ; and the mansion raised on the site of that 
structure is, at present, the chief ornament of the place. Hie 
abbey of Monasterevan is said to have been founded by St. Abhan ; 
but the antient foundation having fallen into decay, tbe toparchs 
0*Dempsey and O'Conor refouuded this religious institution, in 
tbe latter part of the twelfth century. When the monasteries of 
this country were dissolved, the abbey and manor of Monasterevan 
were granted to George, Lord Audley, by whom they were shortly 
assigned to Adam Loftas, Viscount Ely. Tbe estate subsequently 
passed, by a marriage, into the Moore family, ennobled in 161^^ 



[.LISINSTSB.] COUNTY OV KlitDABB. J9 

smd now represented by Charles Mpore^ Miir4iieB8. of Drogfaeds. 
Oq the site of the monastic baildings a spadoas mausioa has been 
erected by this aoble family^ which is denominated Moore Ai^m^. 
The house was greatly repaired andimproved by the late Marqaeas^ 
about the year 1767> bat has been falsely described as retaining 
in its general appearance a monastic aspect. It is^ in fact^ an 
extensive and commodions pile» quite destitnte of all strongly* 
marked architectural character. A taste for adaptiug the style of 
antiquity to modem uses was^ indeed, unknown in Ireland when 
this fabric was raised. The great hall, lined with Irish oak, is 
worthy of notice, as having been the i^artment in whuh Loftus, 
Viscount Ely, held the court of chancery, in the troubled year 

The attached demesne is very large, and affords some fine 
▼arieties of scenery. The country, in the neighbourhood of Mo« 
nasteeevan, ascends from the flat and boggy character (^the dis« 
triet bewteen that place and Dublin, and gradually undulates into 
gentle and well-wooded hills. Considering that so many spots, 
really beautiful, were contiguous, it is much to be regretted 
that Moore Abbey, when rebuilt, as a domestic sbructure for the 
dignified retirement of a noble family, was not ereeted on a more 
eligible site. Its antientand present situation is low, watery, 
and destitute of prospect. Indeed it may be remarked tliat, in 
most instances, the autieot monastic buildings of Ireland were 
placed on a dreary and forbidding site, near to a tract emiueut 
for natural beauty ; as if, in such a choice of situation, the early 
saints had laboured to impress on their disciples a lesson of self- 
denial and mortification. 

Atjoy (pronounced AtJ^J is situated on the soutfa-westera 
border of the county, at the distance of 32 miles firom Dublin. 
This is, jointly with Naas, the aasLie town for the county ef . 
Kildare; and, although now decayed, il^as formerly a place of 
considerable importance. Its declining state is lamentably con- 
trasted With local circumstances peculiarly kvourable to its pro- 
sperity. The surrounding country is well adapted to tillage. The' 
Grand Canal, and great southern road to Cork, connect it •witli'i 



40 BCAUT1B6 or IRtLANO. 

the metropolis ; and the river Barrow^ on .which it it eeated> ie 
navigable to the opulent trading port of Waterford. These ad- 
vantages, however, have proved insafficient to retard the decay 
of a town, anquestionably of high reputation at an early period of 
national history. 

Athy, as we are told by Seward, is batlt in the cootignity of 
an antient ford, 'Mending irom the principality of Leix to that 
of Celleagh, or Caellan ;*' and it is said by Keating that a battle 
was fought here, *' in the second or third ceatnry, between the 
people of Munster and those of Leix." Tlua place became^ at 
an early period of the English ascendancy, formidable as a fron- 
tier*town of the Pale ; and monastic foundations, as usual in the 
middle ages, accompanied the clamour of warfare and the rude 
d^^ity of military residence. In 1308, this tovm was burned by 
the Irish; and in 1315, it was. plundered by the Scots, under 
Edward Bruce. In 1648, it was possessed by the Insh under 
0*Neil 'f but was taken, for the parliament, m 16S0, by Coloneln 
Hewspn and Reynolds. 

A castle was constructed here by Oerald, eighth Earlof Kildare^ • 
about the year 1506. Of this building, which stood at the fool 
of the bridge, a massy tower still remains, now used as a prison. 
Two monasteries were erected at Athy in earlier ages. The 
Crouched Friary was fonnded in the reign of Jobo, by Richard 
de St. Michael, Lord of Rheban. Of this religious house, which 
stood on the west side of the river, some small vestiges are . 
still to be seen. A Dominican Friary was founded on the 
east side of the bridge, by the families of Boysel and Hogan, 
in the year 1253. Both of the above institutions flourished 
until the dissolution, in the time of Henry VIIL \ but no 
particulars of importance are preserved concernbg their history. 
Here are a county court-house j barracks ; and a free-sehool. 
Athy was incorporated by James I. in 1515; and is internally 
governed by a sovereign, two bailiffs, and a town-clerk. 

In the vicinity of Athy is fFoodstoch Castie, first erected by 
Richard de St. Michael, Lord of Rheban, noticed above as the 
founder of the Crouched friary. This castle, together with tho 



[LiiNSTSft.] eoMtt 6f natbAMt. 41 

DUOMNTS of Woodstock and Rbebaii, passed, by a marriage, to 
Thomas J seyenth Earl of Kildare^ early in the 1 5th centory. 

At the distance of three miles from the sametown> towards 
the north, the high road winds round the Moat of Aicul, me- 
morable as the scene of a sangainary conflict, in 1315, between the 
invading Scots, under Edward Bruce, brother to Robert, King of 
Scotland, and the English forces, commanded by Sir Hamon le Gras, 
in which the latter army was overthrown, with the loss of ilt 
gallant leader, who was buried in the Dominican Abbey of Athy v 
*' Oa Aical*« plains was heard the toand of woe i 

Andy u the fentle Barrow glided by, 
AH blood-tinged were its waten in their flow, 
Where heroes died — bat not for Tictory.*' 

Poem of Jerpoint Abbey. 

KitKBA* Castle, a large and fine, but irregular pile of castel- 
lated building, is distant from Castledermott one mile and 
half. A castle on this site was first erected by Hugh de Lacy tha 
yonnger, Earl of Ulster, who obtained the barony of Kilkea by a 
marriage with Emmelina, daughter of the Lord de Riddlesford. 
The property afterwards passed into the Kildare family, by whom 
the castle has been re-edified at different times. This fortified 
residence was a place of some distinction in the 14th century. 
Sir Thomas Rokeby, Lord Justice of Ireland, died here, in the 
year 1356. The buildings were much enlarged and improved by 
John, sixth Earl of Kildare, who died in 1427. Considerable 
alterations and repairs have taken place at subsequent periods | 
the most recent of which were effected by the late Daniel Caul- 
field, of Levitstown, Esq. who obtained a lease of these pre- 
mises from the Duke of Leinster. 

The interior presents, in many parts, curious examples of 
antient arrangement : and from several of the windows are ob- 
tained fine views, embracing, among other objects, the demesne 
of Lord Aldborough, the banks of the river Greece, and the 
mountains of the Queen's County. The staircase is composed of 

• •« At KillLea— A little town there was of old, 
** Thatched with good straw, to keep ont cold.*' 

Cott. Virg. Tra/v. 



4A BSAUTIBS OF IBKLANO. 

massy oak. Connected with the chimney-piece in the great 
drawing-room are some antient basso-relievos^ of much cnriosity* 
On the right side of the fire-place is represented an ape, the crest 
of the Fitasgeralds, beneath which is the following inscriptioii : 

Si Diea plet. 

Crom — aboo. 

MDLXXIII. 
On the left side is an eagle with expanded wings, resting on a 
perch. This, as we are informed by the MSS. of the Chev. de 
Montmorency, is the crest of Mabel, second danglitei* of Sir 
Anthony Browne, master of the horse to King Edward VI. sister 
to Anthony Viscount Montacote^ and wife of Gerald, eleventh 
Earl of Kildare. 

Inserted in the Gate-hoose of this castle, is a stone, scnlp- 
tared in a singular and grotesque manner. The sculpture repre- 
sents a monster, having the head of a fox, the claws of a 
dragon, and the legs of a man. The monster is prostrate, and 
oyer it is a female figure, nurturing at the breast an eagle. The 
nionster presses her to him with his claws, nnd a dog behind 
appears to hold, or to bite her.— Near the castle is a large conical 
mount, in recent years covered with trees. 

Castlspsrmott, situated in the southern part of the county, 
at the distance of thirty-four miles from Dublin, id a straggling 
and humble, but not tfn offensively mean, town, lliis place 
was long called TmtledennoU, and was formerly surrounded by 
a wall, now demolished. An abbey was fonnded here by St. 
Diermit, about the year 500 ; in which religious house Cormac> 
Archbishop of Cashell, received education. According to Keating, 
tliat celebrated prelate and king was also interred at this place. 
Previous to the entry of the Anglo- Norm^s, Tristledermott. 
was the chief seat of the OTools.* In the year 842, or 844, 

* Seward, and other topographers copying that writer, erroneously 
asiert that '^ thii town was formerly the residence of the kings who bore 
the name of Dermot." The customary residence of the Kings of Leinster, 
bearing that name, was at Dublin. When unable to maintain themselves 
in that city, they retired to Ferns.— De Montmorency MSS. 



(LBtMSTSB.] COCKTY Off KIIJ>AB«. 4S 

tkis town was plolidered by the Danes. £arl Stroagbow be- 
stowed this^ together with other parts of the astient possessions 
of O'Tool, on Walter de Riddksfbrd^ by whom a castle was 
boilt here^ in the year IISO.* 

Daring those family quarrels between the Burkes and Ge« 
nJdines^ which caused so mnch bloodshed in Tarions parts of 
Ireland, a meeting, for the discussion of differences, was ap- 
pcinted at Castledermott, A. D. 1<264. But^ instead of an 
amicable result, a fresh and Tiolent outrage occurred. Richar4 
de RupdU, Lord Justice of Ireland, Lord Theobald Butler^ 
and other persons of distinction, were seized by Maurice Fitz- 
gerald and his party, and sent, as prisoners, to the castle of Ley. 
In 1316, the town was taken and ravaged by Bruce, the Scottish 
invader of Ireland } but the forces of that enterprisbg leader 
were, shortly afterwards, defeated, with much slaughter, in this 
neighbourhood, by Lord Edmund Butler. On the 36th of Au- 
gust, 1499, a parliament was held at this place, memorable for 
some important acts, and several curious regulations, f 

* Several writen ttafntain that tlie castle at this place was biiHt by 
tbe third Lord OflTally, who, as they say, ** married the daughter and hek 
of Riddlesford." Bdth of these assertions we believe to be foanded on 
error, and the latter is decidedly a mistake. Gerald Fitzmanrice Flta« 
gerald, third Lord Offally, did not marry the daughter and heir of Walter 
de Riddlesford, as is said by Archdall, Peerage, vol. i, p* 63, note. The 
wife of this nobleman was Eihmelina, daughter and heir of GeolRrey 
FttzgeofiVey de Montmorency, Lord De Marlsco, who, between the IMi 
and tSlh of Edw. II. accompted with Theobald Le Poer, idieriff of Water* 
ford, for his knight's service fbr CastledermotL Maarice Fitsmanri<ve 
Fitzgerald, youngest brother of the above-mentioned Gerald Lord Offally, 
espoused Emma, daughter of the Viceroy Geoffrey de Montmorency, by 
his wife Christiana de Riddlesford, by whom he had a son, who died with- 
out issue, and a daughter, who became the wife of Lord Thomas de Clare, 
youngest son to the Earl of Gioncester. It appears that Lord Offally, by 
this union with the daughter and heir of Geoffrey Fitageoilk>ey de Mont- 
morency, brought to his house the great domain of Castledermott, &c. 
which still belongs to his descendant, the Dnke of Leinster. — Genealogical 
Mems. of the Hoosd of Montmorency, and MS. comnimicatioa of the 
author of that work* 

f In this assemblage of the states, it was found expedient to enact that 



44 BBAUtltftf O^ tWBfLAftV. 

When Gemld, ninth Earl of Krldare, commitled nnmeroos re» 
bellioos fltctionSf in 1533> this town was visited by his insurgent 
arms. He entered the place while the inhabitants were hoI£n|f 
a fair^ destroyed many of the assembled persons, and caosed 
nnmerous hooses to be consumed with fire. The catalogne of 
evils to which Castledermott has been escposed by the operatioiM 
of war, terminates with the horrors of the 17th century, hi the 
troubles of that time, the town waff taken (anno 1690) by 
Colonels Reynolds and Hewson ; since which date it has never 
reassumed an aspect of importance, but has lain^ prostrate — its 
monastic structures rent and scattered by the zeal- of reforma- 
tion, its walls and towers levelled, or dismantled, by- party- warn. 

The Parochial Church and its precincts present 9evera^ ob- 
jects worthy of attentive notice. This structure wa«f formerly of 
considerable extent^ but the western pait is now in a state of 
ruin. The great western door-case is still remaining, and is of 
a semi-circular form, the sweep of the arch being ornamented 
with dentils. The eastern division of the church is used for 
diviae service, and es^hibits several arches of dissimilar forms, but 
destitute of architectnal emliellishment. 

On the north side of the church is a round, or pillar tower, 
now used as a belfry. This structure is composed of large round 
blocks of Wicklow stone, with much cement. The antient en- 
trance is square-headed. On the east is a window, and on the 
xH>rtb-west a loop-hole. At the height of aboot ten feet from 
the ground tlie tower receives a coat ci ivy, which covers it 
closely to the top, and imparts to it the appearance of a lofty 
tree. Between the tower and the chnr<^h is a passage, about ten 
feet in length, communicating with a rude circular door-way, 
which formerly opened into the latter structure. In the adjacent 
burial-yard we find the fragments of a small stone-cross, and 
also a large cross in good preservation.* 

the Doblei of Ireland aboald ose ia4dlet» ia riding on honeback (in oppo- 
rition to the practice of the antient Iriib), and ehoaid wear their robeahi 
parliament* 

* For the foUowiof account of the cnriottt Kulpture on the croM of 



[LBIMtTSm.] COUNTY OP KILDAftX. 4& 

A wPrMiy QfCrwok$d Frutn was founded here by Walter de 
Riddlesfordj in the reign of King Jobn^ whick ttood on the outer 
•ide of the town-walls. After the dissolotion, tliis priory and 
its appurtenances were granted to Sir Henry Hanriogton, Knt« 
Considerable remains of the buildings still exist, although great 
dilapidations have occurred, even within the last few years. The 
north transept is the part least injured by tinie, and is a good 
specimen of that modification of the pointed style which grew 
into use about the commencement of the 14th century. The 
nave was narrow, and divided from its aisles by three pointed 
arches on each side. Ope aisle still reioains, and presents the 
stone-work of three windows, in a fine style of design and exe« 
cution. The decay of this monastic |>ile is to be particularly re- 
gretted, as the veatiges still to be seen evince a greater degree of 
aplendonr, and delicacy of finish, than is oostomary with the 
minor ecclesiastical buildings of Ireland. Among several defaced 
monnments in the grass-grown interior of the priory, is one of a 

Castledermott we are indebted to the MS. notes of the Cbev. de Montmo- 
reDcy— -The «e«f tide it divided into seven compartments, the upper of 
^hich conteios three human figures. The north cross-branch presents a 
flsaa, sitting and flaying on a harp, together with Adaia and Eve* at 
either side of the tree. Tlie south«cross branch displays a hnmsn figure, 
standing erect, with uplifledhaads, and two beasts, one being on the back of 
the other. On the fifth compartment of the shaft is an erect human figure, 
. Iiaving two beasts on each side. In the sixth and seventh compartments 
«ra three human figures* On the upper end of the ««< Mt are, also, three 
Awnan figures* The east and west cross-branches each present three similar 
figures* The middle of the shaft, at top and between the cross-branches, is 
occupied by a large human figure, which would appear to represent Mer- 
cury, the head being covered by a flat hat with wings* This figure stretches 
out its hands to two smaller figures, which raise their diminutive heads from 
underneath its arms, as If In admiration or prayer. In other compartments 
*are three upright human fignresy and two similar figures supporting be- 
tween them a ferM, or truncated human object. Also two crowned 
Agures, lueellng with joined and opUfled baads, intha attitude of prayer. 
The sides and base are ornamented with trae^lovers* knots.— It may be 
observed that the bed of the stream whkh flows near to this church, and 
Ike alining tracts of land, abound la the species of stoao of whkh this 
cross Is composed. 




46 BB&OtIBB OF IRBLAHD: 

gloomy and diflgSBting character, presenting the fignres of a 
■keleton, and of a hamaQ body opeued, with the interior revealed: 

At some distance from the priory il a square and strong 
tower, often termed St. Joint's Cattle.* 

A Sfonatlayfor Convenlual FrmimKeau was foonded at Cas- 
tledermott, by Thomas Lord OffsUey, in the year 1308. This 
religions honae was greatly injnred, and its inmates depnTod of 
tii«r books, vestments, and ornaments, by the army nnder 
Bmce, in 1316. The ruins of the bnildiogs now present a me- 
lancholy scene of desolation. Some architectoral firagments, 
however, proye this monastery to have been a stmctnre mnch 
snperior to the bniidingB nanally appertaining to the Frandscanaj 
which are in general confined in limits and destitnte of embel- 
lishment, wearing the charactnistical features of a mendicant 
society. The east window, said to have been large, and tX 
beaaUfal workmanship, was destroyed not many years back. A 
ball-GODTt, a Catholic church, and a Protestant meeUng-hODse, 
now occupy tiie chief parts of the ground on which the Convent 
formerly stood. 

In the vicinity of Caatledermott is a Charter School, designed 
for forty boys, which was the first institntitm of its kind in 
Ireland. 

At Gbany, distant one mile and a half from the above town, 
are the rains of a nannery, fonnded by Lord Walter de lUddlesford, 
about the year 1200, for caaonesses of the order of St. Angnstin. 
At the dissolution this religions honse, and its neighbooiing 
lands, were granted by Henry VIII. to Sir Anthony St. Le^jer, 
K. G,, whose descendants long possessed much protierty in the 
vidnity of Caatledermott. — Grangemelon, a seat near Grany, waa 
porchased of the Lyon family by Sir John St. Leger, one of the 
barons of the exchequer ; whose son, the late John St l^ger, 
^^ once resident here, waa, in tus day, the leader of fashion, 
the inspiriting genins of conviriality in Ireland, where bis 
(familiarized to Jatk St, Leger) is still freshly remem- 

A local traditisB ucribes la Ibe KDithU-tenpUn tba erwlioa of tke 
'J for Croucbed Fruri. . 



[LBINftTKR.] COVntf OF KIIiOAII*. 47 

iMTsd by the sportiiig clattes of sodtty.^-^OBiiected wMi this 
Mat are voaie vestigeB of days long pest> which probably were of 
little interest in the esteem of the former gay proprietor of the 
demesne } — a gateway, and other rains of-a monastic pile, said 
to have bdonged to the Knights-templars. This estate was 
parchaaed, a few years back, by Sir Erasmus Bnrronghs, Bart. 

Tjmouh is a small fair town, sitaated in the barony of Narragh. 
A monastery was foanded here at an early period, and probably 
by Si. Aioimgr, of Ferns, who died in the 7th ceatnry.t No 
pBrticolars have been ascertained concerning this monastery, 
sabseqnent to the year 987. A nannery was also fonnded here; 
in the reign of John, by Robert Fitz-Richard, Lord of Noragh; 
A castle was erected at Timolin by the same person, which 
continoed to form a military post of some consequence, down to 
a period of history comparatively recent. This castle was taken 
in the 17th century by the Marquess of Ormonde, and the gar* 
rison was put to the sword by order of the Lords Justices Parsons 
and Borlase, although commissioners, named by both the con* 
tending parties, were actually at the same time engaged iii 
adjusting terms of peace ! 

Contiguous to Timolin is MdON, a neat and pleasing village. 
Here was a Franciscan friary, the brotherhood of which house 

* Mr. St. Leger married, io 1754, Mary, only daughter of Colonel Thot. 
Butler, second son of Briniley» first Viscount Lanesborough ) by ifhich 
lady bo bad issue two sons, both general officers, who died without chil- 
dren, aad one daughter, now the wife, without children, of Count Adelbert 
de Taleyrand-Perigord.—- Montmorency MSS. 

f ^, or Tegh* MoliHf the House of Moling, which would appear ta 
be the etymology of the name by which this place is known, strongly 
favours such a belief. The opinion gains fresh probability of correctness 
from information to the following effect, afforded by Friar Clynn. We 
are told by this chronicler, that, during the Easter Holidays, anno 
1333, Philip 0*CaUaa (to whom Timolin then belonged) his son, and 
many persona of his sept, were slain by Bdmond le BotUler, rector of 
Tullow, and the Cantons } who afterwards set fire to OXaUan's church of 
Thamolyn, which they burnt to ashes, with the men, women, and children 
therein, not sparing the relics of Si, Molyngv^^iis* of the Chev* de Mont« 
morency. 



46 BiAunsa op ibblamd. 

rettined their stalion at % date sobteqiieBt to the reloraiatuMi. 
The Gban:h, which ia now io niios, waa a loag and nanrow 
atractare, re-edified io 1609. The most antient monomeiit, 
beariog a date» commemorates two persons of the Britu (Byrne) 
femily, who died in 1G24. Here is a fragment of a very antient 
stone cross, which, in its original state, was, probably, one of the 
most carions erections of the kind in all Ireland. This relic la 
corered with a mnltitude of grotesque fignres, some of which ex- 
hibit the most monstrons creations of fancy that we have witnessed. 
—A csstle was bnilt at this place, shortly after the year 1175« 
by the first Anglo-Norman settlers. Some reowins of the castle 
of Moon are still habitable, and, together with an adjoining 
house, of modem constrnction, are oocnpied by the family of 
Yates. Near the chnrch is an earthen elevation, or mote^ 

Belah Houbb, the seat of the Earl of Aldborongh, is dis« 
tant from Timolin two miles. A castle formerly stood at thb 
place, in which Pierce Fitzgerald resided in the early part of the 
17th century. This castle was demolished by Cromwell ; and 
the estate of Belan was purchased, from Lord Fitzhardtng, 
by Edward Stratford, Esq., ancestor of the present noble pro- 
prietor, in the latter part of the same century. Mr.. Stratford 
had been involved in the troubles of James the Second's disaa- 
trous reign, but was instrumental in establishing the house of 
Orange on the throne, and it is recorded that he entertained at 
this place King William III. The present mansion was erected, 
after the designs (as we believe) of Bindon, the painter and ar- 
chitect, by John, the first Earl of Aldborongh, about the year 
1743. The house stands in a flat sitQatton, at the foot of Bolton 
hill, and is a large but plain pile of building, not remarkable 
for the elegance or amplitude of its respective apartments. Al- 
though the exterior has little, in an architectural point of view^ 
to arrest the attention, while even the best rooms are of a confined 
character, when compared with the real extent of the building, 
this is certainly, on the whole, a massy and commanding struc- 
ture. Bot the examiner finds with surprise that, at the time of 
its erection, Belan was deemed the finest mansion in Ireland } 



[uitNftTKR.] CdlfNTfr OF Sltl>AlllB/ 4d 

aad this circitiiistaooe acts as a tn^morable proof of the increase of 
tuM for emboUisbed domestic anchiteetnre, within the last hulf 
centory. 

BjLhtTUfstB, a lovely village^ seated oti the little riter Griss^ 
or Qreeoe^ possesses no ordinary claim on the notice of the 
triveller and topographer^ although it finds no place in the pages 
of antient history. This village is chiefly inhabited by the people 
termed Qoakers^ and is conspicuons for the neatness and rega** 
larity which characterize that moral and tranquil sect. Indepen-^ 
dent of the beanty that springs Arom simplicity^ and is apparent in 
the whole arrangement of the village^ Balytore will long be me* 
morable for its school, where Edmund Borke received the early 
part of his edocation, ander the care of the celebrated qoaker 
Abraham Sheckelton. It will also be remembered^ to the honoar 
of this rural spot« that here was born Mary Leadbeter^ daaghtei* 
of Mr. SheckeltoD^ which lady was aathoress of the ''Cottage 
Dialogues/* aqd other works caicolaled to improve the state of 
^ Irish peasantry. 

NARaA«iiicoBB/ situated to the South-east of old Kilcfilled> 
demands notice^ as having given the title of a Baron-palatine to 
the Anglo-Norman family of De Wellesley^ long seated here^ and 
at Dangan castle^ in the county of Meath. John Keatinge> lord 
chief justice of the king's bendi, and Maurice bis brother, ac- 
quired this manor in the latter part of the seventeenth century ^ 
and the estate remained vested in the descendants of the latter 
gCDtleman until a recenS period, at which time, it was sold by 
C<^nel Keating to Robert Latouche, Esq. The mansion whs burned 
dotm by the king*8 troops^ during an action with the insurgents 
in 1798 ; but a house of limited dimensions was afterwards erected 
on the site by Colonel Keadng. The demesne presents a great 
variety of surface, and is enriched by extensive spreads of wood* 
land. Near the house is a sepulchral chapel of the Wellesley 
fiamily, a smkdJ and jdain structure, now in ruins. . 

K^LCULLSN, now termed Old Kilcullen, which imparts its 
name to a barony in this county, was formerly a walled town 
having seven gates, but is now in a state of ruin and neglect. A 

VOL. II. s 



50 8BAUTIB9 or IBStANP. 

nonastery wa9 fonnd^d bere in a vary early a^ } aad we are in- 
formed, by aathoritiet quoted ia the Monaatioon Hibaroiciiaix thai 
'' 8t. Patrick appointed St. Iserain bishop, who died A. D, 469, 
and waa succeeded by St. Macralios, son of. Corcran, a disciple 
of St. Patrick." Little has been ascertained concerning the for- 
tunes of this religions house after the year 1037> at which time it 
was exposed to plunder. Kilcnllen, according to the regulations 
of 1 115, was constituted the see of a bishop, but it does not ap- 
pear that this dignity was of a lasting character. 

The Church of Kilcnllen was granted to the priory of the Holy 
Trinity, or Ghristchnrch, DubHn, by WiUiam the Marshal, Earl 
of Pembroke, Isabella de Clare his wife, and Reymond Le Groe. 
In 1252, Henry de Penkoyle, for the sum of 100 shiilbgs, released 
to John, prior of Ohristchurch, the advowson of this church, 
which was confirmed to the prior in 1312, by Philip de Penkoyle.* 

Between the chancel and nave of the old church was, until 
recently, a very &ne circular arch ; but we regret to state that 
this curious vestige of antiquity is now destroyed. In the chnrdi 
is still preserved the effigies of a knight in mail, represented at 
full lengthy the right hand on his heart, the left hand on the guard 
of his swprd : the helmet open. This figure was probably designed 
to commemorate one of the now extinct family of Penkoyle. 

We here find the remains of two crosses, one of which still 
retains M>me very curious spedmens of antient sculpture. The 
shaft of this relic is ten feet in height, and the figures represented 
ia the. different oompartmenta are very nnmerons, but generally 
of an unknown import. Among the least obscure there wonU 
appear to be figures of the twelve apostles i a bishop, holding his 
crosier in the left hand and an axe in the right, with a prostrate 
human figure at his feet ; a man slaying a lion > and a man riding 
on a quadruped, appearing to be intended for an ass. Besides 
the above there are many grotesques, or hieroij^yphics. It has 
be^ thought, and with probable correctness, that two of the 

* It is observable tbat the totfnof KUcnlleD (formerly written Kilcoiym) 
waft for many a^et termed Penkoyle, from the above named family, who 
were long iti powerful owners. 



[lsinstbr.] Goimrr ov kildark. 1^1 

aix>ye designs are intended to represent Balaam on the Ass^ and 
David daying the Lion. 

In the chorch-yard is the rnin of a ronnd^ or pillar^ tower. Tlie 
hdght of this fragment does not exceed thirty-five feet. The door 
faces the north, and is distant abont six and a half feet from the 
ground. Only one small window^ or loop-hole, is now re- 
maining. 

The fair-green of Kilcnllen was the scene of an action, on the 
S4th of May, 1798, between a detachment of the king*s troops 
and a party of the insurgents, in which the former sustained a 
defeat. Captains Erskine and Cocksey fell in this engagement. 
Thomas Pitz Eustace (afterwards Viscount Baltinghiss) was cre- 
ated Baron of Kilcullen by Henry VIII. in l&d&. 

KiLcuLLsv-BRiDOB is a Tillage distant f^om the above town 
one mile and a half, towards the north-east. A bridge was erected 
here, over the Liffey, by Maurice Jakis, a canon of the church of 

Kildare, in 13d9 ; from which period may justly be dated the de- 

« 

cline and fall of the old town of Kilcullen. 

Nbw Abbey, on the banks of the Liffey, at a small distance 
from the above place, was founded in the year 1460, by Sir Rowland 
Eustace, for Franciscans of the strict observance. After the dis- 
solution of religious houses a lease of this abbey was granted 
(August 24th, 1582) to Edmund Spencer, the poet, at the yearly 
rent of 3/. Irish money. Some remains of the buildings are still 
to be seen, but the steeple fell to the ground about the year 1764, 
and a large part of the materials of the structure has been em- 
ployed in the erection of a Roman Catholic chapel. The founder. 
Sir Rowland Eustace, died in 1496, and was here buried, as were 
bis wife Margaret, and his daughter, Alison Lady Kildare. The 
monuments of those distinguished persons were standing entire 
until the havoc committed in the buildings for the use of the ma* 
terials, as above noticed ; and the upper parts of the monuments, 
together with the fragments of many other costly tombs of marble, 
mutilated and overgrown with weeds, may still be discovered 
among the neglected refuse of the monastic ruins. These vestiges 
present the effigies of a knight and lady, their hands joined ia 

E 2 



68 BEAUTIBS OF IRELAND. 

prayer. Sit Rowland* is in armour^ and the lady in the cloM 
pointed cap and girdle, fashionable at the time in which sha 
floarished. 

Harristown, near Kilcnllen, is the splendid seat o( Robert 
Latonche^ Esq. The antient and digoified family of Enstace was 
seated here for many ages, and took the title of Baron from this 
estate. In the year 1650, the castle of Harristowo was captured 
by a party of the Parliament troops, under Colonels Hewson and 
•Reynolds. Mr. Chetwode, maternal grandson to Sir Maurice 
Eustace, speaker of the House of Commons in the reign of Charles 
I. inherited this demesne, and sold the estate to the first Duke 
of Leinster, by whose son, the late duke, it was again sold to 
the late John Latooche, Esq. father of the present proprietor* 
Previous to the Union, Harristown returned two members to the 
Irish parliament ; but this borough- town, when possessed of the 
elective frsnchise, consisted of no more than a single house ! — 
Near Harristown is one of those taper upright stones, having a 
conical top, which are seen in several parts of Ireland, and were 
probably connected with the ceremonies of drnidical worship. 

tSAi>LYM0UNT,f the fiuc dcmesue of the Cramer family, is 

* Sir Rowland Eustace was son of Sir Edward EusUce, of Harristown, 
near KilcuIIen, and many years lord chancellor and treasurer of Ireland* 
Sir Rowland may be termed founder of the subsequent greatness of the 
Fitz Eustace family, as most of the extensive landed possessions of tbfai 
/amUy were acqaired by him* The lady Alison, his daughter, was wife 
of Gerald, eighth Earl of Kildare, and died of grief, during the confinement 
of her noble husband in England- 

f Amongst the most curious natural relics of ages unknown to history, 
and quite beyond the reach of tradition, must be mentioned the enormous 
voavs found in many places beneath thesurface,in different partsof Ireland. 
These are always discovered in low situations, where the soil is light i 
sometimes embedded in marble, but more frequently at a variable depth 
In the extensive bogs. Dr. Molynenz observes, *' it is not to be questioned 
hot these spacioas horns, like others of the deer kind, were cast every 
year } and that the animal was indigenous, as the horns are found in every 
part of the kingdom." They are of the broad, or palmed kind, and are 
of dissimilar dimensions, the largest being not less than ten feet from ons 
extremity to the other. Entire beads, and other remains of the skeleton. 



[LS1N8TER.] COUNTY OF SILDABK. M 

•itUated neaTthe Liffey> and opposite to Harristowii. The house 
was boilt after a plan of Mr. Sandys^ architect^ by the Rev. 
Marmaduke Cramer^ father to the present proprietor of this estate^ 
the Rev. John Cramer Roberts -, of which respectable family S$ir 
Coghili Cramer Ct^ghill^ Bart, is the senior representative. The 
family of Cramer^ or Von Cramer^ is of antient German origin, and 

are Bometimes foaad od the same ipot i a circamitaDce which would appear 
to intimate that the animal was g;regarious, altboagh thia conjecture at to 
Ita habits is supposed to be erroneous by some judicious enquirers. 

Mr. Pennant asserts that these horns must be referred to an animal of 
the Elk kind, *' but of a species different from the European, being pro- 
Tided with brow antlers, which that wants ; neither are they of the moose 
deer, or American, which entirely agrees with the Elk of Europe.** As 
the result of his iovestigatioosi this writer remarks that they may possibly 
be ranked among those remains which fossillists distinguish by (he title of 
Diluvian. 

The following statement, communicated to this work by a spectator of 
the discovery described, (the late W. Beauford, A. M.) will be usefol in 
explaining the character of the animal to which such horns appertained^ 
whilst the contrary opinion of Mr. Pennant, concerning the species of this 
gigantic race of deer, will, of course, be allowed its doe weight« A( 
Sallymount^ nsar KilcuUerij about the year 1778, was dug up, from a 
marie pit, the entire skeleton of one of those antient animals of the Deer 
kind, termed by the Literati Moose, and supposed to be antediluTiao. 
Mot a bone of the skeleton was wanting ; and, when joined together, the 
else and form of tho animal stood conspicuous. The withers were mnch 
higher than the haunches ; being full fourteen hands high. The neck wae 
so short, as to prevent the animal from grazing ; nor was the head large 
in proportion to the body, but (he horns were enormous, being ten feet 
from tip to tip, and the palms broad. The figure was standing upright, 
and the extremity of the horns not above two feet beneath the surface. 
The marie formed part of a land lake in tlie middle of a field. From 
this discovery the species of animal to which belonged the supposed Moose 
Horns, so frequently found in Ireland, remains no longer doubtful ; they 
being the remains of the antient European elk, some of which were found 
in the Harts and Black Forests in Germany, in the beginning of the last 
century. They are not the same kind as the Moose of North America, 
hot evidently a variety of the same species. Not being able to grsse, 
they browsed on the leaves and tender branches of trees, and afectedibe 
darkest and most retired parts of forests. 



54 BXAUTUB8 or IftBLAMD, 

settled in Ireland in tbe reign of James I. ; Colonel Bakhaaar Von 
Cramer being the first of that name who removed into this coantry^, 

A long and straight avenue^ broad and planted on both sides 
with stately rows of beech trees« conducts to CAstleii astin, a 
seat in this neighboarfaood, the property of the Carter family.* 
Here> in the year 1300, was the baronial residence of Richard 
Fitz Martyn^ Lord of Castlemartyn. A castle on this demesne 
was long a principal seat of the Fitz Eastace family, bnt was for- 
feited by them in 1641. The castle suirendered upon conditions, 
March 3rd^ 1643^ to the Marquess of Ormonde and Lord Lisle. 
In the same year^ the commissioners first met at this place, bat 
adjonrned to Jiggiastown^ near Naas, where was condnded a ces- 
sation of hostilities between the Parliament and the Irish Catholics. 
Castlemartin was afterwards (in the month of June, 1647) taken 
and burned by the Parliamentarians, under Colonel Michael Jones. 

The mansion, as it now stands, was built, about a century 
back, by Mr, Harrison, a banker of Dublin. This house, which 
is a large and commodious bnilding, was converted into a barrack 
for the king's troops, during the insurrection of 1798 ; and did 
not Ml to sustain considerable injury from its military occupants. 
In a romantic situation on the banks of the Lifiey, within this de- 
mesne^ is a small^ but curious, church, or mortuary cb^peU erected 
by the Fitz Martyns. The length is about thirty feet, and the 
width abont sixteen feet. The steeple is composed simply of two 
parallel walls. Within the chapel is an antient tomb, overgrown 
with weeds ^ and in the attached burial-yard are fragments of seve- 
ral monuments, amongst which may be noticed part of the base of 
an altar monument, having, in pointed niches, the heads of muti- 
lated figures, wearing the conical Irish bonnet. Also the figure 
of a knight, fally armed, bnt headless, about eighteen inches in 
height, holding in the right hand an uplifted sword, and scales in 
the left ; a diminutive human figure occupying each scale. 

* Tlie famil J of Carter hat beea of frost rttpectabillty, Ibr tOTeral 
genorationt, in the counUet of Sf ealli aa4 Kildare. See ArcMall's Poor- 
afo, vol. i. p. 104, nWe. 



[UUNBTEB.] COUNTY OV KILDAB&. hB 

Naas is m sinttt Iowb> distant from Dnblin fifteen miles and « 
htU, towerds the sooth* west. This place wits of eonsideralde im* 
portance in very early ages of Iriah history, and conatitoted n 
residence d the kings of Leinater. We leam from 0*Began 
that Mac CaUifn was dyanat of Naaa> when the Eogiiah eaterod 
Ireland. Earl ^roogbow granted this conquered tract of conntry 
to William. FitsgeraM^ his aon^in-law^ who was Snccessively 
followed in possession of the property by the families of Die 
Ijondres and Do Preston, fipeedily after the arrival of the 
English, Nans was fortified, and sereral embattled dwellings were 
raised within the walls, by distingoished families connected with 
the property of the town and neighboarhood. 

A parliament was held at tins place in 1419* In I&34> the 
Lord Depnty Skeffington took this town from Lord Thomas Fits* 
gerald, who was then in open rebellion. | and the greater part of 
the town was destroyed by fire daring an irrpption of Rory-oge- 
O'More, Dynast of Leix^ in 1577** Colonels Hewson aad 
Reynolds ci^tnrsd this place for Cromwell, in IBdO ; and, we 
regret to add to the list of warlike incidents, by pbsertiog that 
here commenced the insnrrection of 1798. On May .^d, in that 

* Among the Sidney Papers is the following rather curious account of 
this turbulent transaction. — " Rorie Oge Omore and Cormoclce O'Connor, 
accompanied not with above 140 men and boy^s, burned betire^n seven 
•ad eight handrsd thatched honises, in a market town called tha Df^a». 
Th^y ba^ aot one hprtemaii, aor oa^ shot with tfism* TNy ran (|ro«ig|i 
the towp» being open, like baga and furies of hell, iiii|f ^ak»s af fii|s 
fastened on poles'-endsy and so fired the low thatched houses | and being a 
great windy night, one bouse took fire of another in a ipoment. They tar- 
ried not half an hour in the town, neither stood they upon killing or 
spoiling of any. There was above five hundred mens* bodies in the town, 
Maatike enough In appearance, bat neither naaiftf], nerwakefiil, as it 
seemed; for they oenfess they were air asleep in HiMf beds af Af Ihey-bad 
tNed themselves, and sorifhited, iip<»n tiieir p^trofi day« Vhey M neUker 
imteb ner gate shut i aad if they bad, yet the town Is epenea'all sides ef 
liielf, hot Ibis -makeith m gved peof and plain declaration, what good 
chattplaas'theAe peeple are for the defence of n ftvntiery whiira no ieMlsrs 
are planted to defend iheai.'^^'^riiltged fDsm 6idns/s fiettsrs, ««• 
vol. i. pp. 16e-7« . 



66 BJUUTIB8 OF IKBLAXO. 

year, the insin^geiite, beaded by. a farmer named Reynolds, ha- 
sarded an attack on tbiajtowp, but were repelled, ^rith great lose, 
by .the king's troops, udder the command of Ldent* Oen. Dondas* 

A Priory, for canons regular of tbe order of St. Aognstta, 
inras founded here in the twelfth centary; the • possessions •f 
which honse were granted, at the dissolution, to Richard Man* 
neryng. A monastery for Dominican friars, formerly standing 
near the centre of the town, was founded by the Eustace family, 
about the year 1355. This friary and its appurtenances were 
granted by King Henry VIII. to Sir Thomas Lutterell, whose 
descendant, the late Lord Carhampton, sold his portion of the 
manor of Naas to Mr. Finlay, of Dublin. A monastery, for 
friars-efemites of the order of St. Angnstia, was also founded at 
this place iu 1484 ; a lease of which was granted, in the twenty* 
sixth of Queen Elizabeth, to Nicholas Aylmer. Some remains 
of the latter building are sttll to be seen, in the vicinity of a laige 
earth-worth, locally termed a rath. « 

The Parochial Church has little claim on consideration, in an 
architectural point ,of view. The steeple, which is still unfinished, 
was erected, as far as the building has proceeded, by one of the 
Earls of Mayo. Within the walls of the church is a pyramidal 
monument of black and white marble, " erected by John, fourth 
Earl of Mayo, in memory of his grandfather, John, first Earl of 
.Mayo, and his father, Joseph-Deane, Lord Archbishop of Tnam, 
and Earl of Mayo, who died 17th August, 1794, aged 63 years.'* 
In the church-yard are numerous tomb-stones, bearing inscrip- 
tions to different members of neighbouring families, now, or for- 
pierly, of ipuch local importance.^ 

* At tbe .distance of aboqt half a mile from tke towo of Naat, :0a the 
JobmtowB road, ii a piece of land, coniisting of aboot one quarter of an 
:acre, enclosed by a wall, ten feet iiUieight, ghren to the town, as aa .ad- 
. ditioaal. place of barial, by the Earl of Mayo, in 1788. A snaU division 
: of this place of funeral deposit is reserved for the.ose.of the noble Ouai^J* 
. at whose expense the whole was laid oat and enclosed. Assonfst several 
.nonQments is that of Lieut. Colonel Jubu Bbinbrldge, of the Loyal Das« 
ham res:inient, who died Pec. 4th, 1800, in hisSSrd year* 



[lbinstbb.] OO0HTY or mtJUMm. K 

Near the ckwrcli is the CoHfe o/Nmia, a alTMig sqiate Unrer 
io termed^ which ia th« property of the Burgh feaily^ of OUk 
town^ and constitotes the residence of the rector of the perish. 

NaaB ,was incorporate^ in the reign of Elisabeth, and the 
anizes are BOW heM here and at Athy alternately. Theootanty* 
gaol and 8e8siona«-hoiise do not reqoire perticidar odice in tfaii 
work. Here is a small alms*hoase for four poor widow9, fonnded 
lyythe family of Lattio, who possess considerable property in 
Shn town. The wretched iamates, as we^ believe* receive no 
other benefit from this foundation than inqwrfact ^helttr and a 
dinner at Christmas, although an inscription, very pompoBs in 
style and allusion, reminds the examiner that *' wealth maketh 
many friends;** and that '< when the righteous are in autfaoftily 
the people rejoice/* Naas gives the titk of baron to the Earl of 
Mayo. 

A cat from the Grand Canal at Osberstown and CaItBB«liridge, 
to Naas, a distance of about two English miles, was con^leted 
iDn789, at the expense of £18,S00 sterling. 

In the immediate vicinity of the town of Naas is Oldt^wn, 
the fine seat of Thomas Burgh, Esq. and in the neighbourhood 
are several other handsome manssons. 

P^uE^MBBSTowv,* the seat of the Earl of Mayo, chiefly att 
tracts attention from the beauty of the demesne, which has been 
greatly improved by modem plantations. The Evl of Mayo 
derives lus descent from the line of Bomrke, or De Burgh, of 
Monyerower, of the potent braacb of Mac ffliiiam^OmfkiBr; 
Lords of Mayo, whose ancestor s^tled at Kill and at Palmers* 
town, in this county, about the year 1660* 

Cbadocbstown, distant one mile firom Naas, is the handsome 
seat of Mr. Carlisle. This is an antient manor of the Eustace 
family ; and, on the decease of Colonel Alexander Eustace, chief 
of the name, became the property of his sister. By John Caul- 

* At FafaMTStown wu born., in iIm latter part of the IbirtMaib cea* 
lary* Ihe learned 'writer Tkawtmt ^f Paimert^oiMt aiaally termed rAentiif 
jr#enMt#. CdUeetioBs towards his biography, «iid a lUt of h|t writiagStt 
are given hy Mn Harrie (Writen» pp. 74.5). 



S8 BaAOTin or lUEhiMp. 

field, of LoBMitttMim in thtt conihty, £8^. tke fee eim^le ef this 
niaaor wee sold to Mr. Lateeche, of Herrfstewn, m wbeoi il it 
still vested. 

JoBMSTowjf 9 two miles from Nsas, on the high roed towards 
l>BbliB, is a neat village on a little chrystal streasi called the 
Moretl. Here is Kerdifitoum, the pleasing residence ef Mr« 
Hendrick. This estate wiu long the property of the K^rd^ 
Aunily, from whom it passed, in lf(H, to the Warrens of Cor* 
dnffe, and Temained with those proprietors nntil purchased by the 
fether of Mr. Hendiiek. Embosomed in a dump of trees on tkie 
demesne, are the roins of a very antient ohareh. 

Near Johnstown are Poubnavohts, a seat of the Wolfs 
ftunily ; and Fvniress, a fine house and demesne, long ^^ re« 
eidettce of the late Richard Jones NevUle, Esq. 

At the distance of about one mile from Naas are the rains of 
an extensive mansion, begno, but never eompieted, by the un- 
fertoqate Earl of Strafibrd, in the time of Ghaiies L* 

MosRBSTowN-MaiTAOH wss the name given to an anient 
castle, on the bordtrs of the river Liffey, in this part of the 
coonty, after its proprietors, the family of Morres of Mainagb, 
otherwise Thorny. A portion of the De Bfarmiogham estates, in 

m 

the buonyof Great Coanell, descended to the Morres family 
from Lord OeolBfrey de Montemarisco, who possessed the same 
in right of his first wife, Eva de Birmingham. 

At KiLLossT an abbey was fonnded by iSt. Patrick, for bis 
nephew, St. Annl, who died A.D. 464. The cfanrch at this 
place is cnrions for its original stone roof, and for its tower, 
which is square to a certain height, but afterwards assumes a 
drenlar form. This elevation possesses no attribnte in eommon 
with the lofty and isolated pillar towers of Ireland, bat its par* 

^ We are tsld by Hr» Ardidall (PeerafS vol. ▼. p. 181) that Lor4 
Strafford, when projectiDf the erectioa of a mansion on this spot (Jig* 
gtaiton^n) '* cottialt^d*' John Allen, Bsq. who entelped I n s l aai air 4 factor 
for the Dntch, *' to the latter end of Qneen Eli«she<h's veffa, and had 
great «lLil| in arcMtectnre/* Mr. AHen wet nnesster of the Visooank 
Allen, and designed several huildings still renainlog In Ireland; • 



[lbinstbb.] covntv op kildakc* 59 

tifti rotandity of Bkape. We lutre already observed^ in tke n- 
trodnctory pages of this work^ that etrevlar steeples (equally 
fialike the pillar-towers of the sister coaatry) are attached to 
aeveral chorches in Bagland, panlcalariy in the eastern comities 
of NorMk and Sutfolk^ where they are attributed^ by aa mi*- 
aapported tradidon^ to the hands of the Danes. 

Clain^ or Clanb, which gives name to a baro&y^ Is sitaated 
on the Liflby, orer which rit^er is hare a bridge of six arehee. 
This tillage^ incladlng barracks and a Roman C«tholk chapel, 
was boraedin the year 1798, bnt has been since reballt. The 
manor was formerly vested in the family of Sarsfield, of cMs 
Gonnty ; from whom it passed to the Wogan* Auniiy, and was, 
by their representatives, sold at the same time with Rathcofly. 
Here arc the ruins of a castle, oonceraiDg the history of which 
boildlng we have in vain endeavoured to acqaire intelligence. 
An abbey for canons regolar was founded at Glain, by St. Ailbe; 
in the sixth century, in which was held a synod, consisting of 
twenty-she bishops, with nnmeroos abbots- and other dignitaries 
of the church, A. D. 1 162. A Franciscan friary was also erected 
here, in the early part of the thirteenth century, of which consi* 
derable remdns stfll exist. At this place is an antient earthen 
elevation, locally termed a Don. 

At CUsTLEBRowNB, near Ciain, is a college for the edaeatioa 
of the children of catholics, on the plan of an institntieil at 
Stonyhurst, in Lancashire. The mansion at Castlebrowne, now 
used, with additions, for the purpose of the above collegiate esta- 
blishment, was for many years the seat of the family of Browne; 
who obtained this estate by an intermarriage with the latnily of 
Wogan. 

At Rathcoffy long stood a castle, the antient seat of the 
Wogans, a respectable family of Welsh extraction, who first Het^ 

* It is erroaeonsly asserted by Archdall and Seward that the family of 
O'Bogtiin formerly possessed the estate of Clain. This error proceeds 
from the mistake of that name for Owgan^ or Wogan ; in both which ways 
the name of the real possessors was occasionally written. M8S. dfChev. 
De Montmoreacy. 



.(50 BBAUTIES OF IKBLAWD. 

tkd here tonratfds the dose of Ihe thirteenth elntory. Sir John. 
Wogan was Viceroy of Irehod for severid years in the reigtfs of 
King Edward I. and hia successor. This anttent family has 
merged, by females^ into the femilies of Talbot of Malahide> and 
Browne of Castlebrowne. The manor of Rathcoffy^ subject to a 
small chief rent to the Talbot family, was purchased from the late 
Itichat'd Wogan Talbot, of Malahide, Esq. by Archibald Hamilton 
Rowan, *Eiq» who has levelled the venerable castle of the Wogans, 
with the exception of one antient gateway, and Commenced a leas 
anstere residence on its site. As the principal historical event 
Goonected with the antilsnt strnctare, it mnst be mentioned that 
the castle of Rathcoffy was taken, in Jnne 1642, by Colonel 
Monk, afterwards celebrated as Doke of Albemarle. On this 
occasion he made seventy prisoners, most of whom (''- beiog/' 
says Gox, '^ mnrdering rebels") were executed in Dublin; The 
view from Mr. Rowan's house commands a vast extent of level 
and laxuriant country* 

DoNADBA Gastlb, the seat of Sir Gerald Ay Imer, Bart, consists 
of an antient castellated pile, with additions suited to the improved 
habits of life in modern times. This castle was besieged by a 
rebellions party in 1691, but was gallantly defended by the lady 
of Sir Andrew Aylmer. Sir Gerald Aylmer^ descended from ^ 
younger son of the house of Lyons, was created a baronet in the 
year 1691. The church of Donadea has been lately rebuilt, with 
Ihe aid of a loan of £1000, from the Board of First Fruits. 

The vast expanse of bog, termed tbb Boo of Allen, is too 
(Hirious to be entirely omitted as a subject of topography, and 
may be most properly noticed in the present county, although it 
extends, with inferior degrees of encroachment, into several other 
districts. For more detailed information on this topic than is 
practicable in our pages, we refer to the very able statement pre* 
sented by R. Griffith, Esq. in the " First Report from the Com- 
missioners appointed to inquire into the Nature, and Extent, of the 
several Bogs in Ireland." It may be necessary to remark, that most 
pf the bogs which lie lo the eastward of the Shannon, and which 
occupy considerable portions of the county of Kiidareaad the King's 



[LKINflTEK.] OOUMTY OW K1LDARB.I 61' 

Conatyy are collectively known, itt common nsage, by tlie nrnme of 
tkb Bog of Allen. U nmtl not, tkorefore, be iqiposed that tUs' 
term is applied to any one great morass. On the contrary, the* 
bogs to whichit bears reference are perfectly distinct from each other,- 
are often separated by high ridges of dry conntry, and incline to* 
wards different rirers, as their natoral directions for drainage.* ' 
The Grand Caaal passes throogh a great part of this tract of 
bogs ; and hence the bog of Allen is an object of more familiarity 
and inquiry with travellers, both native and foreign, than wonld 
otherwise be the case with a level so cheerless and unprofitable. 

* Ifl four bt)g« included under thii general namei examined by Mr* 
Gcifith, be found tbe mass of each to be ^* of tbe peculiar tnbttaace called 
peat, of tbe a? erage tbtcknett of tweaty*flve feet, no wbere leas tbaa 
twelve, nor found to exceed forty-two ; this substance varying materially 
in its appearances and properties, in proportion to tbe depth at which it 
lies: on the upper surface, covered with moss of various species, and to 
tbe depth of about ten feet, composed of a mass of the fibres of similar 
▼egetables, in different stages of decomposition, proportioned to their depth 
from the surface, generally, however, too open in their texture to be applied 
to the purposes of fuel ; below this generally lies a light blackish brown 
turf, containing tbe fibres of moss still visible, though not perfect, and 
extending to a further depth, of, perhaps, ten feet under this.*' — In the in- 
stance of a section, exhibited in the report of Mr. Griffith, are seen, below 
the last named turf, small branches and twigs of alder and birch, bnt it 
does not appear to be hit opinion that dils is vniformly the case. At a 
greater depth *' the fibres of vegetable matter cease to be visible, the 
colour of the turf becomes blacker, and the substance much more compact, 
itt properties as fuel more valuable, and gradually increasing in the degree 
of blackness and compactness proportionate to its depth | near the bottom 
of tbe bog it forms a black mass, which, when dry, has a strong retemblanee 
to pitch or bitominont coal, and having a conchoidai fracture in every 
directioD, with a black shining Instre, aad tatceptible of receiving a con- 
siderable polish."— Beneath this lower stratum there is generally found 
** a thin stratum of yellow or blue clay, varying in thicknett from one to 
tix feet) in some places the peat rests on a thinner stratum of yellowish 
white marl, containing, on an average, about sixty percent, of calcareous 
matter: this stratum of clay in this district universally rests on a solid 
matt of clay and limestone gravel mixed together, and extending to an 
unknown depth." Firtt Report of Commitsienort, ftc« p. 6. 



610 BBAUTtM or IWUUtllP. 



The diffmal mon^Umj of the aeeoerj H, io4eed, ojpfirmAfM ^ 
«id» for lOMiy nikft^ which to the trsvdkr aflpear '* le&gtheekgp 
M he goe«i*' few objects sheet above the glooiiy plaiB, and 
awahea the fiitigoed alietttieo. In the dislasce^ it is true, the 
mooataiue of Wicklow, miogling mth the akiee of the horaon, 
suggest htnts of the earthly dysium eDJoyed by more ibrtaiiate 
toorists ia that quarter j but the exereise of fancy excited by this 
di^at prospect merely increases distaste, by proToking ia the 
ttiad a strong degree of contrast. Towards the north and west the 
bills of Garbery and Grogban, risii^ abmptly from the level 
waste, form distant objects ; and, in the sonth, the island of 
Allen admits of closer inspection, aod presents a vpot of colti- 
ration in the midst of the desart. This improved district obtains 
its name of klmtd, solely from the circamstance of betag sar- 
roonded with that vast expanse of bog, through which the voyager 
on the Grand Canal is slowly and paiafQliy passing. The snr- 
&ce of land rises very qaickly from the bog, on all sides, 
and is, on the north-west, composed, to a considerable depth, 
of limestone gravel, forming very abrapt hills. On the northern 
edge of the island is Baifyieague Cattle ; at some ^stance from 
which, towards the west, among other inequalities of surface, 
rises the JHUl of Alien, a steep elevation, of a conical form, 
about 300 feet in height.* This ide gives the title of visconot 
to the noUe fiunily somamed Allen, which is originally English, 
bnt had been long resident in Holland, from which country 

* For iom€ Tery cirioat pmrticnlan eodccminf the natural itractorB 
of tUs island, the geological reader ie referred to the '* Firit Report of 
the CoramiMionen;' &c. pp. 15.17.— Dim Jlmhtdm (the HUl of Alien) 
Is rapposed to preieat the toene of action between Fingal and Cath^or» 
ta Macphenon't beautiM poem of Tenora. In aoaie MSB. of the late Mr. 
Beaoford, now posieMod by the present writer, it is sud that the prin- 
cipal local objects described in that work (as *' the Cave of Bran, the 
tomb of Oscar, Bran*s ibontain," ftc.) are to be distinctly traced in this 
neigbbonrhood. Mr. Beaufbrd adds that Macpherson deriTod the ground* 
work of his epic from an Irish pt^em called Cath Almhain, written by 
Tome Bigis, about the year ISlo, the subject of which relates to a battle 
fought in the eleventh century. 



[LS1N8TBB.] GOaUTT OF KILOAIS, ^ 

the anooetpr of tke pretenl tiacoiuU ciitercd Iraiand, in tb« jpMgn 
of Qoecn EUzabatli. 

The coDstruetion of the Grand Canal hai been eerTiceaUe> in 
inparting a soarce of drainage to some {Murts of this great aeriea 
of bogs ; and> in a more iniNroTed state of the eoontryj the 
whole will firobably be placed nnder profitable cnUiyatioii $ p 
circnnatance eqnaHgr deaireble> aBd> aa it wopdd appear^ eaay of 
practiee r At pesent the Bog of Allen ailbr^a no other benefit to 
man than diat of yieMng tnrf for faeU which n chiefly eem?efed 
to DttbUn by boats ou the caoal^ and whicb^ when it arrives 
there> is^ we believOj a^re expensive^ than imp(»ted coal. The 
mind expands with the idea of a fntnre age beholding verdant 
pastnrage and a sioiliog peasantry, where now the aspect of na- 
ture, and that of the forlorn beings so nahappy as to be identified 
with the region^ have a lamentable co-partnership in misery.* 

Cabbkjiy, or CASTcn CABBsnT, is sitnated in the north- 
western part of the county^ on the border of the Bog of Allen, at 
the distance of 25} miles from DB^lin. Here are the remaina of 
an antient castle» seated on a lofty teanlated hill, whence is ob- 
tained a very extensive view over the ennonndiag level tracts of 

* iThe circiiiki0tance« and appearance of tbe abject popalation in tu^ 
IMTts of <be bo; ai are witiMMed by tfie /voyaged on the canal, are to 
SdAfnlly described by Ur. Waltk, ttSit we tike the freedom of preittn^ 
by Us worda.— *' To a laodarate dIaUnce on eodi fide of tbecanal tho hog 
ii let in flmall lots to twf-cat^rSy who, for coDTenience and the facility oC 
foarding their pro pert}' from theft, take np their residence on the spot, 
however dreary and nncomfortable. The first care of one of these, is to 
seek a dry bank above the inflnence of floods ; and here he excavates his 
fotWB habitation, to sach a depth that little more is vlsibte than Ae roof; 
this is somtotimds eovored with seaaty thatch, hat oflteasr with toff parse 
from the bof t which, as the herbage Is upwards, so psrISietly asshnilatns 
with the sarronndins scenery* that the eye would pass oTor it nnnotlcod, 
were it not undeceived by a number of children sallyins from a hole oa 
one side, accompanied frequently by the cat, the 'pig, and the goat, the 
jfoiat inmates of the hovel i and sometimes a cloud of smoke, which finding 
no other vent, issues through the roof. Which, frma Its slight tezture. Is 
every where pervious to lt« betrays tht habltatioa.*'— Hist* of DuMlOy 
pp. 1299-30. 



M kttAOTtifts or itttttA'itD. 

oottiitfy. 'The castle of Carbery iw«y in tbe early part of the foar* 
teenth century^ the embattled residence of a branch of thte Bir- 
tningham family. On the death of Walter Birmingham^ the yonnger, 
\n 1961, this castle passed to Sir Robert Pireston, chief baitm 
of the exchequer^ ancestor of Lord GormansCown/ who had muT" 
ried the sister of the said Walter. In 1541, Sir Wifliam Bfarmiag^ 
ham, Knt. was created Baron of Carbery. Tbe castle belongedv 
early in the reign of BH^abeth, to Sir Henry CoUey, or Cowley, 
ancestor to the Marquess Wellesley and the Dnke of Wellington^ 
whose descendants resided at Carbery threngh many generations. 
Mary,danghter of Henry CoUey, Esq. mibrried, in 1747, Arthof 
Ponier<>y, Esq, created Lord Hurberton of Carbery, in 1T8S, and 
Visconnt Harberton, in 1791.— iVm^ry, the seat of Lord Har- 
beiton, is in the immediate vicinity of Castle Carbery, and is a 
spacioQS and handsome residence. 

Clokourry, a small village, consisting chiefly of thatched 
cabins, was an antient demesne of the Earls of Ormonde, under 
whom the Aylmer family of Lyons, and Visconnt Gonnanstown, 
derived, in fee. The late Michael Aylmer, of Lyons, Esq. sold 
this manor to Sir Nicholas Lawless, Bart, afterwards created Baroh 
Clandurry. Here- is one of the antient moats ; and near that 
earthen elevation, forn^rly stood a castle, which Colonel Monk 
defended for the Parliament, in 1643. That celebrated officer was, 
however, at length under rhe necessity of abandoning the fortress, 
from a want of provisions. A Carmelire Priary was founded at 
Cloncurry, in the year 134?, by John Roche 3 which monastery, 
together with the village, was burnt by the Irish septs on the Eve 
of the Feast of (he Seven Brothers, A. D. 1405. Some remains 
of the buildings, which were renovated, and were inhabited until 
the general suppression of reKgious houses, are still to be seen. 
Cornelius Mac Gelan, Bishop of Kildare, termed Cornelius of 
Cloncurry, was some time rector of this parish, and was, probably, 
a native of tbe village. This learned divine died in 12», and 
• was buried in the pai:i3h chnrcb. No sepulchral monument, how- 
ever, eidsts of an earlier date than the eighteenth century. 

Maynooth, distant from Dublin Hi miles, is a small, but 



[l.BINBTBK«] COUNTY OF KlLDAMLm, K 

inqnoving^ towD, coneistiag chiefly of one wide Btfoct. At otie 
IflrauBBtion of the street is the Royal College of St. Patrick. The 
erea> in front of this striictiure^ eo^ires a great accession of in* 
terest and pictorial beanty from the contigsoos tower of Maynoolh 
€harch» which is richly mantled with ivy^ and from the fine rmns 
of the Castle, whose stately towers are in different stages of decay. 
At the opposite termination of the street is the eati^ce of Carton 
park, the demesne of the Dnke of Leinster. 

It is traditionally asserted that a convent of •*' Black Nnns** 
existed at Maynooth, in an early age. A College was baiit and 
established, " in his manor of iVlaynooth, parish of Lacagh-Brien/' 
in the year 1518, by Gerald Earl of Kildare ; in which the.aobk 
founder placed a master, nndermaster, and fire priests (styled 
fellows), two clerks, and three boys, who were to pray for the 
prosperous estate of the kings of England, and for the good state of 
the Earl of Kildare, his wife, and their kindred, while living, 
and for their souls after their decease.* The same earl afterwards 
rebailt the chnrch of St. Mary, at Maynooth. . The chmxh of 
Maynooth is prebendal, the prebend bmag in the gUt-of bis Gi^aee 
the Dnke of Leinster 3 and, in its present state, is a cettmodiona 
and respectable structnrei lately lornished With a good organ> 
irom the able hand of Mr. James Bishop* of London. 
' Here is a Chartdr-echool, designed for fifty-six children. 

The Castle of Maynooth was a seat of the Fitzgeralds, thnongh 
many of the proudest, and some of the most troubled years in their 
family annals ; and is said, by Archdall, to. have been built by 
John, the sixth Earl of Kildare, in the eaiiy pafct of the fifteenth 
^entnry.f The principal niilitary ev^nl connected with this for* 

* For farther particulars concerniog the college founded at Maynoeth* 
in Laragh-Brien, hy Gerald, ninth Earl of Kildare, see Hibernia Antiqua, 
pp. 61—2. 

+ It is well known, however, that this branch of the noble family of 
Fitzgerald resided on the above estate at a much earlier period than the 
fifteenth century. John, first Earl of Kildare, died at Larragh-Brien, 
Sept. lOth, 1316. (Lodge Peer.) It may be observed that the author of the 
Monast. Hib. states (after Pembridge) that this earl was buried in the 
VOL. II. W 



66 BBAITTm OF taVLAHD. 

tUM jpile^ rektes to the intorreotum dC Lwd Tbomw Fitaigenld» 
in the reiga of Henry VIII. some aoeoaatof which is piMttitad 
in our hisiorieal uotiee of the ^ty o< Doblis . The code wes th^ 
iiiTested by a eonsidenble forces «n4er ihe comnand of Sir WUiiani 
Brereton. The snonmona of the ueailaBtfi was treate4 wilb defi- 
ance by the garrison, althoagh Loigd Thomas was absent $ aod^ 
after a siege of foartaea. days, little impression was oMuia on this 
strong hold. The besiegers at length gained possession of the 
place, through the treaohery of one of the garrison, from whomsnch 
an act could scarcely have besn expected, the traitor being^ler 
brother of Lord Thomay. It is gratifying to find that^ as this 
wreteh had made- no stipulation for his personal safety, he was 
ordered to exepution, immediately alter leceiidng the price ol his 
perfidy.^ 

ToB Royal CoLfiEcn of St. Patrick. 

This eoOegiate establishment, fst the edaoation of persons de- 
signed for the Roman Catholic minietry in Ireland, was founded 
In piH*saanee of an act passed by th^ Irish paiUament in th€ year 
]r705. The foHowing, among other argoments, was used in. vin- 
dicating the proprietyof sadi an. institution. The severe exerdae 
of power, in compeling yonth intended for the Roman Catholic 
priesthood to seek educatiea in foreign coaotriea, «ioas not more 
ensel than isipolttic, sinoe there existed an obvious danger of theur 
Ibraaing o^mons and connexions unfiavoupable to a cpr&l onanir 
mity with the government beneath which they were destined, to 
act. Better motive thmi those of mcEo expediency were found 
in the enlarged views, and iacreaslhg toleimnce, of ages,ia wUch 
pr^ndices of all kinds, and especially those which relate to reli- 

FranciBcan convent at KUdare. On the contrary, we are informed by the 
Chev. De Montmorency, in those MS. communication* to which this work 
is greatly indebted, that there formerly existed, and was seen \^y Idm, 
*' (he mausoleum of that Earl, surmounted by bis effigies, muchmutUate^, 
in a crypt, or subterranean chapel, under one of the towers of the mined 
church of Larragh-Brien.'* To minute antiquaries weksjeave any further 
inTestigation of this subject, but not without remarking tliat f^w persoq^ 
will suppose the abo?e monument to have been merely a cenotaph. 



{lbinbtsr.] eovMry or siLDAmx. .0" 

fi;iMn;prMlaeeattddoiM»f ooMdfloet, oiaybeexpectedprdgnaiifdr 
to Ml before tke qxtended cnltivalioft ef letters. 

PrtvioUi to the foottdetion ef a UolTenity «t^ Maynooth^ young 
■fen ititeaded for the irbli priesthood comBionly received the early 
part of tbeir edncation at ^hedge^Bekool ^ and afterwards obtained 
deacon's orders fr^m a R. C.bishop of their own ooantry. They 
then repined to an Irish college^ in FVanoe^ Spain or Portogal, 
where they remained three years (often with great difficulty, as 
they were too frequently members of the lowest dasses of society) i 
at the expiration of which term they claimed priest's orders* The 
following mdancholy picture of the acquirements of many of these 
emigrating stndents, is afforded in Mr. NewenhamVi ^' View" of 
Ireland. ^'Atery great majority of the Roman Cadiolic ddrgy 
were observed to spring fW>m the dregs of the people^ Yonths, 
probably rendered fanatic by the discipline of priests, wandered 
abont as mendicant scholars 5 and thus procured the means of 
transporting themselTes to some foreign nniversity ^ where, in a 
state of the ntmost degradation and exdasion froi^ the oompaay 
of their more respectable and enMghtened Mlow«st«dents, they 
obtained a gratnitons education > wretched, no doubt, in the ex- 
treme \ but such as was deemed to qualify them sufloientfy lor 
thehr future ministry. On returning to their native country, the 
principal literary acquisitions of which the greater part ef them 
could boast, were, a Icnowledge of Monkish Latin, of schelaatic 
theology, of obsolete and incredible legends, and cilf the note so- 
phistical arguments employed by those polemies whom the early 
reformers had provoked."* 

T)ie College of Maynooth is a buildbg on a ftngal seale^ and 

• NeweBham's View, Ac. p. 179.— After p«niriiif the above itatattieat 
of a dif paidoaate writer, onr reader wiH plato little value oa tiM rogret 
axprsflied in a recent pablleatloB (Ylewi of irelaad^ftcby Jolia Q'Pr^Kol, 
. Biq.) f oBoepaing the approachiBg eztinctiffa Of tliat rsce of catholic clergy 
Widch preceded the |o»titiitioa of a college at Majnooth. Much less will 
h^ join with Mr. P*Driscol in preferring; a fpreign to a native education, 
for persons deiigned for the priesthood, In order to affbf d them *' a poMIs 
and liberal association !*' 

r f 



tSS BRiOTJES or imiliANtr. 

has tewoi the Urchitectural chacsctoriatics of aisli^otore denrMtd 
to porposaa of study. It presents^ in its principal fa^e> a aqaare 
.central pile with spacioos winga^ the wbc^e front extending to the 
length of 400 feet. The central stnictnre was originally a priprafee 
heose, built by the steward of the Duke of Xiein8ter> by whom it 
was sold to the tmstees of this institation. According to the first 
intention, this principal range of building was to form one side 
of a square* with a subordinate but spacious quadrangle towards 
the rear. It was, however, found necessary to relinquish the 
magnitude of such a design ; and, besides the fronts there has 
chiefly been completed one entire side, and part of a second side^ 
of the.projeeted quadrangle on the rear. These latter buildings 
comprise the. dormitories of the collie, which open from galleries 
. nearly 300 feet in length, serting as ambulatories during inclement 
seasons. 

With the exception of the library, the whole of the public 
buildings are contained in the principal front. The Chapel is 
euffidently capadons, and is moderately ornamented^ but without 
any decisive architectural character or striking beauty. The chief 
Leciure^room and the Refectory are of ample proportions, and 
appear to be well adapted to their respective purposes. The Li* 
hnryy which is properly placed in a retired part of the additional 
^buildings, is a neat and eligible, but not extensive, apartment, 
•containing numerous theological works, but at present lamentably 
-defective in other classes of literature. 

The collegiate buildings havein front about two acres of ground, 
divided from the street by a wall and iron^railing j but, notwith- 
^standing that barrier, the situation is far from being desirable. 
The traffic of the town approaches too close to a building devoted 
.to scholastic uses, and injures, in appearance, the dignity as well 
as the r^N>8e of an academic pile, well placed only when in the 
tranquil shade. The whole of the grounds attached to the collie 
comprise lifty acres ; and behind the buildings a large proportion 
of thi^ attached land is laid out in retired walks, adorned with 
(dantations, and admirably adaj^ted to the uninterrupted exercise 
of the studious. 



[lBINSTKR.] COVKTV eF KlkOAttB« 69 

The number of sUidents is about %S0, wbi are sent/ ifir respec- 
tive proportions^ from the ftrar provinces of Ir^sJaiMl* ' The'coUege 
is tooxtded exdasively for persons designed for the Roman Ga!ih<4ic 
ministry 5 and^ besides other ' conditions, the recdmmendation of 
bis prelate is reqnired from every applicailkt for admission. The 
principal officers and professors are a President (who nanst be a 
native subject of the British empire) 5 a Vice-President i k Dean ; 
Procurator J or Bursary Professors of t&e Sacred Scriptnms} of 
Dogmatic Theology ; of Moral Theology j of Natural and fitiperi- 
wental Philosophy ^ of L<^ ; of BeDes Lettres $ of Helnrew ) ol 
Chrtekaod Latia j of English Eiocntiba ; of the Irish Lai^g«age; 
and of the French Language 3 together with Lecturers on Dogmatic 
Theology $ on Mitral Theology ; and ioa Jjogic.* 

' The coilegiate establishment is «opported by annnal gftnis 
from parliament, which, in most recent years^ have ainonnfed to 
M50/r aided by some private donations and legedes, nothiitheito 
of great importance. About 3S,000/. have becfn expended on the 
boildin|^« . .') 

The mansion of CarvoNj distant about one mile from May- 
nooth, is a spaciousandmagnihcientstilictttre, worthy of its des- 
tination, in oonstitoting the princ^al residence of the premier peer 

* An account of the coune of stadlet prescribed to the studentB may 
be leeD in leTeral public ationt, as one of wbicb may be mentioned the 
Hist, of Dublin, by lYbitelaw and Walsh, toI. ii. From that work we ex- 
tract the following particulars^ respecting the general order of each day. 
*' The students are summoned by a bell } .at half-past five they meet for 
public prayer 1 from six they study in the public halls | at balf-^ast seven 
mast is performed ; at eight tliey breakfast ; at nine, study in public halls ; 
at ten, attend class; at half-past eloTen, recreation; at twelve, study in 
public halls I at half-past one, attend class ; at three, dinner; at five,. 
class for modern languages ; at six, study in pnbKc halls ; at eight, sup- 
per ; at nine, common prayer ; and at half-past nine, all retire In- silence 
to their chambers. There are two public examinations. held in each year, 
at Christmas and Midsummer, and premiums are given, whose value is 
proportioned to the merit of the answerer. The period of study is usnally 
five years ; two devoted to Humanitxi Logic, and Mathematics, and three 
to Divinity. Sometimes this period is abridged by the omission of Mathe- 
matics;'— Whitelaw and Walsh, vol. il. p« 13^. 






TV IMUTISS 9» IISUMB. 

of Ir^imd. Tlw fine leat wm Mccted in tbe Utter pfft of tlw 
vybteeKth ceMvy, after tbe deiigD* of lUdiBrd Caaselt, wbon 
m lttT« alrud^ iMBtloBed u Ae architect of Leuistar-lu)iMe> for- 
nerl)' the town residence of the Pake of LBiniter, bnt aow the 
house af tbe DnbliB Society. The plu conprebeatls b oeiitnd 
«difice, W augiat [tr<>pertioni> vritk two (trojectiag pBTllimia, 
nuUd to the prindpal building by a fioe >nd gracefal corridor. 
Fev entamoBtB Are introdaced in tbe deaigo of tbe exteiiw. The 
elen^n '» lightened at the top by bb open baloatrBde. The en* 
traooe ia by a porUcOj having tbe faoiily arma in tbe tyapasHt 
of ibm podimeal. The paviliona are entirely destitate of extend 
euibeUiabmeBtt 

The bterior ie arranged with a degree of aplendoiir anited to 
tbe Boble faojily wUrit exarqiaet vitbin these walla the hospltdity 
•f autiDBt Iiebitd, refiaed bf the babita of more inteUectaal igaa. 
Ilw vbfAt of tbe priac%ial BpartaeDta are«f large dimeDuona, and 
are richly adoraed. The ditiing-rootB) recently completed under 
the direction of Richard Morrisoo, Edq. architect, ia fifty-two feet 
loDf ; twenty-foBT feet wide j and twenty-four feet high. This 
is believed te be the fiiieat apartmeBt in Ireland, ai^ropriated b» 
tbe same nae. In this fliq>«tl> rtasaion are tiie feUewing, bibob^ 
ether puntingi, 

lAndscape, with figures exjH'easiog the slory of Europa. Siie, 
6 feet 5J inches, by 5 feet 7i iocbee. Clanit, 

St. Sebasiiaii. Sappoaed Canum. 

Deaceat frrau tbe CrOaa. G. Ptttmm. 

Laod8cq>e, with Cattle> Cttj/pv. 

A Schoolboy. Rtmir^dt. 

Cattle. Cuype. 

Aqa and Galatea. Oeordam. 

Land«cfifieaBdF%iirec. N> Pvuttm. 

HoIyFamUy. AmdrmMSm-tf. 

Ooau and Bbeep. RnadeThoH. 

Repose in l^ypt. J^. Giordtmo, 

LazaruB and Divea- f^antter Boith, 

Battle piece. Borgagnvt*. 



*^ 



[lsinstbh.] covvnr ov kildahb. 71 

intoriQr of a Gkftfdi. Neffi. 

A figLt of Liond. Snyddn. 

Ballad Siogei^. OHade. 

Cattle. Ro«4 de TwolL 

UolyFamfly. Ptdmm. 

Two LaDd«(»pe8. ff. PaUmn, 

Boy and white Hofse* A, C^pe/. 

Two Sea {]^ece». Fimdermetr. 

Dead Gaiae. Snyders. 

St. Jerpne. Spagnoieito, 

Laodtfci^e and Cattk. Cignar^H. 

Stag-H^iit. (hiArj^. 

Magdalen. Furim. 

Landscape. Ruyndtt^, 

Fowl. Hmdekoker. 

Card-pla^era. Hantkortt, 

8t. John, Moeiari. 

There are also Bomfe iandly portrtito af contidlerable mteresfc, 
ifliiebiding an Emrl of KildarOj by HMem ; a fntt length of the late 
Duke of htifkiHscr; and t^ Dnohcias Dowager of Leinster^ by 

The park which surroands this mansion i&> of great Extent, and 
has OTcry ehana which can be imparted by almadaiiceof wood and 
jadidons disposal. Tlie surface is agreeably varied by gentle 
swells I bat none 9i the bold featv^kw of aatare, which charai^rise 
by far the greats nnmber of Irish demesnes^ and rtediBr them 
magnificent and enchanting, even when of limited sixe^, are her^ 
found. Those softer beaaties whidi afford fepose to the eye, and 
which, perhaps, yield the most permanent gratification, are, how<^ 
ever, seen in eaptivatiog variety. A strtem> whkh winds through 
the principal parts of thict spadoos park, has beien expanded by 
art into a rivet of ao^le width> and assists in formiag nmch pic- 
tnresqne scenery, as it pnrsnes its course amidst verdant swells of 
land,, pecaliarly soft and gralbefnl, o^ approaches the shdtering 
DlsaseiB of wood wtdeh dignify the demesne. Sceaery so tranquil 
would appear to inrite the introduetioli of artificial objects ; and 



' » .. 



''I. 



79 BBAOTIBS OF IBKLANO. 

80cb we fiad to have been^ accordingly^ carried into execarion. 
On one of the most elevated parts of the park is placed a well- 
designed prospect-tower ; and from another division of the grounds 
rises a pillar^ which is conspicuous throngh a long tract of the 
surrounding country. This latter erection is in itself a handsome 
object, when viewed from the mansion, and acquires additional 
interest from the circumstance of having afforded employment to 
the poor in a time of great, scarcity and privation. The whole de- 
mesne is encompassed by plantations, and the house is approached 
from Ma3^ooth through a long and fine avenue of trees. 

Carton belonged, for many ages previous to the early part of 
the eighteenth century, to a branch of the funily of Talbot of Ma- 
lahide and Templeoge. William Talbot, of Carton, Esq. was 
created a baronet in 169!2. He died in 1633, leaving a numerous 
frtmily. Richard, his eighth and youngest son, was the well- 
known Duke of Tyrconnel, minister of King James II. 

Leixlip, a small but neat fair town, is seated on the river 
liffey, at the distance of eight miles from Dublin. The chief or- 
nament of this place is Lewlip Ca»tie, which stmeture is boldly 
situated on an eminence overhanging the river. On the west side 
it is flanked by a circular, and on the east by a square, tower. 
This castle is now in the possession of the Hon. George Cavendish, 
and was formerly the residence of the White family, who ovnied 
for many ages the town and manor of Leixlip. Sir Nicholas White, 
who died in the year 1654, married a daoghter of the Lord Moore, 
and lies buried in the church of Leixlip, a respectable building in 
the pointed style of architecture. The estate vi^as aftenvards pur- 
chased by the Right Hon. William ConoUy -, and, while the castle 
was in the possession of the Conolly family, it became the occa- 
sional residence of several eminent .pdrsons, among whom may be 
named Primate Stone and Lord Townshend. The river scenery 
of this neighbourhood is enriched by a [waterfidl, termed the 
Salman leap, which is a fine and picturesque object. 

CxLBaiDGB (otherwise Kildroghed) is a neat and thriving 
village, pleasantly situated on the banks of the Liffey, over which 
river is here a handsome stone bridge. In this village, add its 



>^>*K V. 



■fr ( 



[UEINtTSK.] VOPHTt OF VR.OARV. fS 

InuMikte vkmky, ut^mUaiai¥(i wootteaMd eoClmi mlniMtoriet^ 
In ihe dsm^, wUeh is ritMMd on Ibe border of tAe Oaatlelowb* 
dcmme, is tke ttMnisoleiini oif the eslaiM'fsutty of Gonollfy liiej 
proprietors of this place. 

Cdibridge acquis a cosiidaihle dcfreeof futcMSt from its 
fenner odnn^ien id^ Dem Swiit^ and the ftiir fodt nAfoiimMtiy 
/^ofMSM. ' BartholonMiir Vatfhonnrigh^ tl^e fa^er of the kdr odtt^ 
brated bj^ Swift under the name of Vmessa, was a Ddtch mov 
chanty who settled in Dmhiin towards the dose of th0 seventeettih; 
centary^ where he obtained ceosiderablepropetty^ did serredrthe 
office of lord mayor^ mnfi tWf> Mr. Vahhomrigh died in the 
year lfd3> leaving two sons and two'daoghtefs/ of wfaomEsther 
(the Vanessa of Swift) was the snrviror. The rbmantie and ex- 
cesBive affection which this kdy entertained for Swiltis well knoM^n* 
The snrprise which so enthnsiastic a passion created in the mind 
of the deaa^ and the nrgeney with which he adVifled his firienft 
and pupil to conqner desires which nerer woald be iprattfied^ are 
stated in words which, from thdr elegance, must commemorate 
the tale to a very late posterity, in the poem of Cadenns and Va- 
nessa. Very shortly previous to his decease, Mr, Vanbomrigh 
had boilt a hoase at Celbridge, to which Vanessa retired in 1717 ; 
and in this seclusion she nursed, with a destructive ardour, too 
common to the youthful and impassioned, the morbid tenderness 
of fancy that was the bane of. her existence. Swift forbore to visit 
her at this place, until the year 1790 ; and their snbnequent inter- 
course had an abrupt tennination.* Vanessa died at Cel1mdge> . 

* It has been laid that Vanetia, ** deflirouof kaowiag tbe real nature 
of the dean's connexion with Stella, addreesed a letter to that lady upon 
the subject, which she commnnicated to Swift, who, in a paroxysm of rage, 
rode oot to Celbridge, and flinging the letter open the table left the room, 
and was never afterwards reconciled to her." — InSir Walter Scott's Life of 
Swift, that writer has presented the world with some ** minute particu- 
lars'* of Swift's intercourse with Vanessa at ** Marlay Abbey, near Cel- 
bridge." This account is given on the authority of a nameless correspon- 
dent, and is believed to be destitute of solid foundation. Relying on tb^ 
testimony of an** aged man,*' a gardener,'* who remembered the unfortunate 
Vanessa well,** Sir Walter mentions the following, among other clrcum- 



74 BXAVrag .Of lMU4«ffL 

ill lt9B^ Mri lier m rc^wtw l db^Ut iifter a h^pdtafe eoatHNMliMi 
of IIIMP& ttiAn tan yeMj Was to lue anoAered i* ie8e*tBMlit> llial 
llw nioie of Sitift ttaa tioi rimtiofngAim tke last witt by which «li* 
disposed of her ample property. 

Casruv0w»» the Aohle residfiMe of Laiy Louisa Angasta 
GoDoUy, relict of the Right Hoii^ ThMMGbtioUy, is approached 
fiwi the tiUagd of GeB>ridge thrtMigb aa ivwae planted with 
oae Bife in length* la the tiite of the fate Mr< Conelly^ of pa* 
triotie aieaioiy, Castletowta vTas diatii^^aiahed by the eaercite of 
an ahbenndad hospitality^ ^hkh will bag be remembefed ia Ire- 
laadj and hte btea emtibiilicaiy notked by a philo60|Aueal tourist.* 

The nraltrioti is a c^doos siractare of stonOi ooiisi9tiag of a 
oeBlre> aaited by eolonnadet to payilioas^ the whole deai^^Md 
in the Ionic oldef . The apavtmeata are, in general^ neither 
apadons nor lofty^ chiety witfi the eiceptaoa of agalleryj termed 
ihe 13)rary> which, witib an alining diawing-rooiai measures 
ninety feet ia length. The hall 6f entrance is also a fine apart* 
ment. The grand staircase has mahogwy ballnaterSi with aailinga 

siaDCMs— ^* The tardea was to an uacommoa degree crowda4 with laarels. 
The ^d man Mud^ when Mrs. Yanhomrigh expected the dean she always 
planted^ tcith her own hand, a laurel or two against his arrival. He shewed 
her favovrite seat, still called Vanessa^s bower. Three or four trees, and 
tome laurels, indicate the tpot. They bad fbmterly, accordidg to the old 
man's information, bden tmiaed into a close arboer. Tkett math two saals 
and a nida tabU Wldaa the bow^, ihe opening #f wbick ooinaiaaded a 
yiew of tha lafftjt which had a romantic etP^ct, and there was a small 
cascade that mnrmnred at a distance. In this sequestered spot, accord- 
iaf to the old gardener's account, the dean and Vanessa used often to sit, 
with books and writing materials on the table before them.** For some 
^ictnreson thea^ove statementof Sir W. Scott, see Mr. Moncke Mason*! 
Mitemim Antifua^ 

* *'* Castletown, the seat of Mr. CoaoUy, the greatest commoner in 
the kingdom, is fitted up in the most elegant modern taste, and his mode 
oflivkig is in the highest style of hospitality. He has a public news or 
coffee-room, for the common resort of his guests in boots, where he who 
gdes away early may breakfast, or who comes in late may dine ; or he 
who should ehuse to go to bed, may sop before the rest of the family. 
This Is akaost princdy." PhilatopUoal aarToy, p. 54. 



[XBINSTSm.] QQmTY Of KIUMlHSv Jb 

of ^rasBj ttid tbe ifiiQto vMcioik U; rudilf fiHiBd vpj la thf bept 
gtflfb of Ae last f^^e . Aaioiig thi paintbig^ presonrod in dtffoi;«iit 
^^ertmentB we n^oe the foUowing. Miohael Angela, by famself ; 
fl9iit>empli^tiiig a seal. A fine B4fld nfJohn tkt Bmp^, A JOutck 
f^ah-, by Teniero. FarfraUa. The late RigM Ho»v Thmnaa 
Co&olly . jLady Loniaa Aiq^osU ConoUyj his lady^ ^ngbter of Ihf 
second Pake of Ricfamondi General GtoUe* Tl^e Qi|ke .do 
Scbodherg, Poehess of Portsmoolbi mothe? of the first Poke of 
Richmond. A half-length of the same laxiy j very fine. Ha^ 
length of the Right Hon. Wiffiam Conollyi speaker of .the* Irish 
hoBse of oononons^ ftither of the late Mr . Con^Dy* The speaker's 
lady» of the Wentworth feaily. Pvchess doiiriiger of I^in8ter> 
sister to Lady lionisfii Conolly.. The Pnke of Riclmiond> father 
of those Udies . The M|^t Hob. Jobi Suptos> brether-in-l»w of 
Mr« Coddly $ fell-length. The first lioid HoUaifd. The late 
Puke of lieinster. Admiral PackenhSidi altfrvrards Lord Long^ 
ford. Pr, Woodwardi lHBh(q[» of Cloyne. Htissey Boigh. Pf » 
Bernard^ bishop of Limerick ^ andtheBarlof Cbmsj lordchan* 
eeOor.*— It tnay not be snperflnoas to add thnl^ in a lobby^ is also 
the portrait of " Pen Moore/* who died in this hoose aged 112 



The extensive denesne of Castletown is flat bnt richly wooded> 
and is mnch ornamented by the flow of the Lifiey, which ritetf 
passes ahmg its borders. 

LvoNS> the seat of Valentine<*6rowne Lawless^ L(»d Clon- 
carry» is distant from Pnblln abont twelve miles. At this place 
resided^ for maoy centuries^ the family of Aylmer> a junior brandi 
of which family enjoys the title of baron in the Irish peen^* 
Ra^h mi miliatn Aylmer> as we are informed by Archdall^ were 
living at Lyons in the year IdOO. Michael Ayhner> Esq: in tha 
latter part of the eighteenth centnry^ sold this antient inheritance of 
his respectable family to Sir mchoks Lawless^ Bart, created Lord 
Gloacutry in 1769 1 firom whom the estate desceiided to his son«, 
the present baron. At Lyons was fofmerly a town^ of which n# 
traces now appear , except the rains of the caatle and chorch^ b6th 
of which arre on the verge el LordCloncorry'spleasare-groQnds.i. 



»•* 



76 BKAUTIBS OF IftBLAND. 

A principal to#er of tbe former bvildtng is 'BtiUreo^aiiiiDg^ with 
a binding staircase of stone; that leads to its sammit. tliis 
castle was taken and backed ^ and the neighbooring coantry laid 

■ « * ■ * 

waste to a great extent^ by the express orders of the republican 
lords jostices Piarsons and BorlaCe^ in Febraary^ 1641. The 
rains of the clmrcb^ which formed for many ages the borlal-^ 
place of ' the Ayimer family^ are in the pointed style of archi- 
tecture; and present an object of equal interest to the antiquary 
and the lover of the picturesque. 

The present mansion of Lyons is a handsome and spadon^ 
istractace^ chiefly erected after the designs of Mr. Crrace, archf^ 
tect. The central part of the building is of square proportions^ 
united on each side with a pavilion^ by a corridor of considerablii 
beauty. The material of the whole is a fine and durable granite. 

The interior is well arranged, and contains many noble apart* 
ments^ the principal of which are fitted np' with a conspicuous 
delicacy of taste. The sides of several rooms in the chief suite 
are embellished with fresco paintings^ by Gabrielli^ an artist 
brought from Rome by Lord Cloncurry, and protected for several 
years in Ireland by that nobleman^ where he executed some 
pictures of considerable merit. The best of his room-paiutiugs 
in this mansion are the decorations of a drawing-room, the sub- 
jects of which are after Claude, and represent the most strongly ^ 
marked seasons of the day, from the first blush of morning to tli^ 
pale splendour of moonlight evening. The walls of a contiguous 
apartment are enriched by his pencil with representations of the 
bays of Dublin and Naples^ between which a parallel has been 
often imagined, and which are happily brought into a comparative 
point of view so near the attractive shores of the former. The 
saloon is embellished by the same hand, chiefly with designs 
after ornaments found at Herculaneum. 

The noble proprietor of this demesne has evinced a consider- 
able degree of classic taste in the numerous antiques, apd other 
works of art, here reposited. Amongst these may be noticed the 
following :— -A fine sarcophagus, admirably sculptured, and in a 
high state of preservation. This relic is composed of statuary 



[lKINSTRR.] COflNTY OP KlLDARKj. 77 

nnrUei botkaf corioiwty acquired^ ttirougli the rOpentioiiB of 
time^ a thick incroatatioii, reBembling a coat of painty- of a light 
red tint* The chief subject represented is that of lions destroyinf( 
a deer— ^mb.leniatic of the havoc effected on all material beings 
by the law of natnre. • Inserted in the pannels of the diniDg*rooBi 
are three fine pieces of alto relieTOj describing the same number 
of passages in the story of Daedalus and Icarus. These merit 
attentive examination > from the various affectiog touches of na- 
ture introduced by the artist. I^ the same apartment are two 
large vases^ excellently sculptured^ and a statue more beautiful 
than delicate — the Grecian Venus. In the great drawio^-room 
is an exquisite antique miniature-statue of Agrippina^ seated. 
An air of matronly dignity^ strongly expressed^ . renders thi^ 
figure revCTentiaily lovely : and it may be remarked^ as a cir- 
cumstance not devoid of interest, that Canova borrowed the 
attitude and air, of this figure of Agrippina, in executing an ad-* 
mired statue of the mother of Napoleon Bonaparte. Amongst 
the works of art preserved in other rooms, are a bust of . Tasio^ 
from the mask ti^ken after his death 3 and a very fine small statue 
of Fannus, by Deere, which has been noticed by Canova, in warm 
terms of commendation. In the entrance-hall are busts of the two 
deceased ornaments of their country, Mr, Grattan and Mr. Curran. 
' One of the pavilions attached to this mansion is used as a 
gallery of statues, and contains many excellent casts from the 
antique, procured from Rome by Lord Cloncurry, and assembled 
here as a study for the benefit of native artists 5 an act evincing 
so much liberality of sentiment as to need no lengthened com- 
ment. — It is with peculiar pleasure that we notice this love of 
the arts, and exercise of- encouragement towards ^ose • who 
practise them on their native soil, in a resident Irish nobleman. 
We, therefore, observe, with no ordinary feeling of regret, that 
from an accidental circumstance^ the mansion of Lyons is des- 
titute o^ paintings by the antient masters. Lord Cloncurry, at a 
propitious juncture, made a most valuable coUecj^ien of pictprei 
at Rome, indnding five pieces by Saffiie]e,.aiid,a0 many bf 
Claude. This precious fineightVeaebed ihe oMst^f Irtland ; but 
the vessel to which they were entniisted''Wti8-tfttfortunatciy 



60 BftAUTiai OF. IftBUUfD. 



QUEEN'S COUNTY. 



This inland district^ which is chiefly formed from the exten- 
iftive tracts termed Leix and Ossory^ was constituted a separate 
county early in the reign of Qneen Mary, and received its mo- 
dern appellation in compliment to that sovereign.* The Qneen*s 
Connty is separated, on the east, from Kildare, by the river 
Barrow. On the south-east it meets the county of Carlow ; and 
on the south and south-west is bounded by Kilkenny and Tippe- 
rary. The King*s County forms its boundary towards the north ; 
and on the north-west it is divided from the same connty by a 
cham of lofty and predpitous elevations, termed the Slieve- 
bloom mountains, which constitute so decisive a natural barrier, 
that, in the whole extent of their range, there is no more than 
one pass, and that solitary channel of communication between the 
two counties is narrow and difficult. 

With the aid of manuscripts communicated by the Chevalier 
De Montmorency, we are enabled to present the following suc- 
cinct particulars relating to the antient history of this connty. 

The districts of Leix and Ossory, which, at all times, were 
governed separately, were, on the arrival of the Anglo-Normans, 
ruled principally by the septs of Mac Giola-Phadruig, the Sermu 
Nervorum SancH Paincii, (afterwards converted into the Anglo- 
Norman Fiizpairick jj and those of O'More and O'Dempsey. 

* Tbomat Ratcliff, Earl of Sattez, '* bavinf tboroof hly broken and 
■ttbdued the two most rebellioni and powerful Iriih lepti in Letntter, 
namely the 0*Mores and O'Connort, poieessinf the territories of Leiz 
and OITaly, did, by act of parliamenty 3 and 4 Phil, and Maris, redoce 
those coaatrles into two several coanties; naming the one, the Kinf *t, 
and the other, the Queen's Connty ; which were the llrst two counties that 
had been made in this hinf dom, since the 19th year of Klnf John ; at 
what time the territories then possessed by the Bnflish colonies, were 
reduced into tweWe shires/' Davles's '* Discoverie," Ac. p. 949. 



[lBINSTBR.] QUBSM*t COVNTY. 81 

StobordiMte to those grent howes were many tribatary top a rol ie ^ 
M O'Dimne^ O'RegaD, and 0*DalUuiy | witfi otbers of 8«»11 in- 
farioc note, as O^kffler, 0*Redy, Mac Gilfeyk, and Mac 

The Stroagbonian intaders fovad it a more perttoes and 
diftcalt task to obtain a footing in this cKstrict, than in any 
other qiarter of the island ; as the inhabitants^ natorally war- 
lilBS^ were greatly favoured in their resistanee by the boggy intrir 
tmaes of the territories they defended. The Fitsgeralds and the 
I>e BeimiAghamSy partly by force, bpt more, perhaps, throngh 
the policy of effiscting intermarriages with the native septs, iuC" 
qnired possession of certain portions of kind, whereon tiiey 
speedily erected castles. On the other hand, the Garews, barons 
of Idrone, the Mortimers, earb of March, and other distingiilshed 
English families, obtained repeated grants from the crown of 
large tracts of land m Leix and Ossory, which grants were ren- 
dered nngatory by the intr^id and peiseTcriag resistance of the 
aatiMit proparietors. . . 

The powerful family of Boiler, towards the latter pert of the 
fifteenth century, made a well-organined and snccessM attempt to 
wrest from the . turbulent Fitspatricks, their most tronblesome 
•eighbourB, the territory of Ossory^ compriring, at that period, 
the most valuable part of the district now denominated the 
Queen's County. Open war was accordingly commenced be* 
tween Peter, Earl of Ormonde, and the dynast of Ossory, the 
former being supported by lus relations, fri«ids and followers, 
and the latter aided by those contiguous septs which believed 
their own security to be involved in the issue of the contest. 
The earl was ably assisted by his countess, the Lady Margaret 
Fitzgerald, one of the most celebrated females of her age, who 
has been often mentioned in this work as having possessed a 
masculine genius and an invincible courage, to which qualities 
must be added, by the impartial historian, a conscience of great 
latitude, well suited to the exigencies of the times urith those who 
aspired to an increase of possession and dignity. This lady had 
angmeoted the strength and resources of her family, by contract- 

VOL. II. o 



Jag aUawt iMtweBD ker obildMii mA t^ SMMt p»tnt ci ttw 

nobility oonaecfewl with Iralaild * To adTiacc the ob^ at Ua 
triiimpb 0T« dts FitipatrickB, tl» cmI, who itood ia high fcfow 
«t the BritJBh court, proposed to putition fairly between die 
^itnda wbo aMiited him. ia the iio(l«itekBig,t lochlaait and 
poMeeuoiis u night be yielded to Ihur nnited mtat. To prerdl 
o*v 9ppesitien wae, however, foned more easy tfau to tetniii 
pooeeuoa of tiie tract nonrinally ooaqnered ; aad it woeld ep- 
pasr that the oncroiiB taak of keeping <bw« tke F^tapabidm 
chiefly devolved, seeordtng to the teros of bia AaAly-alliaBoe 
ifith the ewJ, epou Sir (MiverMorrea, whose name is, CMS- 
UVieBtly, aoe of the most oonq>ioiiow in the aanala of Otiory 
relating to tkis distiudied ead sangninBry «n. 

Altho^h this district wu oonatitBted ■ iqwrate coe&ty m the 
ragn of Mary, it recdved ne other additioDBl Eeg^isli settlemsst 
thw the Fort of Maryboron^, intil the time of Qoeee BtiMibetk, 
WheK tite Fitipatricha, instigated by ranoorons hatred towards 
thur rivals the O'Mores and O'Conors on one »de, and the 
9i|d<^ and feiwly of i^HTes on the other, proved the moat 
(UGfiient idliei of gorcnunent in oomfdeting tin soiijngetiMi of a 
tiact of mantry, bo traly fivmidnble wkilst its native posseeioi* 
reimined nnited. It mas chicAy daring the goTemmcat of Sir 

■ Jane*, rhe eldeit ion of tbe Earl of Ormonde, anit two of h^ 
dsegtaten, were murlcd into tbe Desmond fimily. Tve other daushlers 
ware maniad to tbe lord* Dunboyae bbiI Oablr. One dangbler 1o (be 
BarlofThoiMadi and Lad; BIBm Bader, tbefosradaagbteroftbeBari 
■f OrnMDda, ajid t|ie CoHnWw Mucwet, wuf firaf BMCied to Sir 
Oliver Morrei, iljled Mac Hobei, concerning wbom aome furliwr .^psr* 
licD)ar» are tlatad in oor notice of CaidctOKn in Ibii county, ta4 
Kcondl; to Sir Gerald Fitz-Gerald, third lord of Dociei. 
' t Hw fiunitj of Gftce, baroni of Courtitown, irith tbelr numeroui 
*dherentoi contribnted largely lo tbe HicceH of thii rsndal enterprite, 
•ad trieiled from tbeir antient enomiei tbe Fitipatricki, a conilderabla 
tr*ct Bf land, lilnated where tbe nortbern coabiei of the canlrnd «f 
Grace's Country join tbe terrltoriel of Oiiory. To protect tbne ac^i- 
■itioni, and to supprest further inroads from their hostile origbboBrs, tbe 
border) fortrei* of Oraet-caitlt was erected, some remain* of which are 



[lbinstbr.] <itTBBil*i» cotmvr. ^ "A 

IfciAt ^l^tts^ <h«t Mft power 6f the O'Mfetev, wbo liAd fenhe'rly 

exercised ahutfst iiirih*)ted sw^y Ib' flit6«)ft ^Mts, Waft ft^ly brblen . 
In 6bedfet)ce to the dreadftil tetA'pef of the tiiAeb^ tKis object was 
achieretf by the tmsparing use 6f the ^wovd. iThe followers of 
the 0*Mot-ed, atod their dependant septd, were banished into tKe 
HOiltherti coMties of Cork and Keitjr, then nearly depdpblated. 
At this jnttdtnre ttany respectable English families^ to wliom 
hUkdS desthtfte of b^editary 6Wrie^ were granted by the crdwn^ 
fixed IHemselves perihanetitly ih the Queeh*s Connty, their de- 
tceodabtSi^ in several instancies^ ^till holcTnig a distingnished 
place among the old festdent gentry. Seven of these famifies^ 
whose foundet^ bot^e a pfOn](i^eiit share lA snbdning the nafives, 
uid in bnilding forts and castellated honses ibr the dejfence of 
their estates^, abqnired the appeHattoft of the Sefteti 7WSe». The 
'' tribes** so called are the families of Cosby 3 Hartpole ; 
Bowen \ Barriagtovi ; Rdsh \ Hetherington ; and HoTetiflen, or 
Orington.* 

In the reigil of Charleb I. very coneiderable grants of land in 
this coBQly wene otade to Villien> Duke of Bnckingham, which 
now constitiite the extensive manor of Villiers. 9%is great lord- 
ship descended to the late Dnke of Ohandos, by means of whose 
only daqgbttir, and sole hetr> it is now the property of his grace the 
Dnke of BnckiBgham and Chandos. In the same reign also, and 
during the bosy years of the repnMie, the gentry of the eonnty 
recdred additions in the familiesi of Pyi^t | Goote ) Prior % 
Ptonetl ; Polei Ac Soon after the accession of l^lliam UI. the 
list of distingnished residents, or possessors of estates, w« 
fiurther enriched by the noble families of Vescy> Viscoaats do 

* Of the princely frasti made to these families, in the time of Elizabeth, 
little now remains, <ntCel>tai regards the family of Cosby, of^ ^tfadlbally 
Hall^ whiek stUl i«4aihs rieaHy th^ i«1iol^ of the possessions then acqvired. 
Th* fhuaUy of AuTtaistet ofOoillniigli i ttrvilM ejftaal) Mit aX^killia taMOlit 
MnaiBs of their larfb eetateto^ a few years ag». ▲ tef«l eartiadias 
in the male Hoe has occurred in the fiunilies of Hartpole of Shmlei 
Bowen of BalljwdMisi Hethefjagionof rnijNsf wni B«U»orRaiih 
Hall \ and Hoviogtoa of TankardelMM' 

o2 



84 



BBAUTIB8 OP IRRLANO. 



Veflcy 'f ot Dawson, Earl of Portarliagton } aad abo of Staples 
Barrows^ JohnsoOj and others of high respectability. 

Qoeen's County is divided into nine baronies, named Upper 
Oiiorjf (subdivided into three cantretU) -, Cullmagh ,* E«M Mwrg^ 
borough} fFest Maryborough; Siradba/iy } PorineUmchf 7W- 
Unch ; Siewmargjf ; and Ballyadama. The parishes are fifty in 
number $ twenty-seven of which are situated in the diooess of 
Leighlin ; fourteen in Ossory ^ seven in Kildare ; one in Kil- 
laloe 5 and one in the diocess of Dublin. The extreme length of 
the county is about twenty-seven miles, and its greatest breadth 
nearly the same. The returns under the act of 1818, for ascer- 
taining the population of Ireland, are stated as foUows ; 



BMMilct, Half Bwonlett or BuMiet. 



^Ballyadams, 

CuUinagh, 

Maryborough, East, . 
♦Maryborough, West, 

Portnehinch, . '. 

Slewmargy, 

Stradbally, 

Tinehincn, 

Ossory, 



Namber of 
Houei. 






1,187 
2,311 
1,455 
^,528 
2,113 

2,137 
1,193 
2,151 
4,857 



GroM 
PopnlfttloB 



I 



. 



Total. . . , 



19 ,932 



6,580 
12,995 

9,191 
13,890 
11,904 
12,760 

6,939 
11,538 
28,070 



113,857 



According to returns made in the year 1821, the number of 
liouses was 23,067; and the number of inhabitants 129,391. 
Thus, according to those returns, the increase of inhabitants 
between the years 1813 and 1821, would appear to have amounted 
to 15,534. 

Besides the Slieve-bloom mountains, which we have men- 
tioned as forming its western boundary, and a range of elevations 
termed the Dysart Hills, which rise singly, and produce a pleasing 
variety of surface, rather than a conspicuous degree of picturesque 

• It Is Mie?ed that there U a want of accvracy in the returns for the 
baronies of Ballyadams and Maryborovgh, West. 



»-rf 



[UEINSTBB.] QUBBM'g COVStt. 8t 

efect> this county posieises no bold emliieiidBs. In previ^ling 
cbancter it is eitber flat or softly nndalatiDg ; \mt, in seyeral 
districts^ it presents moch agreeable scenery, and is greatly fiavoor- 
able to the labours of the agricaltarist. Considerable qnantities 
of com are here produced, and large tracts of land are profitably 
appropriated to pasturage. Butter, principally made in the barony 
of Ossory, affords a Incrative article of commerce j and the cheese 
of this county, although far from being good, is considered supe« 
nor to any mnde in other parts of Ireland. Considerable attention 
is bestowed on the breed of cattle ; and oxen are nsnally joined 
with horses in ploughing, and in many other agricultural operations. 
The farm-buildings are in general of a humble character, and the 
dwdlings of the peasantry, except on certain favoured spots, are 
sordid below the ordinary traveller's conception of humility. 

The prindpal rivers are the Barrow and the Nore ; the former 
«f which is navigable, from the town of Portarlington to the sea 
near Waterfbrd. 

A branch of the Grand Canal passes along the north-eastern 
part of the county, and meets the river Barrow at the town of 
Athy. The whole county is defident in wood ; but the demesnes 
of affluent residents are frequently well -planted. Large tracts of 
bog still remain in many parts, although mnch has been lately re- 
claimed, with exemplary perseverance and success. Amongst 
the mineralogical productions of this district may be noticed iron 
and copper, which abound in the hills, but are at present not 
worked. Large quantities of coal are found in the barony of 
Slewmargy, and are disposed over neighbouring districts by the 
conveyance of cars, or sent to Dublin by means of the Grand 
Canal. No mannfttctnfe of importance is cultivated in this popu- 
lous county, vrith the exception of serges and stufft, which were' 
formerly made more largely than at present, chiefly in the neigh- 
bourhood <yf the few principal towns. 

This connty contains several handsome seats ; and the anti- 
quarian visitor will be gratified with the view of many relics of 
ecclesiastical and military architecture, often the emphatical me- 
norials of impoi^tant passages iis history. The foRowing noblemen 



9i$ BBAUTIBS or IBCLAND. 

^M ^ irljtWt l i t nWB fluqr, hft aanliMi^ «8 Urn vmAf^lfmml^^ ^ 
IfUMled e«/^t«a^ at tto prefmttime : Pfjlui^ Q|ic|FU|gl|««» wA^ 
Chandofi; Ix>rds J^aasdow^aiidJDTOgbiB^^f 8 t iwt^e :| 4Kai»«l^i> 
Portorlin§^^^ Upper-Qssonr i PeV^acj>) MM7Jb^>^^>«g^>. Noc^ 

^ Oaorge yiip$tt 5 William Grace f Walt^ Burrowa^ Johft Atleo^ 
JobDM(n Wi|l§|i I C)mlw CoqIa; Himry Pariiell> IMn^ Staplta^ 
C9|ieIMolf|ieaox; an^ WiUifiin Hi^^Me^firii* Cosby; Wel4#n« 
QoiUD^; C]li|it|ai}t; Cooper; EFam; Putlaad; Trencbi Wai^biur** 
Uiii ; Bodiford; Qofre; FiU«PBit|iok.i Fita^Goralds FitaKMavnce { 
Kelly.; Bow«i|} Wlut#$ Rothej ^ussoy; OaL^«. aodKemipim 



M4#T9<ttOO^H^ U^ esai^ town of thia comity, 19 sitoated 00 
a branch, of the river Barrow^ ajt the distance of forty miles fvofia 
Qn^iljiDb toward^ tin;. eovitl^- west. TUs place preseotalew attrac- 
tionSf tttft^v aa reffuds extent^ traffic^ or architectnral chsracterr 
Nor will the antiqoary here find mnch gratification. The remma 
0^ acastle areatillto be aeep.^ which boiUiogis said to haye 
'^ been ^ected by Belliagbaint" The name of Maryboroof^ waa 
bestowed npon this town in hpnoiir of Qneen Mary, at the same 
tinie that the county receited ita Qiodem appeUatiou from her 
miyesty* Amongst the few pnblic bnildi^ge must be meaitioned 
the CouQ^ty Iii^rmary. The chorch was renovated> with the aid 
of 4£5COj, ipveo for th^t purpose by the Board of First Fruits^ 
about the year 1800* A paosideiable trade in broad stnflpi^ caUed 
fiunmf*^ wa4 long cnltiyated at tl^s place and the neighbouring 
town of M^e^eilK^k, but ha^ latterly eiperienced dedensioit- 
The iqtfsmal government of MarybovoHgh. is vested in a burgo- 
master^ two bailiffs, and a tawi^rcleric. The ^Sifie of conatabH 
of the castle it atill retained^ althoMgjtL thA fortresA^haa beep, long 
9mk iP. deqiy. 

At the distance of about one mile and a half fir^m Maryharo^gh 
fqKff^rly>8t^ I^T^L^Ac^uB^ the seat pf $ir HcAiry ParnelU Bart ; 

aQ(i ip. i;he w^evneighboMrhosi^d is ^A^^waj^rctN^ late thet re^dew*? 

ot gir. John. Tyd4i B^^ and np^ of Mr. Jaeti/cc^ Moore. 



[l^KUrSTBa.] «^*SBN*8 COUIfTY. 99 

about four mik^ Tkeu9fB» ^ lki«.pl%ep> wldbh aiptifi«s tte Fmm 
^f tie Fltm, m ezpraBaiite of it* duvacler and local eirfiinMftancM. 
Tbe irock k in {Murt* proci|Ki(OMj and ia qmte ioncceBuUe.OB all 
sides except tbat iowarda tbe east* The |Adn torn wbidi it neat, 
ia iaolaledmajaaty^ is a flat bioatk^ of cettsaderable esteat, nea* 
a% ^laad^ ia tfae neii^iboaAood, tibe ^rneiii HeM. It appears 
tiiat> frofli tbe earliest rejcMed period, a fortifieil habitation cac- 
isfidapoi^ tbpffnainiil of' tUs bold and ringdbr davation. Whilst 
the fivt 4if war was iiir ili mkai^, taw pteoajBtieas> iade^^ . ante 
aacepaery to reader defehaiUe boighta so stupDndoas and difteol*^ 
of p^proaeh. Tbi» «ade caslraaMalibtf of the Gehio .ciMftain^ 
Ibne ^tmi^i frowned eamenpt on the ^orM bebrar> witii the 
aNne natanrix but bMrblreaS/ security M daito tkb aesfc of the ea^le, 
^jipeaor to aU aasaolt eoacept tbe scaih of the heairenfr. iieny 
ODftbe wdvul of the AoglchH^nmAA^ ra^ a sftimg heid of 0*Mom^ 
Prinee ^ h9m» whoso ehieC rettdeoce^ bdiasfeh 'waa at LeiXy 
9iM0itei«|ed Abbey Lsit. Toitarda die nuddfe of tiie ihii«ee»lii 
eeHOrf OnaaiasMS beowie the|ieot>aeky o# WMKam da fiaiioei Laid 
QvaabioekKin niihtaf his vife, danghtck^of WilKani MMftah 
Sarlof Beihhioke. 

Uader tiia ihflaeatoe of Ibis .nebltemyttt, Bnaahiase^was erysotod 
into « lordshipf, and conalitatcd, tie haad6f hh basoay/MeV« 
he heldA.<onit> sdhyecttoiewki^ttf Axosptthoee proftMlgedai 
tbe sword's paia4i ^ avtd faHber his tenants^ and sab-infelidMors> 
occopying nunwrais osarttgoqas nasties, repaired Ibr 1km f^erftitt^ 
aace of snit and asrneci When' the intereataof 4e BnglifSh settlers 
grew weak, in the latter years of the second Edward, this castle, 
among otfasssi was wrested from their possession by the Irish 
sUiniai6ts of tHe soil. " Lisagh O'Moore,*' writes Sir John 
Bavies, '' who called himselfe O'Moobb, took eight castles in 
one evening, and destroyed Danamase^ the principall boose of 
the L. Mortimer" (who had married the daaghter of Lord Breck- 
nock) *' in Leix, aad recovered that whole ooantrey." For naay 
satMoqoeiitageO thisfoirtvess was alternately possessed, a ccordi n g 
to thfe pvepoMeranice of party, by tbe English and the Irish ; aQ 
legal claims to the saccession proving subservient to the vadllating 



8B BKAVTIM or imKLAllD. 

ilieBgtIkof ATOM. SftrlyiB thediM w«rof tbeseTenteentht^at* 
tmy, the CMtle of Duaamase was semd by tlie party opposed U» 
gOTcnimen^ bat was speedily retaken by a force^ detached for 
that porpose, by the Marquess of Ormonde. Alter expertenciDg 
several Tidssilndes in the coarse of the same war> this fortress 
was surrendered, A. D. 1650, to the Colonels Hnson and Rey- 
mdds, by whom it was dismantled, and left to sink in decay. 

Fr6m the appearance of these extensive nuns it may be con- 
doded that the prindpal works of fortiftcation were effected in 
an early age of the Anglo-Norman ascendancy, and probably by 
WBliam de Brace, Lord Brecknock, about the middle of the 
thirteenth centary.* The site of the castle, and the roins, are 
thus described by Dr. Ledwich, in bis work on the antiqoilies of 
Irelnnd.— '' The rock is an elliptical conoid, accessible <snly on 
the eastern side, which, in its improved state^ was defended by 
the barbican. From the barbican yon advance to the gate of the 
lower balKvm ; it is seven feet wide^ and the walls six feet thick. 
It had a pa(nq;iet, erenelles, and embrasnres. The lower balliom 
is 513 feet from north to south, and 100 from east to west. 
Yon then arrive at the gate of the upper balliam, which is placed 
in a tower; and from this begin the walls which divided the 
upper and lower balliam. The former is t plain, of 111 foet 
from east to west, and 808 feet from north to south, where 
broadest. On the highest part was the keep, and the apartments 
for the ofiioers ) there were a sally-port and a prison.*' 

The rock of Donamase, and the surrounding lands, are now 

* Wliliam de BroM« or Brace, Lord of Braoknock in W«let, and of 
Bramber in Susaex, married £va, Ofth danghter and coheir of WUIian 
Marthal, Earl of Pembroke and iiord of LeiD»ter» with whom lie received 
the palatinate of Leix, which formed one of the five royal leisnoriee into 
which the great territory of Leioster was divided on the death of Anielm 
Marshal, tizth Barl of Pembroke, &c. The inheriUnce of Leix devolved 
npoa Bva, the Lord Brace's wife, by descent from her moAer, Isabel de 
Clare, the only child of Richard Stmosbow, Barl of PemhndLo, by Ms 
wife, Eva, daughter nifd heir of Daraoid Masworosfhy the last King of 
licinst^r. 



I 



[lkinstbr.j qucbn's COVStIti 89 

th« property of Sir Henry Pkunell. The fattier of the present 
bftronet (Sir Joiiii PfeLrnell) exUUted a very landable care to prc^* 
aerre the tnihs of the castle, from fhrther injury than they had 
experienced before the estate came into bis posseavion. 

The town of Movntrath is dittant five miles fvom< Afary- 
borongh^ and is a place of some trade and activity, bat «tlierwiaa 
of.no strihiag interest* Serend branches of manafactnre wei« 
snooessfally caltifated heee, sei long bade as the. early years of 
the seventeenth centnry. At that time Sir Charles •Coote, whose 
name and family are doseiy Uended witb the aaaak of this town, 
establiahed here mannfisctories of linen and fnstiaa, on an eatennve 
soda. Theinjnrifis committed on Us property at Moontrath, by 
the rebeUiofBs party in the year 1641, are aaid to hava assisted 
greatly in nortoring wi^in his bosom that vindictive sj^rit, which 
•tains the memory of his achievements in the civil war of the 
■evimteenth oeutury. 

Sir Charles Coote entered Ireland at an early period of l^e, 
and fiarmed his military habits among the stern and terooioos sol- 
diery of Queen Elizabeth's time. His name often occars in this 
work, bnt never when the mention of it conld be avoided j • for, 
in all his operatioas of war, he seems to have acted towards 
his opponents, in the aggregate, as if they were individoatty 
responsible for the losses he had saatained in his property at the 
hands of certain predatory bands of rebels. He aniformly appears 
.on the emporpled stage of civil contest, as an avenging spirit, 
dealing forth woe and desolation, Aithoagh his character was 
disfigured and rendered detestable by acts of cruelty, he certainly 
pos aesse d some, useful military qualities. His suocessfnl passage 
through the Mountrath woods, after having relieved the castle of 
fiirr and other strong holds, has been much celebrated, as an 
exploit evincing an unusual degree of good conduct and discretido. 
He was shot dead (according to some writera by one of his own 
troopers), in a desperate sally from the town of Trim, on the 
7th of May, 1642. Chnrlea, the eldest son of this sanguinary 
captain, aeqaiied hwk the Commonwealth gmats of land to an 



to BKAUTIJBS OF IftKlfAKJ). 

^ipwwpkrt fKteal^ unrnt-of wlitdi were oovfimed to Urn by tbt 
Act of S^ttem^iil;, ^nd be wm created E«rl «f ICpiwlnMAj m tbe 
)!IQiir 16W> bat the title bocvue eiliiiQti pa the decaeee ef 
Cbarles-Heoirj^ the 9e?emh earl, in L8W. 

Sir Cbarlee Coote obtained a grant, in the year 1698, of a 
muHmt, mi the Tneaday and Salariay ia^ every week, and alao 
eC two anneal faunl> at Moitntmlh. Ifis son (Sir Chariee, the 
fiist eaKl)> had, ae we alrft inloined by Ledpe and Anhdatt, a 
eonfinnation of the oaatieand manor of Monntratii, with Ueenne 
toimpaik 4M neraa, and^ftee waihten. 

The ooontty sanoanding hienfitrath was, in former tines, 
and down to the sMmory of OMmy pessone living in the enriy part 
of the eighteenth centory, one great tract of fonsli or wood*land« 
fieq» in the reoeises of this ettWaisB spreBd of wood, were sereral 
religions fenndations,. of whidi the principal was situated aft 
Ci$nmuffh. (antiently wntten C/namt md$Mckfj about two* mUes to 
the east of the town. This monastery was fonnied, in ths sixfth 
centory, by St. Fintan,. and. Aonrished. in graft repntatioii lor 
many ages. litHe, hewd? or,> is known concerning its history 
after the asrind of the £n|^h. 

Rmtkiikdi, abont two miles from MeantMth, towards the 
weBt> wee faing'the seat of the Raish family, n«w esctinot ) and 
aftevwanlrof tiie limuly of Gooto, Bari of Mbontrath. 

On Kyss Bill, abont two miles dhrtant fhna Stunm m 
Oswi ' f, is a rade work of stone, often called by the common 
psqifle the «* Fairy Chair," hot wfairb did, in fiuet, ceiMtitote an 
aatienl'jndgniettt«8eat of the Binhons*. 

€jLStunei!vir, a neat villagCy diilsnt one rail^ from- the town 
of Moantmthyis wortbyof flttontion k>f th« rona^ ofa CdHie, 
hnkUy seated M'the banks of the river Nere. In the early part 
of the riKteenAi centni*y 8hr (Nfver Merres (already mCDtioncMl, 
Mfont genefnl noHeeof this ceaiM^, ae^this sen^itf^law of Peter, 

• A ooaMi*eiigraiv&U|;'«if>iSi6 €iriri0tt» ttoM Mei--I« inltaMlld'fii'-llle 
of lf»iaB4y 1^ LfdMck» efSira <fra«iSa byitto U(e Mr. Besnim^ 



{lkinstbb.] avBBii's cMfcn- H 

wliMab%<i gaim^nod Mdrbeld for mmi1Im< wkHta^enpkycd im 
cnrt^Hf tW pawer of the BifpafcBfcfcii» kt o^nftiuMnte toslte 
teimp of bi« BlttuMse witk tlM Batlor fiunilji. Il afif^m liiifc Sic 
OUvaib at a 4*te aot exactly ascafftakaiA^ vaeif aed Ihia aafde aaA 
t^ritaiy to tiie lationt praprialor^ neoemag^ ^ cawHaaga^ ia# 
iwal liH^ a«tiite6» ivcladuig tke maiioM and laadi of 6ianM<- 
UM«qi> whare ha er^oted & caslb (of whiah the aileattva raiUi 
8tiU exist) after the plan of hU casliea'of Maiaaoh^ Latara^^ 
and Knockagh^ in Tipperaiy. This martial and enterprising 
Qiaaiber of an iHaatriaaa bmibf is so- ({raatty distiagaishedi i^ the 
aanal»of Ossory, ivhich tvae* aww forms part of the^Qaaan^s 
eotMKf, that scMB* finth^ partktdftrs concernitag hh character 
and history, cainnot flftil of proTiog desirable. 

Sir Oliver Morres,. styled Mac Morrei^ Lord of Mninagii> of 

Iiat^ci^h» &c. ^ and Baron de Montamansm by dasaanA^ waa. a 

ps f ioa af mnah pow^ ia tba eoanlty «f Tqppanoy, aadehM 

ofttbe Aaglo-Katmaii Isnrily of hfoatmoreacy. He married, uf 

we have already stated. Lady EUioe, daughter of Peter, Earl of 

Ormon^, and was actively engaged in 8nppressin|g the sept of 

Pitzpatrick, under the aaspicea of the aoblahoBsa with which 

he had fbriaad aa alliaaee. Sir Oliver waa eUeit sear aad Mr af 

Bar Jahtt, and gsaadson of Sir Jaaiea Manes, of Thoray, £a*- 

teiagh, Maoeha^, &c. Kaight-Banneret, by Lncia, daughter to 

Edmond'Axundel, styled Lord Arundel of the Stronde, county 

of Cork» a younger brother of Sir John Arundel^, lordr marshal 

of England^ and the sob of Sir John Arandel the aldar> by filiash 

betba bis wifet das||hter la Sir Olif ev Canaiiiow, el GonnNJi 

aad BMaaahin^ Kat. by BMiahath hia wiib> daughter to Jo!m 

Hottuad, Daka^ of Bxater, and fifizabeth Flantagenet, daughter 

to John, Duke of Lancaster and King of Castile, fourth son of 

King Edward III. 

Sir Oliver MacL Moires ia described as hayiAf beeata^aia of 
gigantic stature,, and of sorpriaiag bodily stfengthr; wMtheir* 
amnatapoes, j<»nad to an undaantad courage, procured for him 
tte lasCSlig Mih Sobrigmei of Ffi^ieogham-agiu Laghan (the 



M aiEAVT»0 OF I»BLAND« 

broad man-Hon). Bten at this time the p<»rtioB of Osaorr 4or^ 
merty possessed by Sir Oliyer, and in which the caatle of Caalfe* 
town is sitnated^ is often called '' O'ffarlaglum pamkr It may 
be observed, that to this period of history we must refer the iffor- 
cne8, or mottos, of the Fitspatriclcs, and of the Morres family 
of Balyrickard-Morres and Rathlin, in the connty of Tipperary^ 
Sir Olirer's sole descendants } the former being FeW'trndk-tAi^ 
(the strong man uppermost)^ and the \h^A/a Feer^leoghtm^ehoe 
(the man«lion uppermost).* 

* Tlie Iriihy from tlie earliest recorded period » need a martial eboaty 
or oatcry» when in the act of joininf battle. The reader will Imvo ao 
difficnlty in recollectinf that, in this particular, they entertained a practice 
at once common with the moit rude and the most polished nations of aati- 
qaity ; — with the Scythians, the Germans, the Grecians and the Romans. 

We decline any discassion concerning the battle-cry (Farrah I Farrah !) 
ascribed- to the aatieat Irish } and present the following extract of Harris's 
additions to Ware, which affords acorions memorial of the laceatlves pro* 
ceeding from family influence, used in instigating party*spirit doriiig 
times of baronial contention. 

*^ Aftor-ages" (times subsequent to the entry of the English) '* produced 
Bsany other shouts and out-cries, as signals before engagement; which 
were nsed in compliment to the leaders and beads of several families, and 
intended as incentlYos to eedition* They chiefly terminated in the Word, 
eftes, which seeais to come from an obsolete IrUh Word, Aha^ slgalfylaf 
Caw or BMi'tteM. Thus, ButUr t^ot^ cryed in the beginning of an oa* 
gagement, was to incite one another to behave well, as they were then 
engaged in the Cause or Buiinest of Butler ; and this was the cry appro- 
priated to the house of Ormonde. Though it be a matter rather of curiosity 
than nse, yet as the subject has not been hitherto bandied, to my knowledge* 
I shall give tiie several cries appropriated to noble ftunilies, as Hr as 
HMy have fallen in my way, and the ezplaaations of them to the bast of 
my skill, leaving such as are omitted to be explained by the indnatry of 
others. Thus, 

*' O'NeaVi cry was Lamh^earg^aboe, i. e. the cause of Bed-hand^ 
which was his crest, or cognisance. 

** (KBrien*9 cry was Lamh^Laidtr'ahoe^ i. e. the cause of Strong* 
kamdf the crest of the O^Brians* being a dexter arm, iesning ont of a 
dead, holding a naked sword, all proper} whichcry is now chaayid lata 
a motto alluding to the same {viz) Vigusur dm J>€»su9f Strongth firam affM* 



[lbinstbii.] QVBM'ft cavNTir. IMI 

AoKMigtt many tiles of mnrvol^ still loosHy cvmntj rsspaot- 
mg tho strasgtli sad ooori^ of Sir Olirsr* we are told thatj 

** Mae-CarthjfU cry wai dM same ai the O^Brien$* t and lo was tlM 
Fltx-Maiiric«*s. 

*^ The Earl of Kildan^M ( JPVIf.G«raM») cry, <VfiN-a»M t at I take it, 
frsM a stroBf caatla calltd Crpm^ im tho eomty of Liwuridtf Moaggaf 
10 that Sunily. 

Ibe £arl of IhnMtid'9 cry wai £IAaMMe<-iifto«, 

The Earl of Cianriekard't (BearJbf*) cry, Ga/ria^A-aftoe, t. e. the'cauM 
of the Red'EngHihman^ One of thit family was called the Rtd Burl^ 
that it, Richard de BurgOy the second Earl of Vltter. 

** Mae^aaUPatriek, or Fitt^PaMek'i cry aear^LMir^mkct^ i. e. the 
onto 9fftr9ng and thorp § allnding, perhapt, to the crett of that tamily, 
(off.) a Hon tnrmoiiated of a drafon. 

** O'CarroFM cry Showet^ahoe, ponibly corrupted from Seathar^hoe^ 
i. e. the cause of the strong ; to which the present motto of that family 
teems to allude, (o/s.) in fide tt in bttlo fortis ;— strong^ in fidelity and 
war. 

** Jr«e-S»ln«'#cry wat BmUoilmhMoe^ or the canto of the N9hU Stt^i^t 
allnding to a part of hit Iknilly armt, which wore two heart eomhatant^ 
and above them at numjf hattle axet in taltire ; which battle axes were the 
armt of the Galloglasses, (viz.) a broad az, with a long handle, or staff. 
Mac-Swine was the leader of some Irish Galloglasses in the reign of Qoeen 
BUtabeth. 

**The Fleming* t cry was Teim^-ar-agheim^oe t I. e. the butiuett of 
fire to the bomb, Jghein properly signifies a kettle— but is metapho* 
ricaliy asod for a bomb or mortar. Perhaps some of thit family had been 
HMttert of the ordnance. The wordt allude to their crett, which Is a 
m^rtar-pieee catting out a bombf with fiamet of fire ^ proper ^ ehaint and 
fingft or, 

" The Hiffernan't cry was Ceart^na'tuas-aboe^ i. e. the eaute of right 
from above t alluding, perhaps, to their crest i which was an armed hand 
coupod at the writt, and erect, holding a broken iword, all proper ; 
*lf^7^» M it would teem, that there was no justice to be expected 
from the sword, but from the protection of heayen. 

** Hutteify or Uute^ titular baron of Gallrim^ his cry, Cor-doragh- 
aboey perhaps the eaute of the great catty alluding, it may be, to an action 
of one of that family in the reign of Edw, II. wheat the battle of Mhomrp 
engaged and slew O-Kelly and his squire, tingle handed. O'SuUevan^t 
cry wat ^ftttima-tteUp-^iboe. The Kuight of Kerry t cry wat IVirrt^^y- 
a^«.*'-.WMra't Aatiqt. by Harritt vol. U. pp. 103-4. 



94 BRAtTTTM 01^ iRttliiMrO. 

skartly after lie hui ginned po86M(do« ef tbki tMtk, tke ^yoatt 
oF Omitj, Bamaby FSCaqpttrid:, IMeiedtleplMfirl^^HraAigwv^ 
at the head of a party of his vassals. The completion of Fitz* 
patrick*s design was, however, defeated j for, scarcely had he 
passed the catte^gate, when the Ikm^chiaf sttsed hn in his 
arms, and hurled him down the tremegdons pwe ipfa fc tipo» wMA 
the fortress stands, overhanging the river Nore. It iU adtled that 
he cast his horse down after him ! 

The conqaeats of the Ormonde family and their adherents 
bdng secared to them by a iprant of Kii^ Henry VHI. dated 1534, 
lUe same was ratified by a uarsiage between Lady Masgaret, 
daughter of the earl (then refict of Themn Fkigeraki, seoaad 
son of the Earl of Desmond) and Barnaby ntzpatricit, ddest sott 
of the above-mentioned dynast ; which Barnaby the younger, 
was, ia 154 1*^ created Baron of Upper Ossory, in the Irish 
peerage. Sir Oliver Morres bestowed his great estates in tbia 
connty, and in Tipperary, on Oliver-oge, his eldest soft and heir, 
Commonly styled Illeeaf-oge Mac^INetfor^agkm, (OKmp die 
yonng, son of Oliver the lion, or the broad). 

The estates in this connty remained in-possesaion of the descend- 
ants of Geoflrey, second son of Oliver-oge, down to the year 1696, at 
wUchtime they were forfeited) by the chance o£ war, in conaeqjBence 
of the adherence of l^dmond Morrea, oOOoantitoWn Gaetle,1SM|. te 
the disastrous fortunes ofKing James H. TMsgallane, batlH-Jited 
gentleman, was representative of Queen's County in the pwBw* 
ment summoned by James II.; and, with his cousin, James 
MonreBi of Balyrickard-MorreaandClonan, Esq, was joint com- 
diafidanl^ or oolonei, of an tttdependeat pegimant of cavali^^ 
raised by themselves from their ardent and^ iaiteepid foUowersv 
Edmond Morres and Hervey, the eldest' son of Jadlea Mtfives- iif 
Balyrickard, fell, nobly fighting in the cause of mistahen and 
nnfortmiate loyalty, at the battle of Aughrim. The estate of the 
fermer was confiscated by King William UI. and granted to 
Richard Fitipatrick^ Lord Gownm, progeoitor^of Ae late Earl of 
Upper Ossory. It will be fonnd that the great estalea is this 
county, formerly vested In the Morres* family, constittate at the 



(LBINSTSB.] QtntVN'g COVNTY. ' 9^ 

present time^ ^6 pfttittpsl poBMnioikS ti Mvtdnl p66fii uid 
baronets^ of modern date. 

BaisLYWIs, the seat of Sir Charles Henry Goote> Bart, is 
Aaated between the towns o£ Monatnth and ManatMeliGk. 
Vlda eatate was ioraedy the pmpeitf of the CaosMa fiuntly 
(aftnea ennobled by the title oC Sari of fikndore) ; bat was lafh 
Mted by Sir John Ctoosbie, Bant, lath^aeeenteentheentary. itvM 
afterwards vested in the Pole tmUf., fiian whom it deacsniad, 
by win, to the Hon. Wittiam Wellealey^ since oreated^Lord Mnryi- 
berongh^ who« on aooeding to thie estnte^ aasnnied Ihensme and 
nrms of Pole. The pa a s e at proprietor, who haa reeeatf y aoqaiMd 
the eatate by pevebase, has aheady expended, aa we am infeaned^ 
al>oTe j£*20,000, in improving the house and grounds. In the al- 
tevMions that have been a i lbct ad in the grounds, Mr. Sothedand 
has displayed mubh- good taste. The hsppy combination of 
wood, water, and a ?avied.svfflace> new pnsent their respeetfttia 
and nnttgled beautiea with tb^ fullest effeet« Neaiiy IJKX) aeres 
of demesne land are endesed by waUs, exclusive sf aa adjoining 
pariir, well stocked with deer. 

Moiiimwi4w> sitnated i» the i^ortb^m part of the cpuntyt 
on the banks of the river Bwrrow, is one <tf the most c on wd er able 
learket and tjcadang towns in this district. The wxMdlea manu- 
iMtave wna loag-ealtivated hertu with peat suooess, but has been 
decHning iof m»f year^i. Th^ vwavify^dam^ of o(Ktt<m artidesii 
anda hraadi of the iron qwmfsotaiw, have also bejBo loi« estar 
Uiahed in this town. The aecl tmned Quakers are nnmeroiia in 
Mounteeliok* and it would appear that the commercisl H^irit 
which prevails is much indebted to the activity and industry of 
that unassuming people. One of the three great schools esta- 
blished in Ireland by the Quakers^ is situated in this town.* 

* The two other sehooli partaking of a pnblic character, instituted by, 
the Qoaher« ia.IjelaDd, are situated at Waterford and Lisburn. The fol^ 
lowiaf may be mentioned as the outlines of the plan adopted in the es* 
at this place and at Waterford* Children of both sexes are 



M 'BBAUTIB* Of IRBLANJD. 

Moaatmelidc is a hamlet to rhe parish of BoseaaUis. The chapel 
of ease is a spadons stractore^ lately rebailt. This town ia 
chiefly the property of the Marqaess of Drogheda. 

RoesvAtLis, a Tillage of small considexatiott, is distant frota 
Monntmelick three miles, towards the north-west, having its 
position at the foot of the Siieve-bloom monntain. In the vicinity 
are qnarries of soft stone, composed of siliceons white sand, 
which is worked into chimney-pieces of an or^nary kind, and is 
much used in covings and hearths. The church is situated on 
rising ground, and is a respectable and well preserved boiidisig. 
The people termed Quakers have a lai^ burial-ground near the 
village, which forms part of the estate of the Dunne family. 



Brittas^ the extensive and well-wooded demesne of 
General Dunne, is, probably, the most antieat hereditary ten«r# 
possessed by any family in this connty, with the exccpMon of the 
estates belonging to the Earl of Uf^er Ossory. By the Dnnna 
Camily were built the ndghbonring fortress termed CoUkkr^ck, 
and the seat called TiiMeMnch ; both of which are now in ruins. 
Cattlecuffcy near Kosenallis, a harsh and dreary ruin, afforded a 
residence to the first Sir Charles Coote, whose name and character 
are noticed in our account of Mountrath. 

There are, in thb tract of country, several barrows, or tamaii; 
locally called '' Danish forts, and moats.** In the works of Sir 
J. Ware, edited by Harris, is the following account of the disco- 
very of funeral remains beneath a tumulus, '' on the lands of 
CUmeleilleu, five miles from Mount Melick." The discovery took 
place in the year 1734, in consequence of a fiarmer removing 

here clothed, fed, and educated, for a very moderate annual remuneration ; 
and, where the parents are unable to pay the small sum demanded, the 
expense is defrayed by the friends collectively assembled at the meeting of 
the district to which such poor children appertain. These schools are not 
regnlarly endowed, but are chiefly supported by annual subscriptions. 
Considerable donations and le|;acies, however, have occurred ; and, when 
these amoantto more than the sum of \0U they are thrown into an accumu- 
latiDf fund, for the permanent benefit of the respective establiihmeots. 



[lbinstek.] quskn*s coonty. 97 

Blones from tlie iiioaiit> for domestic naeB. *' The upper stone^f 
Ibi0 monameiit was of an enormous size^ and an irregular sbape^ 
not oblongs as tombstones generally are^ bnt rather like a lozengp 
in heraldry^ or a diamond on 4he cards> in length full ^ight feet> 
and fiye feet four inches broad, eleven inches thick in some parts, 
nine and a half in others, and a small portion, at one end, bnt seven . 
It was supported by two side-stoues, and two end-stones, the 
latter of wluch, as the rubbish was not cleared away, could not be 
measured ; bnt the side-stones were five feet seven inches long, 
near lour feet broad, and from eight to ten inches thick. The 
stoaes which compose this monument are a gray grit, and appear 
to have been raised in the neighbouring mountains of Sliew 
Bloom ; jior is dtere any sign of inscription or date, or the mark 
of a tool upon it, bnt all is rough, mis-shapen, and nnhewed. 
Closed up, within this coffin, was found the entire skeleton of a 
fluddle siaed man, the head placed westward, and the feet to the 
east I the scull so rotten that it crumbled away with handling, 
the teeth white and sound, and the rest of the bones entire, 
though something decayed. It appeared to have been pltMxd 
on the surface of the ground, and surrounded by a heap of large 
paving stones, such as an adjoining river supplies, placed to- 
gethen«>in a regular and circular form, taking up, in compass, 
180 feet 5 which circle of stone rose no higher than a little above 
the Wffec edge of the monument, and was covered over with a 
staple of earth, about a foot thick, and the entrance into it was 
at one corner, which was covered with a stone about two feet 
and a half square.'** 

The town of Pobtablington, distant from Dublin thirty-six 
ffiiles and three quarters, is situated on the banks of the Barrow, 
by the int^srsection of which river (here crossed by two bridges) 
it is divided between the Queen's and the King's Counties. This 
is a neat and well-built town, consisting of two principal streets, 
whkh meet in a square. Portarlington has long been distin- 
guished for the number and excellence of its schools, which have 

• Ware's Aatlqs. vol. U. p. 149. 
VOL. II. H 



«.« 



9S BBAUTI1E8 OP IBKLAND. 

Msiflted ID imparting education to many distifigmiihed iefaaractehi, 
among whom may be noticed the Marqaess Welleeley. This 
place has little trade, except such as proceeds from local de- 
mands, bat constitotes the residence of sereral families of h^^ 
respectability, amongst which are those of Sir Walter Borrow*, 
and Sir C. Desvoeax, Barts. Many of the dwellings art, 
consequently, of ample proportions and an ornamental character. 
The buildings for public nse are not numerous, but are of an 
eligible description. The market-house is a commodious strae- 
tare> having in an upper story several rooms, in which are held 
the quarter-sessions, the seneschal's court, and well-attended 
monthly assemblies. The English church (which acts as a chapel 
of ease to the parish of Lea) is a handsome building, completed 
in the year 1810. Portarlington formerly afforded an asylum to 
a colony of French refugees, persecuted at home on account of 
their reli^^on, and here is still a church, in which divine service 
is performed in French, for the use of theur numerous descend- 
ants. There are in this town two free*8chook, respectively 
founded for instruction 'in the Latin .and French languages, and 
endowed by Mons. Ruvlgney, the French Earl of Galway, in 
1703. 

Portarlington is a borough town, returning one member to tlK 
imperial parliament ; and is internally governed by a sovereign, 
two portrieves, and a recorder. This place gives the title of 
earl to the family of Dawson, which first settled in Ireland in 
the reign of William IIL William Dawson, Esq. enjoyed se- 
veral lucrative offices in that reign ; and Ephraim, his son, pur- 
chased Portarlington, and other estates in the Queen's county, 
and fixed his residence in the neighbourhood of this- town. He 
represented the county in several successive parliaments ; and 
William-Henry, son of that gentleman, was created Baron 
Dawson, of Dawsou*s €ourt, in 1770 ; and Viscount Carlow, in 
1776. John, Viscount Carlow, was created Earl of Portarling- 
ton in 1785. "^ 

The above town is situated in the parish of Lea, or Let, the 
village of which name is distant from Portarlington about three 



[I«KIN8TBA.] aVBEN's COVNTY^ fiO 

mflei, towivdi.ihe eM. This ^aee, oflce of odnsiiciable impott- 
ance^ has now scarcely any claim on like examhier> excbpi ««eh 
•• rogards Iho ruinots vteligea of its former grandeur. Th^ de* 
«ayiiig dinrch kas litlk io gratify the arcfaifteolord aittti^aiMy : 
tat^heremaiM of Leu Ca$iie are inlerastiug, in every poiat of 
<riew. It would appear to l>e probaUe that the original strac- 
ftare on tUs siite was eHeated hj Earl WHliasii> the aarshd, 
to whom King Henry JI. oonArmed this portiDa of the inheritAnoe 
9of ithe conntew his lady, daogbttr aad hek of Earl 9trongbow, 
mfhd had wreated the tearhory of Lea.fom O^J^empsey, the inA 
yroprietoR. ^One of thedaagfalers and .oo**heire8ses of Earl Wil- 
Jmbi, manned WilBam de Braoae, Lord of Bredcndofc, and oon- 
ittyed t» tfiat netfemao, as her dowry, the lordship of LSx, 
aad mA it the itaronial castle of Lea. The daagfater of de 
Sraose espoosed the Lord de Moftiiuer, and, in likfrmanner, car- 
ried the same territory to Hbe Moitimer family. 

It is said that this castle was burnt by Edward Bmce, in his 
vitild attemfN! to vedaee indand ia the year 1815. By such a 
tetfa,:howiftver, as we banre before suggested, Ustoriate asnafly 
)ineaa to describe theinteiier and habitaUe parts only, of a anli- 
lary £i^bvi6:aoh0«tBg been exposed >to GO*flagraiioA. This building 
laocapiedta dangerous position on tlie border of the pale, and was 
-often the seat «f contention, widkt ilrdaotf yirtaally remained 
tfitided bftween dtfiaraat gDi^tsmng. pMMta. hinui ftfi- many 
i^s .posaasaed. aad defaDded liy «h«i FiftigiaMld luaUy . Al^ioogh 
acweral tnaes Todaeed by tfae^*i)tomp6l)es and the O'Mores, it W9» 
reekoned, ki ike year 1504, one of the six bert eaMAes bekngteg 
io the fiaal ef Kidare. In 1650, this fortress was dismantled by 
tkepaiHaanntarian fScKrses^QnderooloaelS'Hasoiiand Reynolds ; and 
. nmnks »of ike havoc then oommitted, by the agency of gtinpowder, 
.me vioibfe in confiised maaaes of towers,- broken arches, antd 
otiser fragOKnts of building, towards the western side. 

The. castle of Lea is sitaated on the faamkt of the river Bar- 
row, aad presents, eren its pi%seat state of rain, an objeet of 
great magnificence. It was pretested by a foese and doable lines 

He 



' 



100 BBAOTIM OP IKSLAND. 

of fortificfttion. The bnildiiifs were irregularly eoBetracted, and 
covered a large tract of ground. 

To this castle formerly appertained a town of eome repnte^ 
having the nanal privilegee of a market and fairs. The fortunes 
of the town of Lea rose and decayed with the neighbonriag for- 
tress. The last transaction of importance, as regards this place, 
occurred in 1643/ when it was seised by the party in rebellion, 
bnt was speedily relieved by Lord Lble. In the former market- 
place is an ash tree, of aaasaal growth, traditionally said to have 
been planted in commemoration of that event. The girth of this 
tree is twenty-nine feet, bnt, owing to the injories inflicted by 
a storm, not many years past, this noble ash is now in a state 
of rapid decay. Lea Castle, with a considerable tract of the 
adjoining country, is held, by virtue of a lease in perpetuity, 
under the Earl of Portarlington, by George Evans, Esq. a 
younger branch of the noble family of Carbery. 

Emo Pauk (formerly termed Daman's GroveJ, the seat of the 
Earl of Portarlington, is distant about three miles from Portar- 
lington, towards the south-east. The mansion on this estate 
was oonunenced in the latter part of the eighteenth century, on an 
ertensive plan, but has not been completed according to the 
original design. In its present state it is a commodious struc- 
ture, but sufforing under a]q[iarent indifference and nei^ect. The 
deoMsne comprises about 800 acres^ and is well planted, and 
ornamented with a very extensive lake. It must be admitted that 
sevenl circumstances are unfavourable to the preservation of a 
noUe mansion, and the pursuit of extensive improvements, in 
this situation. The soil is pennrioua^ beyond a hope of ready 
amelioration ; and the surrounding country is, in most directions, 
entirely destitute of picturesque attraction. — ^The same deficiencies 
of natural inducement apply, with few exceptions, to the whole 
vicinage of Portarlington ; bnt numerous handsome dweUings 
of gentry .are still found iu this tract, greatly to the ornament of 
the country. The surface is here, in general, oppressively flat. 
Two eminences, however, are found in the neighbourhood of the 



[LVlNKTJfiR.] aUBB2(*S COUNTV. lOi 

toi¥p. One of Iheae, dttttnt from PorturlingtOD abbot lialf a 
nile, 18 ornaBMnted with a vplre, which was bniH by Vhooont 
CarloWf grandfather of the present earl> chiefly for the bene- 
▼olent purpose of employing the poor in a winter of gveat severity. 
This htll is finely wooded^ and intersected wilh agreeable walks. 
On the second elevation, termed WmdmUi HUl, is situated the 
new parish chnrch of Lea> which is a oommodioBS bnilding, and 
eonstitntes a. handsome object. 

SCBAi^BALLY, sitBBted in the eastern- part of this coonty, is a 
smell bnt neat and agreeable town^ watered by a branch of the 
river Barrow, over which is thrown a bridge of three arches. The 
streets are wide, and the hoases in general of a respectable cha- 
rscter. Rows of elms, and nnmerons scattered trees, impart to 
the whole town a rural and pleasing air. The site is low, but the 
lofty hills in the vicinity, and by which the town is, indeed^, 
sarroonded, are ornamented with several handsome seats and 
richly-cnltivated demesnes. The parochial Chnrch is a well-pre« 
served bnil^g. In the vidnity of the town is a Charter-school, 
opened in 1738, for the receptioft of forty dnldren. A monastery 
for Conventnal Franciscans was founded at this place in the twelfth 
century, by one of the O'Mores, wbich, together with its appur- 
tenances, was granted, in the year 1599, to '^ Francis Cosbye,** 
and his heirs, at the annual rent of 17/ : ^ : 3</. Irish money \ 
they, also, undertaking to '' find yearly nine Engitsh horsemen.*' 
In the year 1609, a new grant of these lands was made to ** Rich- 
ard, son of Alexander Cosby,*^ together with the townland, or 
lordship, ofTimohoe. 

Stradbally Hall^ the modern and improved residence of the 
Cosby family, is a commodioiis and eligible mansion, surrounded 
by a demesne finely irregular in surface, and of considerable 
beauty, although tlie pleasore-grounds are not of great extent. 
On this demesne formeriy stood one of the strongest castles of the 
0*Mores, much of whose property, together with their principal 
seat, was granted to the respectable family of Cosby.* 

* We pretent the following anecdote, conc^niinf thlt property, on 
the aatbority ofsir Charlei Coote, editor of the StetiBtical Surrey of the 



108 BXAUTIR8 OF IRIt/AND. 



Jm the iikifflediate tidahy of tbe town* of. StradMly nuBt al99 
be BOlkod BmoUei^ Pmrk, a fiae tea* fSbnndtit oMilpfted by the 
Eeddf Rodeo. 

We now enter spOD a tnol of;oett&try (imiMly tlie^ Bmiovht or 
BaiAYAD/kifa)'Otmoenniig irhicb wepoescm'aii'atiiplllode of'origi* 
nal ia6malioa,.ibiliiid«ee» q8 toeapaitiatofift greater leftglb tbnr 
\tae readily. p wi c tiBabl»i» regard te eeveral dhtriele lalelf notked. 

On leaviog the town of Athy, sitaaCH on the- eaeteni side of 
thoriFcr B«tow> uid ia the coqb^ o€ Kltdare> vre lia<l a line of 
roed^ eeeentlf oompleted^ which leade tfarovf^ the Qeeen'fr eoevty* 
to Gftstle^Coiaer^ in the comity of Kilkenny. This road is on m 
scale eqnal to the best woric of the hmd in Bnglaad^ It^caiMBOt, 
however^.boaetof any attradiTeBataral scenery^ or artificial oh- 
jects, for tha fitst Ihree miles of ito progrest* 

Queen^B Coiin^y. — ^^ An Irish chief, epvying that the esUtei of the 
C^^ores ifaooM have been trknaferred to EogliBh adventarers, sent the 
OoAytf « teegity meMBge^ that he od a certaf ■ day would cross the bridge 
of. Stradbally wUh.Ut svldfers, and d«iinaded for«hatpa#poiea panf 
which was the repoud fenaof a chaUoafsie thos^ fimsa.. Te allow ftl 
would he acknowledging the ioferiorily of tlie Coabys» and a mark of |^a«* 
sillanimity which never was the characteristic of that race. They, of 
course^ prepared to give the Irish battle, and were ranged to dispute the 
pass with the enemy, who came in great numbers at tlie appointed time. 
The istae of Hie battle was long- doabtfui, wMch was fooght with great 
bravery aa4 perseverance i and at many tinMs eaoh party seeoMd certain 
of success. Victory at length deteratiiaed la ikyaar of.ilw Chishys i ;bal 
amongst the bruve men who fell thai day were included tiie c^iefo on both 
sides. With Cosby, also fell his brother , the joint possessor of the estate | 
and each had the benefit of survivorship. Their deaths were beheld by 
their ladies from a whiddwin the castle, which overlooked the scene ; and 
one ef them, at the tastant hor husband was killed^ called oat to other 
witaessest ' Remeafbe r I my knsbaad did net Ml Anu ceasef aently the 
* estate descended tQ.hli^» and is now the psoperty-of my ^destson;' 
which remarkable saying co«ld not be forspot in the presence of so amny 
witnesses, and determined the point in favour of the child of this lady, 
whose wary prudence, and unprecedented resolution, shewed a presence 
of mind as strong and superior to her sex, as her hardness of heart and 
want of tenderness were unbecQming of it."— Stat. Survey of the Queen's 
Ce. pp. 173—3. 




[lsinbtxb.] quxsn's county. 10?. 

Colonel Wel4ou*« judjicions improyemeiits at Kilmaroihey, on 
the south, are too remote to form a distingnishable featere^ and the . 
village of Ballylinaiij through which it passes, possesses little 
claim to attenfiou.* Towards the north of this village, the Rev. 
Arthur We]don*sf house and plantations, termed Ralun, may 
bQ seen 5 and beyond that place, on the Maryborough-road, is 
situated B^^lyadams Castle. The ruins of the embattle^ walls, 
piojecting towers, and elevated keep of this antient ediAce, em- 
bosomed in venerable trees, produce an interesting and highly pic- 
turesque effect. On the opposite hill are the ruins of Baliyadams 
Church, containing the monument, with the full-sized recumbent 
ef^es, of Robert Bowen, Esq, of Ballyadams Castle, and his 
wife, Alice Bartpole, ^f Shrule Castle. T^he head of one of these 
ligpres has been broken off 3 the other has been thrown on the 
ground, where it lies at present in an uninjured state. Near these 
ruins are two very antient wells, in a bed of solid lime stone, of a 
cylindrical form^ and about fifteen inches in diameter. The depth 
of the one exceeds three feet, while that of the other is less than 
two. Medicinal qualities are attributed to these wells, of which, 
in the opinion of the peasantry, St. Patrick was the founder and 
patron 3 and, under an impression of their efficacy in the cure of 
head aches and disorders in the eyes^ they are occasionally re- 
^rted to for relief. To the north of Ballyadams Castle» and on 
the Maryborough road, lies 

SouTHViLiiB, a residence of the late Richard Grace, of Boley^ 
Esq. M.P. whose name must not be mentioned without the 
humble tribute of our admiration. — ^This enlightened, benevolent, 

* In the neighbourliood of SSaHylittan there was dug op, by Bome pea- 
•antiy in 17^6, an earthen urn, containing a great number of Bmall silver 
eoins, so tend ofwMchare deposited in the mitseamof Trinity. Coliege, 
Dublin. Tlie whole of the coini are believed to bear reference to Irith 
monarchs and chiefg, between the years 862 and 900, — For further parti- 
culars see Camden's Britannia, Gough's Edit* Notes to Queen's Co* and 
Transacts, of R. J. A. vol. i. 

f This gentleman, who enjojfs, gceatly to the benefit of his parish- 
ioners, the valuable rectory of KUlabin, is of the earliest established family 
now extant in this district. The Weldons are reputed to have settled here , 



104 BBAUtlBS or IBfiLANjI. 

and tnily valoable man died liere, at the early age of forty. Hit 
quickness of parts, clearness of intellect, tenacions memory and 
comprehensive understanding, were well known to society ; and 
the indefatigable industry and unwearied application by which he 
roust, even in his very infancy, bare improved the talents 
nature had with kind profusion bestowed upon him, might consti- 
tute a subject of instruction as well as of applause. Pk-evious to 
the 28nd year of his age (1782) he had visited France, Holland, 
Switzerland, Italy, and Germany, and could speak their several 
languages easily and correctly. Spain, Hungary, Turkey and 
Greece were also within the range of his travels. Latin was to 
him as a living language, fully understood and fluently uttered ; and 
he was classically acquainted with Greek and Hebrew. His love 
of the sciences and of the fine arts was strongly exemplified, 
either by his exact possession of their several principles, or by 
his power of mechanical execution 3 and his knowledge of general 
history, and in particular of the British laws and constitution, 
was practical and extensive. If these endowments were the 
characteristics of an enlightened mind, so were every act and word 
of Mr. Grace the genuine and rational marks of a benevolent heart. 
To the poor, or the oppressed, man, he was a certain and efficient 
friend. For though, by adverse combinations, he failed on two 
contested elections to represent this county in parliament, the 
popularity he possessed was as extensive and enthusiastic as it 
was merited. Mr. Grace married Jane, daughter of the Honour- 
able John Evans, of Bulgaden Hall, a younger son of Gecnrge 
Lord Carbery, by whom he had issue Sir William Grace, Bart* 
Sheffield Grace, of Lincoln's Inn, Esq. F. S. A. and Capt. Percy 
Grace, R.N. 

From the village of Ballylinan, already mentioned, the con- 
spicuous and elevated situation of Gbacsfibld woods constitute an 
admirable feature in the neighbouring scenery. Here they appear 
immediatelv in front, while the eye penetrates the rich and improved 

and about Atby, in the beginning off the reign of James I. ; which is abo?e 
a century preceding the removal of the Ballylinch family of Grace from 
the county of Kilkenny to this neighbourhood. 



[LBIN«tBB.] OVBBN*S C017NTY. 10& 

borders of the coonty of Carlos on the souths and is confined on 
the north by the beantifol outlme of the Stradbally hitts. The 
annexed vievr of OnAcnriSLD Lodge exhibits a scene in which 
many ndi and Tariegated sylvan beauties render the landscape a 
happy selection for the pencil. The approach is by a winding 
road on the norths which> skirting the demesne, passes throngh 
the pictnresqne hamlet of Shanrath, the sequestered woody glen 
of KiHeakle, and a succession of varied and highly interesting 
mountain scenery to Kilenabehy, the western boundary of this 
estate on the confines of the county of Kilkenny, distant between 
three and four miles. 

In the statistical survey of the Queen*s County, by Sir Charles 
Coote, Bart, it is stated, that ** the house of Oracefield, and its 
improvements, are very old fashioned, though the ground is the 
best in the barony.**— This remark must, almost of necessity, be 
applicable to any residence that had not been inhabited during a 
period of thirty-two years, as was the case with Gracefield, the 
last occupying possessor being Michael Grace, Esq. who died in 
17B5.* A modem lodge is now, however, the subsHtute for the 
" very old-fiishioned mansion,*' noticed by Sir C. Coote. This 
commodious and elegant structure was completed in 181T> by 
Mr. Robertson, of Kilkenny, after a design furnished by Mr. 
Nash, of London. It consists of an outer hall, two staircases, 
a drawing-room, library, dining parlour, conservatory, five 
principal bedchambers, and every suitable accommodation for a 
corresponding establishment. The irregularity of its exterior 
appearance, in the varied outline, strong projections, frequent 
breaks in the walls, and cut stone ** gothic*' labels surmounting 
the windows, gives an animated and picturesque character, highly 

* Alicia, his only daughter and lole heir, married, in 1799, Morgan, third 
fOB of ihe late Thomas Kavanagfa, of Borriff, in the county of Carlow, Esq. 
and of Lady Suan Batler, daughter of John, Earl of Ormonde and Otiory* 
This highly-accomplished and amiable gentleman was cat off in the prime 
of life, lea?ing no sunriFing issue $ and Hs widow is the present proprietor 
of the Gracefleld estates in this county, and in the counties of Kilkenny 
and Dublin. 



100 BKAVTIKS OP IRVLAND. 

of foitifieatioii. The Imildiags were irregolarly constracted, and 
covered a large tract of ground. 

To this cactle formerly appertained a town of some repute^ 
haTing the nsnal privileges of a market and fairs. The fortunes 
of the town of Liea rose and decayed with the neighbonring for- 
tress. The last transaction of importance^ as regards this place^ 
occnmd in 1643/ when it was seised by the party in rebellion^ 
but was speedily relieyed by Lord Lisle. In the former market- 
place is an ash tree, of 4innsaal growth, traditionally said to have 
been planted in commemoration of that event. The girth of this 
tree is twenty-nine feet, bnt, owing to the injuries inflicted by 
a storm, not many years past, this noble ash is now in a state 
of rapid decay. Lea Castle, with a considerable tract of the 
adjoining country, is held, by virtue of a lease in perpetuity, 
under the Earl of Portarlington, by George Evans, Esq. a 
younger branch of the noble fiimUy of Carbery. 

fiiio Pajik (formerly termed Dawson* s Gr&veJ, the seat of the 
Earl of Portarlington, is distant about three miles firom P<Mtar- 
lington, towards the south-east. The mansion on this estate 
was commenced in the latter part of the eighteenth century, on an 
extensive plan, but has not been completed accordti^ to the 
original design. In its present state it is a commodious struc- 
ture, but suffnring under apparent indifllBrence and neglect. The 
demesne comprises about 800 acres, and is well planted, and 
ornamented with a very extensive lake. It must be admitted that 
several circumstances are unfavourable to the |Hreservation of a 
noble mansion, and the pursuit of extensive improvements, in 
this situation. The soil is penurious, beyond a hope of ready 
amisUoration 5 and the surrounding country is, in most directions, 
entirely destitute of picturesque attraction. — ^The same deficiencies 
of natural inducement apply, with few exceptions, to the wiiole 
vicinage of Portarlington ^ but numerous handsome dwellings 
of gentry •are still found in this tract, greatly to the ornament of 
the country. The surface is here, in general, oppressively flat. 
Two eminences, however, are found in the neighbourhood of the 



[lkinstkr.] ousbm's cdunty. 104 

towii. One of thfd$e, distant from PortarlingCon abbot luJf a 
nik, 18 ornamented with a spire, which was buH by Viscount 
Csrlow, grandfather of the present earl, chiefly for the bene* 
Tolent pnrpose of employing the poor in a winter of great severity. 
This hill is finely wooded^ and intersected with agreeaUe walks. 
On the aeooad elevatioa, termed fFMmUi HUl, is situated the 
new parish duarch of Lea, which is a commodions building, and 
constitotes a. handsome object. 

Si!BA0BALLy, sitnatcd in the eastern part of this coanty, is a 
smsll bat neat and agreeiMe town, watered by a branch of the 
river Barrow, over which is thrown a bridge of three arches. The 
streeto are wide, and the houses in general of a respectable cha- 
ncier. Rows of elms, and nnmerons scattered trees, impart to 
the whole town a mral and pleasing air. The site is low, but the 
lofty hills in the vicinity, and by which the town i8> indeedj^ 
SDrronnded, are ornamented with several handsome seats and 
richly-cultivated demesnes. The parochial Church is a well-prc« 
served building. In the vidnity of the town is a Charter-school, 
opened in 1798, for the receptioii of forty dnldren. A monastery 
for Conventaal Franciscans was founded at this place in the twelfth 
century, by one of the G'Mores, which, together with its appur- 
tenances, was granted, in the year 1599, to *' Francis Cosbye/* 
and his heirs, at the annual rent of 17/ : d« : Sc/. Irish money \ 
they* also, undertaking to ** find yearly nine English horsemen.** 
In the year 1609, a new grant of these lands was made to " Rich- 
ard, son of Alexander Cosby,*^ together with the townland, or 
lordship, ofTimohoe. 

Stbadbally Hall, the modern and improved residence of the 
Cosby family, is a commodio«s and. eligible mansion, surrounded 
by a demesne finely irregular in surface, and of considerable 
beauty, although tlie pleasure-grounds are not of great extent. 
On this demesne formerly stood one of the strongest castles of the 
0*Mores, much of whose property, together with their principal 
seat, was granted to the respectable family of Cosby.* 

* VITe present the followiDg anecdote, coBc^ralng this property, on 
file avtkority of Sir Charlei Coote, editor of the Statistical Survey of tbe 



108 BKAUTIK8 or IRILAND. 

Jb the umnedlite tidahy of the townof. StradMty must tlw 
be nalked Bmoklep- Pmrk, a tae pea* fermeiit oecopitd by tb# 
EeddfRoden. 

We DOW eBter apon a tract of;oe«titry (n«Miy th* Baronit <yr 
BaiAYADAiia) Qoncenriag \rhicb wepoesenaivMiiplildde olongi^ 
tmI lilanBalioB^ ihiil ihdMee as to expaitiateaft greater leftgth tbair 
itaaroadily.pvactwable in regard to eeveraldlstvlots klelf notieed. 

On leaviog the town of A thy, sitvaDed on the- eastern side of 
the riyer Bftrrow> and in the coaaty ol Klldare> we had a line of 
road, veeentlfr oompleted, which leads tfarovgh the Q«een*s coaiHy 
to Caatle-rComer^ in. the coanty of Kilkenny. This road is on a 
scate equal to the best work of the kind ia England^ It cannot, 
howQ?er» . boaet of any attractifaaatural sceneryi or artificial oh>^ 
jeot8> for the first three miles of its progresa. 

QueeD*B Codnfy. — ^*' An Irish chief, epyying that the estates of the 
O^ores shonld have Ireeiii trknaferred to English adventurers* sent the 
GMby« * bkagfttymeeeagej that he on a certain day would crds« the bridge 
of< Stradbally with.bb soldters, and denaaded for that pMposo a pasif 
which WM the reputed f«rm ojT a cballeBfa in those timeji*. ^o aUow it 
would be acknowledging the inferiority of the Cosbysy and a mark of ptt« 
sillanimity which never was the characteristic of that race. They, of 
course, prepared to give the Irish battle, and were ranged to dispute the 
pass with the enemy, who came in great numbers at the appointed time. 
The iseie of the battle was long- doabtful, whlcb was fought with grieat 
bravery aad penevoraaoe t and- at /many tiuMs each party leeiaed certain 
of luccets. Victory at leofftfa determUied ia faTear of .tko Qaihyt i ^bal 
amongst the brave men who fell thai day were included the cUefr on both 
sides. With Cosby, also fell his brother , the joint possessor of the esUte i 
and each had the benefit of survivorship. Their deaths were beheld by 
theip ladies from a wiiiddw in the castle, which overlooked the scene ; and 
oae«f them, at the Imtanther hnsbaad was killed^ called out to other 
wftaesses* * Remenlher ! my kaibaad did net Ml flrstv eease^aently the 
* estate descended to. him* aad is now the psoper^y-of my eldest sent* 
which remarkable saying coyld not be foi^t in the presence of so many 
witnesses, and determined the point in favour of the child of this lady, 
whose wary prudence, and unprecedented resolution, shewed a presence 
of mind as strong and superior to her sex, as her hardness of heart and 
want of tenderness were nnbecQmin^ of it."— Stat. Barvey of the Queen's 
Ce* pp« 17^—3. 



[lminstbk.] qubbn*s county. 103 

Colonel WeIdou*s jn4|cipvi8 improyements at Kiliiiafoj]|ey» po 
the south, are too remote to form a distinguishable feature, and the 
village of Ballylinau, through which it passes, possesses little 
daim to atten(io9.* Towards the north of this village, the Rev. 
Arthur Weldon'sf house and plantations, termed RaKn, may 
be seen y and beyond that place, on the Maryborough-road, is 
situated Baliyadanu Castle, The ruins of the embattled walls, 
piojecting towers, and elevated keep of tliis antient edifice, em- 
bosomed in venerable trees, produce an interesting and highly pic- 
turesque effect. On the opposite hill are the ruins of Bally adatM 
Ckurchj containing the monument, with the full-sized recumbent 
ef^es, of Robert Bowen, Eeq. of Ballyadams Castle, and his 
wife, Alice Hartpole, 0( Sbrule Castle . The head of one of these 
figures has been broken off; the other has been thrown on the 
ground, where it lies at present in an uninjured state. Near these 
ruins are two very antient wells, in a bed of solid lime stone, of a 
cylindrical form, and about fifteen inches in diameter. The depth 
of the one exceeds three feet, while that of the other is less than 
two. Medicinal qualities are attributed to these wells, of which, 
in the opinion of the peasantry, St. Patrick was the founder and 
patron j and, under an impression of their efficacy in the cure of 
head aches and disorders in the eyes^ they are occasionally re- 
sorted to for relief. To the north of Ballyadams Castle, and on 
Uie Maryborough road, lies 

SouTHvtLLB, a residence of the late Richard Grace, of Boley, 
Esq. M.P. whose name must not be mentioned without the 
humble tribi|te of our admiration.-^This enlightened, benevolent, 

* In the neighbourhood of ftsllylinan there was dog np^ by some pea« 
■anU, in >786, an earthen urn, containing a great number of mall silver 
eotat, teteral of wMch are depoiited in the muienn of Trinity. College, 
publin. The whole of the coins are believed to bear reference to Irlth 
monarcha and chiefs, between the years 862 and 900.^For further parti- 
calars see Camden's Britannia, Gough's Edit* Notes to Queen's Co. and 
Transacts, of R. J. A. vol. i. 

f This gentleman, who enjoys, gceatly to the benefit of his parish- 
ioners, the valuable rectory of Killabin, is of the earliest established family 
now extant in this district. The Weldons are reputed to have settled here, 



no ^ BSAtmMOV mSLAND. 

Mg manf j^iecps rf ancient ^Mimj^ a lUioiit dbgglnr, «r sword, of 
^ras8, and a {lin, tve ikiolieB lottg, iwkb ti chased braedi^ ^ tibe 
same metal, adorned with foor ydlow stoaee. These oraaueiited 
broacheB were fonoerly used for fastening the coHar of the loose 
•oKook, ntairtle, or togs, of the aotient Irish, it may also be 
rsmarhed4Jhat a tract of land, eonsisting of ahoat four acres, on 
4lie north aad south ^Mes of the chorch, hav« been long remark- 
«ble for containing rmt qaantMes of hnman bones. A "fond tra^ 
ditioa tkv99 aoeoonts for the ckcnmstonce ef these traces «f tnor*- 
tality lying oter eo considerable en extent of eHrfisee. When the 

* Viz. a silyer coin of King Edward I. (1304) which heara the king's 
head crowned, hot without a sceptrci and circumscribed *^ £dw. R. Angl. 
Dns. Hi.*' (BominuB Hiberniee) and on the reyeree acrpss between twelve 
round dots, circumscribed " Civitas Dublinie." Money, at this period, 
hore the natnet of <ae chies in wfai<h it •wms^ eoiaed, as netioe^ in Stow's 
qaotMtwa ef itheidiitkh of Rabert le Brnn, 

" On the 'king's side was his bead, and his name was written^ 
On the .cross side the city where it was smitten.^' 

A tUfer coin of Bdwaird IV. (U70) ^th the anas Of .France and Kuglattd 
quartered hy a cross, and circumBcribed ** Rex. Angli. et Franoie }*' aa4 
on the roYerse three crowns, with the circumscription 'VDomious Hibernie.*' 
Several silver coins of Queen Mary, with her head crowned, and circum- 
scribed ^* Jitktlo, D. G. Ang. Fra. et Rib. Regina," and on the reverse a 
Imi^picinmited, between the letters '^M." and '^R.** cirtfaBMcribed^'V-erttm 
TenpnrU. Bilia^ M.D.L. JJiJ." A nnoiber of the nelal lUiHngs and halft. 
crowns af King James U. with the king'thMul, ckcamscrihed '^ Jaeifbik 
11. Dei Gratia ;" and on the reverse -a crawn and two sceptres between, the 
letters *' J. R." circumscribed " Mag. Br. Fra. et Hib. Rex. 1689." The 
nominal value of these metal coins is marked in Roman figures above the 
crown, and the month of August underneath. At Mittoten Ca^fe,' distant 
abattt a quarter of a aiile to the-north of tbedrarch, wens aitoibnitfd ss^end 
Bp o ai hands, aaaxotheaid, andsome large aiad'SniaU riags^Anus, tagMlHr 
irilil a rudely din^d anii^ae ^t afmiaBd metelw— It may be hers nolisad 
that the Irish language is, in this neighbourhood, rapidly falling into dis- 
nfs« few nma under the age «€ 40 now aadai staad li{ bnty amsag the 
alder paaeantry» aometriMia tiadklaiua liaUads» on local and popular «i]^ 
laalOf^mi MrHre. Many of these 4mu^ ftaeatiaBscrihed by the diractioa 
<tt Mr. Shofield Graoe liroA. their oral voMaee, and soma of tham ane fnr 
from being dettitnte of poetical asfit. 



[lBINSTBR.] QfJBBN*!! COVftn. Ill 

''great jpfiigiie*' raged hi this^ountry^ and alllnittfin efibrtto 
arrest its inrj was unavaiKng, tbe monastic boundaries 6t Ratii- 
asbock offl^red it secure asylom to the despairing people. Who- 
ever took vefbge Within these holy limits escaped contagion ; for 
snch was the nnalterable virtoe of the place, that those who ar- 
rived there si^k, died in a few hoars, withoot spreading the in- 
fection, and were bnried on the spot where they breathed their 
last. S^eral thousands of people are said to have been interred 
here at that time, and-the nnmerons temporary habitations erected 
by the snrvivors, suddenly converted these sequestered scenes of 
religions meditation into the resemblance of a large and popaloos 
town. The origin of this tradition cannot, perhaps, be satisAic- 
torily devel<^ed : bat it is a singular fact that, on levelling a 
long earthen bank, of considerable thickness, and covered with 
low scrubby underwood, forty-two fire places were found in a 
fine, at the distance of about twenty feet asunder. They were 
chiefly constructed of small flat brick, and had no appearance of 
being designed for grates. 

Tbe Castle of Miltown fBallyvuiUing) and Inch House, ita 
opposite neighbour on. the western hills, are aho situated on the 
estate of Sir William Grace. We are not enabled to ascertain 
tbe origin of the former building, but its antiquity is evidently 
great, and quite beyond the reach, of local document or tradition. 
One sqnare tower constitutes the principal remains of this strec- 
tQre, to which is attached a modern dwelHng houte. Most ei 
the outworks, consisting of walls and earthen mounds, are now 
levelled, whilst stagnant fish-ponds occupy tbe site of the tfnr- 
rounding fosse. The situation of tins castle would appear to 
have been calculated for domestic comfort, rather than for defon*- 
sive warfare. The building is placed by the side of a shallow 
tivulet, and is well sheltered by failis in every direction, eseept 
towards the south. 

DMnirom (the hack fort) is the name of a very considerable 
I^n, or Ratb>* which ocoi^iea the highest poioi of .tbe ^Iff^ 

* We have already had occasion to observe that the words Dun and 
Rath are both ased in Ireland, to signify fortified places, conitracted be- 



11^ BBAUTIB8 or IRBLANO. 

Lills^ oa the eatate of Sir William Graoe^ oontignoiiB to tbe wooda 
ofGracefidd. Thi< vast earthen moand measoret 130 yards in 
diameter, on the summit, which is enclosed by a high bank. The 
anrronnding fosse is twenty feet wide at bottom, and presents an 
opposing declivity of nearly thirty feet. A well of fine water, which 
is within the endosnre on the top, is neither effected by the sum- 
mer's drought or the winter's rain, and affords a permanent sup- 
ply of water ; whilst the lower ground, immediately adjoining, is 
wholly destitute of this necessary element.— A metal vesselj con- 
taming several short earthen pipes for smoking, has been lately 
found here. Such pipes are often found in various parts of Ire- 
land> and are commonly termed Danish pipes. A more valuable 
discovery was also recently made, in the form of a piece of pure 
gold, which was found in the fosse by a peasant, who sold it at 
Carlow for the sum of 17/* 

Dundrom commands a most extensive and interesting prospect. 
The Stradbally hills, the town, slender tower, and verdant curragh 
of KOdare; the doud-capt Lugnacullia (the eagle's nest) and other 
humbler links of the Wicklow mountains, *' arrayed in many a dun 
and purple streak**; the town of Carlow^ sheltered by its richly- 
wooded back ground ^ the undulating chain of the Slievemargy 
hills, with Mount Leinster's lofty head towering from behind, are the 
boundaries of the magnificent panorama here presented. A great 
portion of the County of Kildare, and of the Queen's County, ap- 
pears from hence, as a map spread mthin this strongly marked 
outline. The improved demesnes, occasional woods along tbe 
landings of the river Barrow, towns, villages, churches, monastic 
and castle ruins^ with com fields and meadows of exuberant fer- 
tility, and numerous farm houses, with their flocks and herds, and 
the various active objects of rural life, unite in giving an animation 
to t|ie picture that is highly gratifying. On the south a high pro- 
jecting point of the Slievemargy hills appears from hence, as if 

fore tlM arts of SMaonry and caitolUtAo were adopted. In this, and 
aaiiy other parta of the country, the tenn of Dun ii applied to fortMlsa- 
tioM of eupeiior magnitude, whilst by the word JZafA is understood works 
of a similar character, on a scale comparatively diminutive. 



[leinster.] quken's county. IIB' 

crowaed with the venerable trees that mirrouiid the Grace man* 
solemn « The commanding elevation of Duadr^m* and its oon- 
tiguity to Gracefield woods, indaced a party of the rebels,, in 
179S, to occopy it with on^ of their rude encampmeuta. 

This antient bill- fortress, in common with most similar vestiges 
of remote times in Ireland, is the scene of a very poetical bnt fan* 
tastic degree of popular superstition, in i^egard to the existence of 
fairies. Even in fairy repute there are gradations ; and Dundmm/ 
as relates to this neighbourhood, may be termed the high court of 
the elfin train. The operations of these tiny people in the games 
of foot ball, hurling, and other rural amusements,' are often, ac« 
cording to the report of old and young, heard to proceed from 
thence. Some are known to be on horsebadc, and others running 
round a green circle .** Few peasants- will venture on exciting the 
malicions enmity of these sprites, by disturbing their gambola with' 
passing over this place after nightfall. The supposed identity «f 
the fairies with the fallen angels, and their balntiMl aalevoleneey- 
are as inconsistent with the appellation of ^' Good People,'* here 
given to them, as the Daome Shi\ or Men of Peace, of the High-' 
landers, merit the character of peaceable. Any intrusi<on on their 
rights of time or place is, sooner or later, punished by the death- 
of cattle, and poultry, the overthrow of hay ^d com stacks, the 
Iratture of a limb, and often by the death of the unintentional 
offender ! It is not less generally asserted than fully believed, 
that a child was carried off, and kept a year and a day, for acci- 
dentally intruding upon their midnight amusements : 

** It waft between the niglit and day. 
When the fairy king has power. 
That he tuok down in a nofol fray. 
And, *twixt life and death, was snatched away, 
To the joyless elfin bower.*' 

Scott*s Lady of the Lake, canto iv. sUnia zv. 

* These fairy circles are more common in countries snbject to freat 
storms of thander and lightning, than in Ireland. It is well known that they 
are supposed to be occasioned by the lightning, which, tike all other fires, 
moves ronnd, and burat more in the extramltiM than in the middle. 

VOL. If. I 



HH: bkahtiks of iriland. 

In tbe mall bat pleasing village of Arlef, on tbe road bettrMn 
GraceSelct and Garlov, is a faaereal edifice, leated " amidat tbe 
grove that crowns the tofted bill," wtiicb reqaires attertive notice, 
as well on acconnt of tbe architectnral taste tbere dispUyed, aa the 
diatingoished intereat of tbe bmily to vrboBe bonoar it is devoted. 
■^rbis itTDctare has been re-erected on the site of a decayed 
bnilding, appropriated to tbe same gratefnl purpose. Strength, 
Utility, and el^ance, are its obvious characteristics. The whole 
&bric is composed of cot stone. It coDtains two apartments, both 
arched, the lower being for tbe repodtory of tbe dead, and tbe 
upper for tbe reception of commemorative innral monnments. The 
roof is wholly composed of stone, resting on the high pointed arch 
of the upper, or monomental, Gharober, and imbedded in Roman 
cement. This nniqoe featore in modem arcbitectore is designed 
in imitation of St. Dontoagb's Chnrcb, described in onr notice of tbe 
Ooonty of Doblia, An admirable correctness of taste is evinced in 
the aimpla and noostentatioos order ot tbe pmnted style adopted in 
thia building, and the effect of tbe interior is remarkably chaste, so- 
leom, and conseqnently appropriate. Each of the exterior flanUng 
•Ralls contains twoof theold marblemonomentsoftbe Grace family; 
attd over the entrance to the burial vanlt is placed a tablet of 
Kilkenny marble, with the following inscription : 

OirK.A*AHHi:.rENEH.KPAnOI.THA'.'lEPON.TnNON. 

KoiMnNTAi^NHntEiN.MH.AErE.Tcnn;.ArAean:.» 

HOC SEPVLCRUM 
.VANAOH, FILIA UICHAELIS GRACE DB GRACE- 
FIELD, ARU. 
GULIELMUS GRACE BARONBTTUS. 

EI FRATREB EJUS, 

SHEFFIELDUS, JURIS COJfSULTUS, 

E^lEtlS, KEGIf CLAEBIB PRjBFECTDS, 

WllUa,Ilit««.<MaiaiB Mcrsd dMt nrliae, 
Tbqlovc, laDglnutof Oraca'iBoblflUaa 

Tb«j an n«i d«u) ibouKfa illMt htn thajt U*. 

How caa-Uw aMWe and iha iMmm dtai 



[LCINtTRR.] QVBKN'h CO0NTY. 115 

PONI CURAVERUNT 

A.D. MDCCCXVni 

81BI POSTERISQUE: 

QUO LOGO FUIT OLIM AU8TRALIS ALA OQIS ARLESIANiE 

ABOLIYERIO GRACE DE SHANGANAGH, SITE GRACEFIELD, 

ARMIGt 

ANNO SALITT18 MDOLXXXVII JEDIFICATA, 

JAMDIU VETU8TATB COLLAPSA, 

UNA CUM SEPULQ(II8 FAMILIJS GRACEFIELDIAN^ 

IBI EXTRUCT18. 

HIC, UBI LAP8A JACENT GENTIS MONUMENTa VETUSTJE, 

IN DOMINOSQUE RUU^T BUSTA CADUGA SUOS; 

AU8PICIIS FAUSTIS £T 8PE MELIORE, SEPULCRUM 

JAM REFICIT PRATRUM C0N80CIATUS AMQR. 
SIT SACRUM PIETATIS OPUS 1— SERVETUR eI" IP8I8 

MORTE OBITA, PROAVIS QUAM TRIBUERE, QUIBS. 8. G. 

Hq fbllowing^ epitaph on Mary, wife of the first Michad 

Grace, of Gracefield, deteribea an amiable character in agreeable 

terms: 

HERE 

JLYETH THE BODY OF 

MRS. MARYIGRACE, 

LATE WIFE OF 

MICHAEL GRACE, ESQ. 

SHE' WAS 

RELIGIOUS WITHOUT OSTENTATION, 

PIOUS WITHOUT HYPOCRISY, 

FRIENDLY WITHOUT FLATTERY; 

TO THE DISTRESSED 

A SUPPORT, 

TO THE ORPHANS, A MOTHER : 

IN HER LIFE ATTENDED WITH MANY BLESSINGS, 

HER DEATH WITH MANY TEARS. 

The origin of the Grace fiamily is traced to a period extremely 
remote, and it exhibits, in its earliest stages, so very corioas and 
authentic an illastration of the freqnent, bat systematic, variations 
of surnames, as to render the following genealogical diagram in- 
stmctive as well as interesting : 



116 



BEAUTIES OF IRELAND. 





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o 



Its • * 

« « u S 

-rf »^^ 

&««^ 

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«*« 

> >» 

2 « a 

OS 



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.■as* 




CO 






3 s <• « 
tEfc-s 



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^•S ' i 

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a r«j „ 

■*■ mt Gbi B 



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tf ** s 

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9 * a 
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won 

i o a 

B «il 



[lbinstxa.] qvmn*» oovnty. ^ 117 

FVom IVlUiam Fits Raymond* descended B^ipu Almaric Otm, 
of Coortstown, and lord of Grace's Country ; who^ by commaiid of 
King Aichard U. dated 3Srd of December, 1385, married, *'for 
ike better preservation of the peace of the caanty of KUkemty,'' 
Trbina, daughter of 0*Meagber, tbc powerful priuce, or dynasty 
of Ikerrin. He was buried in St. Jokn*8 Abbey, at Kilkenny, and 
was succeeded by John Gras. Baron of Courtstown, and custos 
pads of Kilkenny, in 1410. Anselm Gras, baron John's successor, 
was appointed,^rdof Jane, 1491, sherifTofthe county of Kilkenfiy, 
duriog the king's pleasure. He married Alicia, dftnghter of Sir 
James Morres, lord of Lateragh, and had issiie Oliver ny Fenoig 
(the bearded) Baron of Courtstown^ a powerful and distlitguished 
man of his time. By his wife, Ellen, daughter of 0*More, prince^ 
or dynast, of Leix, he had Baron John Gras Fitz Oliver^, his suc- 
cessor 5 Oliver Gras Fitz Oliver, the last lord abbot of Jerpoiot, 
county of Kilkenny; and James Gras Fitz Oliver, of Corristuwn 
Castle. John Gras, Baron of Courtstown, (denominated by the 
Irish AN jCrios Jarain, or the iron belted) married Catharine, 
daughter of Pierce Poer, Lord pf Cnrraghmore;. and is said to 
have had twenty children, of whom the eldest was Bpu'on John 
Gras Fitz John,t from whom the succeeding barona of Courtstown 
and lords of Grace's Conntry, were descended ; and the second was 
Sir Oliver Grace, of Legan and Ballylinck CastleS:, in the connty 
of Kilkenny, and of Carney Castle,, in the county of Tipperary. 

On the 98th of September, 1563> Que^n Elizabeth granted to ' 

* The eDSoiDg genealogicar accoont of a branch of the Grace familj, 
tong of great power in the county of Kilkenny, U carried to a greater ex- 
tent than h strictly consistent with the nature of our work $ but is presented 
from the united motives which cause our deviating, in some few similar 
iostancei, from the projected oatlines of oar design. — The family concerning 
which it treats, is of onasoal interest with the investigator of this part of 
Ireland ; and the genealogical detail affords many valnable particulars of 
topographical information. 

-f The richly sculptured tomb of marble, erected to this Baron of 
Conrtstown^s memory, is still standing between the first and second pillars 
at the eastern extFemity of the soath side of the nave of the Cathedral af 
Kilkeotty, and Is noticed In oar account of that cbarch* 



118 BBA0T1K8 or IftBLANO. 

Mr (Hirer iSrate the ^te> estates^ and fivmgs in tbe entities of 
flpper&iy a^d Kilkeaiiy, the King's County, and els^wliere, of 
the dissolired Priory of St. John, near Nenagh. He was retamt^ 
to parliament for the coanty of Tipperary, on the I^h of January, 
1559, and was constitnted, together with the Earl of Ormonde, 
Visconnt Monntgarrett, and Lord Dunboyne, commissioner of 
array, and keeper of the peace, of the counties of Kilkenny and Tip- 
perary. f%e daitiea of Legan and Ca/mey were erected by te», 
bnt his widow, who died on the 2nd of December, 1605, and was 
buried near him in Jerpoint Abbey, is reputed to have founded, or 
to have finished, the more spacious edifice of BaiiyHnck, on the * 
banks of the river Nore. He married Mary, sister of Maurice 
Fitz Gerald, Lord Viscount Decies, and eldest daughter of Sir 
Gerald Fitz Gerald, of Decies, (great grandson of Jaihes, seventh 
Earl of Desmond) by Ellice, fourth daughter of Pierce Butler, 
eighth, Earl of Ormonde ; and had issue, Gerald Grace, of Bally- 
liach and Legsn Castles, wlio, together with Sir William Hartpole^ 
of 8hrule Castle, and John Grace, of Agbaviller Castle, obtained a 
patent of pardon from Queen Elizabeth, dated 14th of December, 
15d7» for all offences against the state. He deceased on the 4th 
of March, 1618, and was buried at Jerpoint Abbey, having married 
Margaret^ daughter of Sir Robert Hartpoie, of Shrule Castle, and 
governor of the county, town, and castle of Carlow^ who died 
on the Ilth of February, 1619, and was also interred at Jek^oint. 
By this lady he had Issue, Oliver Grace, of Ballylinch, &c. who died 
on the ^th of August, 1696, as appears by the Inguintion post 
mortem taken at Thomastown, on the 9th of October following, 
and was buried at Jerpoint Abbey, having married Margaret, 
daughter of Edmund Butler, second Lord Visooaat Monntgarrett, 
by his wife Grany, daughter of Bamaby Fitz Pfttriok, first Lotd 
U^er'Ossory. He bad issue Gerald Orace, of Bkllyfinch, &c. a 
ndnor, aged 18 ait his father's death. Iflie Court of Wards and 
Liveries granted his wardslup, for the fine of 500/, on the 12th of 
December, 1626, to Sir Thomas Loftns^ of Killyan^ whose) wift^ 
Ellen Haitpole, of Shroie, was sister to his pafteml gmndmoCher. 
On the 16th of FabHiary, ieS4, he bud a spedd fivel7 of hii 



[LBIBrSTEB.] 0UBSN*8 COUNTY. 119 

herituioej for Ike fine of 70/. vqd in 1^9> his ertates were mtaakd 
on the seToral m«le heirs of hi^ graodfirther, by virtse of ihe 
commiisioii for the remedy of defectire titles. During the parHa- 
meatary war he eommanded a corps in the army of his unclA, thtf 
Lord MoQotganrettj and was skin at the battle of Kihnsh^ on.tke 
I5th of April, 164^. He married Ellen, eldest daughter of Edrndnd 
Bntler, third Lord Danboyne, by his wife Margaret, daughter and 
heir to Thomas Batler, fourth Lord Cahier . Margaret Butler, thd 
only child of James, foorth Lord Danboyne^ dying withont issne, 
this Ellen's descendants became, thereby, representatives of the 
third Lord Dunboyne, and of the fourth Lord CaUer, as abo 
of the second Lord Upper Ossory, by the marriage of her great 
grandfather, James, second Lord Dunboyne, with Margaret, 
daughter and sole heir to Sir Barnaby Fitz Patrick, second Lord 
Upper Ossory. Gerald Grace had issue by this marriage John, 
who died withont issue, and William^ denominated of Ballylinch> 
but who resided at Barrowmount, a seat of the Lord Gahnoya, in 
the county of Kilkenny, the great patrimony of his family being 
seized upon by the Commonwealth during the nnnority of hie dder 
brother John, on account of his father's adherence to the royal canae. 
These vast estates were thus confiscated by Oliver Croinwell, 
who distributed them among his foliowera. BoMylinch Castle was 
granted to Captain John Joyner, who conveyed it to his bnther* 
in-law, colonel Daniel Redman, whose ddest dttughfeer a»d co« 
heir, Eleanor Redman, thns heiress of Ballylinch, mto^ng James 
Butler, third Viscount Ikerrine, carried it into thit fendly, and ^ 
has been ever since the chief seat of her descendants> the Earis iff 
Carrick. In 1661, William Gtnoe «igiMd tHei oeMintadfvoDeB- 
tation and remonstrance of the CifthoHc nobility and principal 
gentry of Ireland, to King Charles II. By his will, dated 10th 
of January, 1669, he desires himself <o be interred '' a&ibng his 
ancestors in the Abbey of Jerpomt.** He iharriM £leanor, sister 
of Edward Butler, second Lord Viscount Galmoy, and daughter of 
the Honourable Pierce Butler, by Margaret, daughter of Nich^l^, 
first Lord Viscount Netterville. William Grace had iafloe by this 
marriage, Oliver, of Shanganagh, in the Qaeen's County, his 



' 



IM BBAVTIBS OF IRELAND. 

•oeoeBSor, and Jobn^ who married Anne^ the daughter and heir of 
John Grace, of Thomaatown, and had issue an only child, EKza- 
beth Grace, who died at Bath in 1780, and was buried at Keins- 
ham Abbey^ having married Ricbard Gamon, of Datchworthbnry, 
county of Herts, who died in London, 1786, and was also buried 
at Keinsham, leaving issue Sir Richard Gamon, and Anna Eliza 
Gamon, married, in 1778, to James Brydges^ third Duke of 
Chandos, whose only daughter. Lady Anna Eliza, married Rich- 
ard Grenville> Duke of Buckingham and Chandos. Sir Richard 
Gamon, Bart. M. P. for Winchester, was created a baronet of 
England, 11th of April, 1795, with remainder to Richard Grace, 
of Boley, Esq. M. P. He married Lady Amelia Murray, eldest 
daughter of John, third Duke of Athol, who died October 14th 
1806, and deceasing himself on the 8th of April, 1818, and 
leaving an only daughter, Charlotte Amelia Gamon, the baronetage 
devolved upon Sir William Grace, the ddest son of Richard Grace, 
agreeable to the limitation of the patent above mentioned. 

Oliver Grace, of Shanganagh, (now Gracefield) in the Qaeen*s 
County, the eldest son of William Grace, of Ballylinch, was ap* 
pointed, in 1689, chief remembrancer of the Irish exchequer, and 
a member of King James's privy coundl; and was chosen as the 
representative in PSarliament of the borough of Ballynakill, in the 
Queen's County. He received a general pardon for his adherence 
to King James IL and for all other offences against the state, dated 
the 91st of May, 1696 3 and dying on the 8th of June, 1708, aged 
47, was buried in the south wing of Aries Church, (or Grace's 
chq>el) of which he was the founder. He married Elizabeth,* 
(wliore*nianied with Edmund Butler, sixth Lord Viscount Moont- 
garrett) the only surviving child of John Bryan, of Bawnmore, by 

* All the deicendanfs of Oliver Grace, by his wife, Blisabeth Brjao, 
are, as foander's Un, entitled to a preference in the election of Fellowe 
at All Soah' College, Oxford. In the ** Siemmata Chichleana^** No. 91* 
their descent may be deduced, throofh the families of Walsh, Sheffield) . 
Tere, Trnssel, and Kene, A'om Agnes Chichele, the grand daughter of 
WUllaB Chicheloi whe was youngest brother of Henry Cbichele, Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury » and founder of that College, temp. Henry VI. 



[LBtNSTBIt.] queen's COUNTY. 1^1 

bis second wife, ITrstila, second daughter and eyentaal co-heir to 
Walter Walsh, of Castle Hoel, by his wife, Magdalen Sheffieldf, 
afster of Edmund Sheffield, second Earl of Molgrave, and grand 
aunt, and eventual sole heir, to Edmund Sheffield, secoh'd Dute of 
Buckingham and Normanby . Oliver Grace had, amo^g other issile 
by this marriage, Michael of Gracefield, his successor, and Rbbert> 
married to Catharine, only child of Sheffield Grace, of the' Courts- 
town family, by his wife, Elizabeth, Dowager Viscountess Dillon, 
by whom he had issue Sir Edmund Grace, a knight of Malta, 
living in 1778* 

* In confirmation of the fact of Sir Edmnnd Grace's existence in 1778^ 
the following curious circumstance may be mentioned : Oliver Grace, 
of Gracefield, was residing at Kilkenny, when his relative, the knight of 
Malta, came to Ireland to make him a visit. The knight attended the prin- 
eipal Catholic Chapel of that city, on Che Smday, when, at a certain part 
•f the ceremony, he soddenly (in compliance wiith the cntton ofhia ordar) 
drew his sword from the scabbard, and raised the naked blade aloft, to the 
indescribable dismay of a crowded congregation, who, supposing him to 
be mad, rushed precipitately from the chapel. After a short interval he 
replaced his sword, the audience returned, and divine worship was re- 
commenced. Sir Edmund Grace was induced to devote himself to a foreign 
•ervice by the disqiialifyiag inflaence of the penal code t an influence very 
•tvikiogly evinced in the e^cfesiastical, dvil,. and military cpnoeetims of 
this family with the state, during the last century. Oliver Grace, lord 
fibbot of Jerpoint, an ecclesiastical peer of parliament, temp. Henry 
YIII. was the last acknowledged descendant it possessed in holy orders. 
The county of Kilkenny had been represented by Barons of Courtstown 
in the parliaments of 1559, 1568, 1613, 16S4, and 1669. In the lait-natfed 
parliament .there' were fow sitting measbars of this family % since which 
period the name ^oet not appear on the pariianiii^ntary rolls till that of the 
late Richard Grace, of Boley , occurs in 1 79S* Oliver Grace, of Gracefield, 
M. P. who died in 1708, was the last who held a civil official situation. 
In 1689, he was chief remembrancer of the exchequer, an office now en- 
joyed by the Marquess 'Wellesley. The same fact may be observed in the 
records of the military department. Colonel Richard Grace, who com- 
nanded at Athlone for King James, against the besieging armies of 
0enerals Douglass and De Ginkle, and the Baron of Courtstown^ who 
raised and equipped a regiment of foot and a troop of horse for the same 
sovereign, are the last names of this family that can boast of being per« 
mitred to claim the title of a British soldier. 



12S BEAUTIES OF IRBLAXIV. 

Michael Grace> of Graoefield^ by the deat)N» of Edmand, the 
last Dake of Bttcks^ and of Margaret tad M9§ikleQ Walsh, aiio- 
ceeded to the undeYised real estates in the coHBties of Middlesex^ 
Snssexy and York, of the Sheffield fftmiiyj as heir to Ms great 
grand-mother, the above-mentioned Magdalen Sheffield, who wae 
great avat and sole heir to tjie last Dnke of Backs, in which 
he was confirmed by the judicial decree of the lord chaneeilor 
Nortbington. He died on the 19th of February, 1760, aged 78* 
and was buried in Grace's Chapel, at Aries, having married Mary, 
daughter of John Galway, of Lota, by Elizabeth, his wife, eldest 
sister of Sir John Meade, Bart, whose grandson. Sir John Meade, 
was created, in 1776, fiarl of ClanK^illiam -, and she deceasing on 
the iSth of November, 1736, aged 55, was also interred at Aries. 
Michael Grace had, among other issue by this marriage, first, Oliver, 
of Gracefield, his successor ; second, John, of Sheffield, who died 
ttiuBarried, on the 19th of September, 1760, and was buried at 
Aifles ; third, William, who resided chiefly in England and France, 
and died in London, on the ^3rd of November, 1777> having 
married, in 1746, Mary, daughter and eventual sole heir to Richard 
Harford, of Marshfield, near Dublin, by whom he Jiad issue two 
sons and one daughter, .via. first, Richard of Boley, who resided at 
So«thfille, in the Queen's County, M. P. on whom, as already 
mentioned, the En^ish baronetage of Sir Richard Gamon was 
entailed) second, John, a captain of carabineers in the imperial 
service of Germany, who died, unmarried, at the siege of Belgrade, 
on the 21st of Octot^r, 17S9; Clara Louisa miirried, in 1782, to 
William Midddton, of Stockeki Pack, co»bty of York. Richard 
Grace, of Boley, matfied, 4tt 17^, Jtattt, daughter of the Honour^' 
able John Evans, son of George, first Loi-d Carbe)*y, and, dying 
on the 9th of January, 1801, aged 40, was buried at Aries. He 
left issue by his said wife, Jane, who died in Dublin on the 24th 
of April, 1804i and was also interred at Aries, three sons and two 
daughters, vis. first. Sir William Grace, who succeeded, as above 
stated, on the 8th of April, 1818, to the title bi baronet) second, 
Sheffield, of Lincoln*s-Inn, F. S.A.; and third, Perdy, a captain 
in the royal navy 3 Jane, married to George Brooke, brother of 



[UIINSTKM.] aOMM'8 C0VlfVY. '19S 

airikAryBlwik% wtiMB^moMtt, Bat.; ttid LraniCaFdVae. 
--•filieflWd, tin foiirtb Mft of Mkbi^ 

in DnUn, on tlie filh of Sepkelnbte^ \if4i$, ogod 5<> md wm in- 
-tenred ot Aries, ha/mg muxw&^mMs, duvgliler ^of if$km fiagol^ 
of Cufdo fiagot, by 'whom beiMpd iwiio an only obOi^ ^Rw^oMMid, 
vrfao dM, nnmnrtiodj in Ft$me. 

Oimr Ck«oe, of Ck<ne0fieM, was bora on the ilk of PiM»ttdb«r, 
IfM, and dying at Kiikenfiy, on the t44h of Angist, 17S1> ««ed 
77> wnt inteired at Alias. He marrMI, in December, i73S,Mafy, 
only dangbler and «vienitnal heir to idHn fioHf^H, of MaiMa Home, 
who died mt OraceAcfld on «he 14th of November, 17^, agoA 65, 
and waa buried at Aries. By this kdy he had issoe two sons, vfs. 
MKchad, of Graceiield, his sncceasor, and Jobn, of Mantaa, nt 
which plaee he died on the 9dtli of Affnii 1811, aged ^6, and was 
^hunbd at Talsk Abbey, haying nmrried, m 1788, Mary, danghter 
and co-heir to Patrick Hnssey, of Ardemore, by whom ie hsd 
issue Oliver Dowvll, of Mantaa, married on the 9rd of ^ptember, 
1819, to Frances, only snrviviiig child of Sir Richard Nagle, BsM. 
by his first wife, Catharine, daughter and heiress of Maorice Fitz 
Gerald, of Pnndiar*s Oraagie, and has issue John*Dowell-Pitz 
Gerald Grace, bom 11th of July, 185(1. 

Michael Grate, of Graoefidd, died on the 99th of Airguit, 
1785, aged 50,' and was boned at Aries, having married Mary, 
danghterand co-heir to Nicholas Plnnket, of Diintoghly Gaitle, 
who died in Dublin, the 9th of October, 1797, and was bnned at 
Aries. By her he had Issue an only daughter, vis. Alicia Grace, 
of Graceiield, and of Dnnsoghly Castle, married, in I79S^ to 
Morgan, third son of Thomas Kavanagh, of Berres Mouse, in the 
county of Carlow, who ^ymg on the 7th of November, 1904, was 
Intend in the bnrial place of the Kavanagh fkmily, at St. MnlHns, 
county of Carlow.* 

* In the flevald^B Office the armorial bearing of the Oracefield famil Jr 
are blasoned in a coat, coasisting of thirty-fiTe qtiarteHogv, birt the aroife 
commonly ttMd by that family are formed of foar qnarterings, 'Viz.--^Ist« 
gules f alien rampant per lets, argent and «rf Snd. gulett a SaHire at^ent, 
between twelve cross croslets or, a mnllet for dHference; Sipd. o'r^ a bhief 



\M BBA0Tias or tmMi^nB, 

. To. the fiMtt of the wnM bat pktnresqM bamfet'of Afles; if 
tttoalied Baixicxmotlbr^ wliicb> prevkNw to the rebellkm, was m 
•TiUag« rapidly ifnproTiAg in evtent and wealth. The devafltation 
aad roiooaa effecta of that lemeatable event are atiU obvious, not- 
urithtftandipgthennremitling exertions of William Cooper, Esq. 
the patriotic proprietor, to recal the indastryaod happiness which 
had been previoosly seated there. • At a short distance from htnce, 
tbereridence of that gentleman presents itself to Tiew, embosomed 
in wood, and decorated with many beauties of sylvan scenery. 
The mansion of Coorna's HitL, though much improved by the 
present proprietor, is of a character inferior to the extent of the 
grounds, and thc^ value of the estate. The views obtained from 
this place are unspeakably fine, and are^ perhaps, only equalled 
in this county, by the scenery displayed from Dundrom, already 
npticed on Sir Willuim Grace *8 estate of Boley. The liberality of 
sentiment, hospitality of disposition, and magisterial utility of Mr. 
Cooper^ are too well known and appreciated, to require the bumble, 
but disinterested, meed of our applause. 

. Sbrulb Gastlb, which is distant about three miles from 
Cooper^s Hill, and still nearer to Carlow, conducts us to the 
eastern confines of the county. This massive, and once important. 
Structure, is seated on the banks of the river Barrow, aad was 
erected, in tlifs reign of Queen Elizabeth, by Sir Robert Hartpole, 
constable of Carlow Castle, and governor of the Queen's County. 
It will be recouped that the name of Hartpole occurs among the 
seven tribes, already noticed as having obtained vast possessions 
in this county. Among the^. Sir Robert Hartpole appears to 
have been the founder of the most. considerable, tboqgh not of the 
mqst durable^ family. He died in 1594, leaving issue Sir William 
and Sir George Hartpole, both successively of Shrule Castle; and 
three daughters, viz. EUenor, married to Francis Cosby, of Strad- 

iiideoted azure« three escallop iheUs in bend coanlerdMnged ; 4Ui. argent^ 
a chevron between three garbs, guUt,, Crests, 1st. on a wreath a demy 
lion rampant, argent ^ 9nd. on a wreath a- boar's bead and neck erased, or, 
-7Snpportert, the dexter a Hon proper } the sinister a boar er.— Motto : 
" Concordani nomine faicu." 



[lbinitsa.] qvbsm'h COtfNVy. 1^6 



iMiUy, 1^ was slun in 16M $ Mwgvret, taO^rdkd Griotf^ of 
BdiyHodi Gutto, wbo Atd in 1^19; abd i)lleD> td Bfr TbonaH 
Loftna, of Timoho, who diad in 1635. The \GlesceiidaM» of tbesb 
Jadies, in thefiiinilieS'Of Coaby, of Stradbally, Grace^ of €hracefiald^ 
and Jjoltos^ ol Kiliyaa, atiU poaaaBs oonsidarabte (nroparty in this 
and the a^oiaiag ooonty. The representalives, however^ of the 
Hartpaie ftmily, are named Bowen and Laicky^ to which gentlemen 
the two co-heiresses of the last male proprietor of Shmle Castle 
were married. 

AbbbyoLsix, formerly a place of some distinction^ as the prin- 
cipal seat of O'More, the head of a powerlal native sept, is now 
entitled to the attention and admiration of the topographer, in a 
aaperior degree, on acoonnt of the great improTements ejected 
by the present noble owner of this estate, the Visconnt de Vescy, 
and his immediate ancesfor. A religions honse was fonnded here, 
as is believed, about the year 600 ; bat the existing history of 
this stroctnre eommences with its re-fbondation, A. D. 1188, 
under the auspices of Gorcheger 0*More. By that chieftain the' 
abbey of Leix was filled with Cistertian monks, fitnn the abbey 
of Baltinglass ; and the re- founder was himself interred within its' 
walls. The religions society at this place mfdntained a high de- 
gree of reputation throughout several centuries; and a town of 
considerable extent, denominated Abbey-Leix, progressively arose' 
under their protection. The chief historical event preserved con- 
oerning this town, relates to a serious skirmish, in the year 14^1, 
between the partisans of the Earl of Ormonde; and the sept of 
Fitz-patrick. In this action the adherents of the Earl were routed, 
mith considerable loss. Among the slain were two gentlemen, 
of weight in the county of Tipperary, named Puroell and Grant. 
Ten persons uf rank were made prisoners, and not less than two' 
hundred men, of various classes, fled for shelter to the sanctuary 
of the abbey. In the fifth year of Queen Elizabetk the dissolved 
abbey of Leix, together with twenty acres of arable land apper- 
taining thereto, was granted, vSubject to a small aniitial -rent, to 
Tliomas Earl of OrjBKmde. It is observed by Mr; Arehdall that 
the lands bebpging to ^his monastery were, aft the same time. 



V9Si BBAUTIM or lEB&MID. 

ertiiiMledataaaacra. N«t«iiy tnuM of thtmoDatlic haHdiiigs, 
oroC ttftitairtbofjlkii CKMoMi^ am b«» t» be diiowMMd ; nor 
^ aay va i t i gps eaart witiiin tlia manavy of Kriag peraoas.. 

The aatient toivn of Abboy-Lebc, vhieb had siiiik into a ttete 
<]if issigiufioanoe^ was enlirdy taken down fay die late Lord do 
Vescy^ imd a new town, or Tillage, foonded on a more digiUe 
eite. Under the patronage of the present Vueoant^ this hae be- 
come one of the neateit and moat pleasing villagea in the provinee' 
of Leinster. The honsea are marked by the most oniamental 
feataree compatible with tme, andmsticj cottage-ofaaracter. To 
each. it. attaohed a naefol garden ; and an air of rural beauty. ren» 
dered additionally yalaable by theappearanee of domestic comlbrt, 
peryades the whole weH-^rganised village. The Chnrch is a 
deoorons stractare^ of amfde proportions. At this plaoe is a 
school, oC some celebrity, for the edncation of yonng gentlemen, 
which is conducted^ nnder the pirt;ronage of LsmI de Vesoy, on 
what baa been termed the lioUan mode, of blendiDg gymnastie 
taition with the nsaal forms of edncation. 

TheiMANSfON ov ABBBar'*LBix, oonsdtnting the seat of Vis* 
Qoont de Vesey, is a capadons and handsome bnilding, faced with 
cnt stone, erected by the fother of the present nobleman, in the 
year 1774. The demesne is very extensive, and greatly enridicd 
with woods, of a &ne and venerable growth, which are, in save* 
rai parts, formed into ornamental, and tmly noble, avennes. 
Bnt this territory is entirely indebted to art for its beanties. Its 
sitmtion is low, and the contignoos country is naUnrally one raat 
extent of beg. So jndicioits and persevering have been the eflbrts of 
the mamieent family of De Vescy, that a trai*t, utterly cheerless 
and napromisittg whilst at remained under the sway of the CMores, 
now smiles in extensive cidtivation, and constitates a domain 
worthy of the noble owner. 

HnrwooD, tl^ seat <^ the Trench family, distant from Abbey- 
Leixrabottt four miles, towards the east, is a demesne possessing 
few natural advantages, . esccpt an iirqpilarity of sarfece. Much 
oorreetness of taste has been exercised, in converting this sterile 
district into a eoene of real beanty. The groands are finely adorn* 



[LBIN8TBR.J QFSBN*8 COlTllTY. 197 



ed with fltrtfftckd sprtadi of water, and tliepUaltationf are dtoposed 
wMi an sdmiraMe knowledge of the principles of landscape* 
gardening. 

At TiMABOB^ distant about aeven miles flrom Abbey-Lox, a , 
monastery was founded by St. Mi^hoe, wio died A. D. 4df ; 
which instilation was afterwards re-fonnded by tiie CVMores. 
Some vnimportant remains of the bnildiligs are still to be seen j 
and in the pronnrity of the mins is a roand, or plOar-tower. At 
the distance of abont one mile from the tower is an antient rath, 
or fort. 

Agbabob; a small and hnmble village, is noticed nnder the 
name of ^-ch^-bou in the life of St. Colnmba, written by Adam- 
nanns, abbot of the Cnldean monastery of Hy> one of the He- 
brides. The fthh orthography Achadh-ho signifies the field of 
the ox ; an appellation evidently appropriate, on account of the 
richness of pasturage in this parish and its neighbourhood. At 
this pierce a religious establishment was instituted by St. Ganice, 
in the sixth century ; and the see of Ossory was afterwards trans- 
lated hither, but was removed to Kilkenny in the reign of Henry II. 
In the year 1250, as is stated by Mr. Archdall, or, according to 
other writers, in 1382, an abbey for friars of the order of St. 
Dominick was founded on or near t)ip site of the antient monastery, 
by Florence Fitz-patrkk> prin«e of Ossory. We afe trid by 
Aiehdall that the '^ great ehnrch** of Aghaboewas bniltA. D. 
1234. Of this building some remains possibly exist in the pre- 
sent parochial church, which appears to have constituted the 
chancel of a more extensive Ubnc. This structure Is in the 
pointed styloj bnt without any ewinent beanties^ or pecoUari-* 
ties. The northern wall, oa the inner side, is '^adorned with 
ttkhee, canopies, and concentric mouldings } and, near the com- 
munion-table, is a curious confession -box in the thickness of the 
waU." 

The remains of the Dominican abbey are contignons to ibit 
parishHshundi. These restiges ai;e thus described by Dr. Led* 
wieh, the literary and antiqnariim vioar of tUs- parish* ** h^' 
(meaning the church of the abbey) 'Ms 100 feet long by twenty-lour 



wid^^ and has &ve,poi|it^- windows, ^jtr^^o the s^jith,, .with 
1^ .and we«t4>|iip,, Jha(; <to tbeenaf^ iH xi^mified > tlie Wi^sfeni 
door has concentric arches : the walls of the abbey are notorna* 
mented. There i&^ small tabernacle fior .sacred utensiUy and on 
the. soQtIi side 13 a projecting building, called Pbelan's chapel, 
connected with the abbey by an arch. On the east sidc^ above 
the altar^ is a pedestal^ on which stood the statue of St. Canice. 
There are two tabernacles, and also an inverted cone> for holding 
holy- water. On the north side of the abbey,*' (meaning on the 
north side of the abbey-church) " was a quadrangle, sixty feet 
square : in it were the monks* cells, in iinmber ten,- with servants* 
apartments^ and necessary offices. The cellars were spacious, 
and over (hem were the prior.'s-room^*' (probably meaning the 
refectory) " forty-six by seventeen feet, and a large dormitory.'** 
To the north of the parish-church is an artificial mount, " in 
the form of a truncated cone, about forty-five feet in diameter at 
the top. A stone wall ran round the summit, and the ascent was 

by an undulating pathway/* In this parish is, likewise, a large 

« 

* Ledmch*s Antiq*. of Ireland, and accoant of the perish of Agbaboe. 
ID Mason's Parochial Survej', vol. i. The following hrief notice of Dr. 
Ledwich, who resided here many years as Vicar, is extracted from a MS. 
by the late Mr. Beaoford, communicated by him to the author of this work. 
Edward Ledwich, L.L D* aotbor of the Aotiqnitiesof Ireland, andseTcral* 
other mntiqnarum works, w«« born in tbn y^ar 1739, and is descended frook 
an antient Saxon family in Shropshire, feudal tenants of the De Lacies^ 
Norman Barons of that district, whd with them came into Ireland, about the 
year 1172. From them the Ledwich family obtained grants in the county 
of Westmeath, from which property they gained the local title of Lords de 
Ledwich, about the year 1329. During the contest at the time of the Roto- 
Intion, the lamiiy adhering ta tlie interest of James, lost most of their 
property, witb the li?e8 of the greater part of the membert appertaining 
to it. The survivor, Edward Ledwich, with the small remains of the family 
property, settled in Dublin, in a mercantile line ; and was the first who 
professed the Protestant faith. His son John, the father of the' subject of 
this notice, was also engaged in trade. Edward Ledwich, author of the 
Antiquities of Ireland, was educated at Trinity College, and ordained ia 
the establisbeid Church; he obtained the advownon of the vicarage isf Agha- 
bee, in 1772* from whence he removed to Dublin in 1793. 



[LKIX8TEK.] QDBKN'S'CDITNtT. 19 

earth-work, by some termed the Rath of Lara, and by others the 
Mote of Moaacoghlan. This rath, or mote, is a hill of consider- 
able altitude, protected by ramparta and fossse, and has evidently 
constitated the mdely-fortified residence, or retreat, of an anfient 
tribe. Amongst some few remains of old cnstoms, it is remarked 
by Dr. Ledwich, that, '^ if yon ask a female peasant her name, 
though married, she will give her maiden name, and by that she 
Is called and known.** It will be recollected that this practice 
also remains in parts of Wales. 

There are several improved residences, on a small scale, in 
this neighboarhood, which greatly contribute to the beantyof the 
country. Among these may be named, Baify^opfy, belonging 
to the Duke of Buckingham and Chandos ; Oldglast, to the 
funily of Lord Ossory ; ^ghaboe, to Thomas Carr, Esq. and LU- 
more, to Sheffield Grace, Esq. The whole of the seats mentioned 
above are now occupied by gentlemen who rent of the respective 
owners. 



END OF QV£BN*S COUNTV. 



I « 



VOL. II 



ISD BG&OTIBt or IRRr^ND, 



KINGS COUNTY. 

This district is partly divided from the Qaeen^s County by 
the Slievebloom mountains^ which we have already noticed as 
affording only one narrow and inconvenient pass. Its eastern 
boundaries are formed by the county of Kildare. On the north 
are the counties of Meath and Westmeath. The river Shannon 

« ■ 

separates it from Roscommon and Galway towards the west. On 
the south-west it meets the county of Tipperary. This inland 
county was formerly included in the antient .territories of Offaly 
and Lower Delvin> and was constituted a separate county in the 
reign of Philip stnd Mary ; the appellation then bestowed being 
intended as a mark of compliment to the consort of the British 
queen. 

This district was^ at all recorded times, subdivided into a 
greater number of petty lordships than the adjoining tract of 
country^ now depominated the Queen's County. Amongst the 
principal antient proprietors may be" enumerated. 0*Conor-Faigle, 
or O'Conor, dynast of Offaly; and Mac Coghlan^ dynast of 
Lower Delvin ; together with the 0*Me1aghlins ; 0*Molloys ; 
ODempseysj ODouleysj O'CarroUs; O'Malonesj O'Sha- 
naghs; O'Dalys; 0*Dunnes ; Mao Gawlys; the 0*Moonys ; 
O'Higgans; Mac Egans 3 O'Duigans ; O'Gillefoyls ; and 
O'Mores. 

The form of this county is extremely irregular. Its breadth^ 
according to Sir Charles Coote^ '^ is, from the most eastern part 
of the barony of Coolestown^ near the Boyne, to Clonmacnois, on 
the Shannon, thirty-two miles ; but the more general breadth 
does not exceed seventeen 5 and it is in length, from the moat of 
Oreoouge adjoining West Meath, to the southernmost part of the 
barony of Clonlisk, thirty-one miles by a direct line, but above 
forty-five miles by the nearest road, the county being so much in- 
tersected with deep bogB/[ 



[LEfNftT£R.] 



KINfi 8 COUNTY, 



131 



It is dif ided ioto the foUowing etevea baroniea, one of wUch is 
9«hdivided into two half baronies: ^arrmuiown; Coolmi§um$ 
JPM&fiaiow (^Tided into Upper and Lower) ; Baliyemuen ^ 
KUo9mr9eyj GBrr^aMU; OtsMllj BMiboy ^ Egiuk, ot Firod $ 
Sailp6rkf; and €lmli$k^ The nomfaer of paEishes is fifty-two | 
of which axteen are in the diooeBs of ,Mkith ; sixteen in that of 
KiUaloe ; and eighteen nnder the see of Kikbure. One insnkted 
parish. is in the tttooess of Qssory, and one paiish in thattfC 
Clonfert. The total nombera of houses and inhabitants in the 
dHTerent baronies^ according to x«lnmB made nnder the. act of 
181S« for ascertaining the population of Ireland^ are as fdAow ; 
tNit it most be noticed that die retnraa for the seven baroniies 
auirked thus,* were considered as b^ing objectionable.] 



BaronlM, Half BuoalM» or Vlurtthet. 



Warrenstown, . . . . . 

Coolestown« 

Philip8town> Upper^, 

Philipstown^ Lower,. 

»Ballycowen, 

*Ktlconrsey, 

*GaiTycastle> 

*Ge8bill, 

Balliboy, 

♦S^lish, or Pircal, . . . 

♦Ballybritt, ,.., 

*ClonUsk, 



• • 



Total. . . . 



Nomber of 


GroM 


Hooiei. 


Populfttlon. 


584 


s.ras 


1^^ 


7,525 


1,325 


7,7S4 


1,132 


6,052 


3,408 


13,747 


1,350 


7,117 


4,106 


2«,367 


1,104 


8,717 


1,110 


6,!284 


919 


5,132 


2>91J> 


IS,646 


2,022 


11,193 


20,705 


113,226 



According to returns made in 1821, the nomber of houses 
was 23^032; and the number of inhabitants 132^319. Thus^ 
according to those returns, the increase of iuhabitants between 
die years 1818 and 1821, would appear to have amonnted to 
19,093. 

With the exception of the Slievebloom mountains, on its 
southern borders, this county is in general of a flat Character, 
containing a great part of the antient plain of Ireland^. deno»' 

s 2 



139 BRAUTIKS OF IRELAND. 

' mtnated Ely.* It is sopposedy by Sir Charles Coote, that nearly 

, half the contents .of thecoanty were, in 1801 > '* bog, moontain, 
and waste > or not arable land, as towns, roads, water," &c. 
The towns occupy bnt a small part of this vast poportion of nn- 
cultivated country. Great part of the bog <^ Allen lies within 
the county limits. Several tracts lia?e been reclaimed since the 

I date of Sir C. Coote*8 *' Statistical Survey," bnt scarcely to' a 
sufficient extent to affect, materially, the probable icorrectnes^^f 
his calculation. The continuous bogs and levels preclude all 
possibility of picturesque beauty; but, in the districts more readily 
amenable to cultivation, much com is grown. The pastures are 
not very luxuriant, but, as we are told by Sir Charles Coote, are 

. " kind and fattening in their quality, and excellent for sheep- 
walks. Stores and yearlings are the more general stock of black 
cattle, and tlie sheep and wool trade the most considerable pur- 
suit** of the pasture farmers. It is to be regretted that manu- 
factures liave, hitherto, met with little attention in this district ; 
but the linen trade is cultivated with some success, in one quarter 
of the county. 

This county may be described as being well watered. We have 
stated that the river Shannon forms its western boundary, for 
many miles. The little Brosna, which falls into that noble river, 
divides it from Tipperary ; and the larger Brosnii winds through 
the centre of the county. The Boyne and the lesser Barrow glide 
along its eastern borders. Tlie Grand Canal crosses its northern 
part, and conveys vast quantities of turf, used as fuel, to the dty 
of Dublin. 

There are no towns of great importance; but many handsome 
family-seats. Amongst vestiges of antiquity, the ruins of Clon- 
macnois, comprising two round towers, are of primary interest. 

* This plain, tboof b in appearance low, and almost cofored with boCt 
ii, at iti centre, wbichiorms tbe tommit-leTel of tbe Grand Canal, more 
tban ISOO feet above tbe harbour of Dublin. Tbe waters produced on this 
cheerless plain find their way to the sea westward by the Shannon, and 
eastward by the rivers Barrow, Boyne &c. M. 8. by the late W. 
Beauford, A* M. 



[LBIN8TKB.] KING> COVVTY, 133 

At «ome of the principal proprietors ofi land may be noticed* Carl 
IKgby ; the Earl of Roase ; the Earl of .Charkville ; and the 
Ihmiliea of Daley^ Stepnejj and Bernard, 

PaiLtpsTOWN^distaat fromDnbUn thirty-eight and a half miles, 
towards the sooth* west, is the assiase town of this oonnty, bat is 
otherwise a place of small importance. The Grand Canal passes 
<:loee to one extremity of the town^ bat withont commnnicating 
to it any observable commercial benefits. Here are extensive 
barracks, and a coanty gao1> completed some few years back. — 
This place formerly constitated the chief seat of 0*Conor, dynast 
of Offaley. , Its modern name was bestowed in bononr of Philip II. 
of Spain, basband of Qaeen Mary, to whose example and infla- 
enoe are, probably, to be attributed mach of the gloomy asperity, 
and many of the contracted views, which marked the reign of the 
weak and faulty, bat greatly-rcalamniated, Mary. — Dmgtm Cattle, 
the seat of the dynast 0*Conor, was taken in the year 1638, 
by Lord Grey, then lord deputy ; and again by the lord depnty. 
Sir WiUjam Bellingham, in l£r46» at which latter period 0*Conor 
was forced to. take refage, with his fismily, in the province of 
Connaoght. By Sir William Bdlingbam a castle was erected 
liere, the mins of which are still to be seen. This place was 
taken and burned by the adherents, of King James II., in 1690. 
Pfaalip^town gives, the title of baron to Viscount Moles worth, so 
created in 1716. 

At tbe distance of two miles from Philipstown is Clonj&arl, 
the seat of William Magan, Esq. of an antient Westmeath family, 
who lately served the office of high sheriff of that coanty. The 
surronnding country presents, with a solitary but grand exception, 
that of Crgghan hill, one dreary expanse of b<^. Chiefly by the 
efforts of the father to the present proprietor (made at a very 
considerable expense), Cloneacl, however repulsive in natural 
circumstances, has been gradually formed into one of the finest 
demesnes to be seen in this county. A triumph of art entitled to 
extensive emulation ! Great improvements of the ; mansion, are 
mow in progress, under the auspices of the present possessor of 
the estate. ^ 



134 BBACTIStf or IRELAND. 

Crogham ffiii, wliicb rises in lonely majesty amid tUs flat and 
dispiritiDg^ bnt thickly-populated^ tract of eomitry/is of great 
height and circumference^ and is> even to its snmmit, beantifDlly 
clothed with verdure. This fine emioenoe is celebrated by 
Spenser in his '' Faery Queen.** At the base of the hill are the 
ruins of a church j and, near the summit , are some traces of an- 
tiquity, described by Sir Chwrles Coote as '' an antient burial- 
place." 

At Edsndbrbt, a small and mean town in this part of the 
county, are the remains of a castle. This bmldingis situated on a 
considerable eminence, and was, in the sixteenth century, the 
residence of a branch of the Colley, or Cowley, family, of Castle- 
Carbery. Sir George Colley defended this fortress, in 1599, 
against the abettors of Tyrone*s rebellion. The property after- 
wards passed, by the marriage of a female, into the family of 
Blundell, Viscount Bhindell, which title is now extinct. On the 
Castle-hill is a neat church, erected within the last thirty years. 
Near this town a religions house, termed Monaster&rM, of which 
remains sdU exist, was founded, in the year 1395, by the family 
ofde Bermingfaam of Carberry, locally styled Mac Feoris. 

Baltbuittain, otherwise Wabrenstown, Castle, near the 
eastern extremity of the King's County, was the antient seat of 
the family of Warren, formerly very powerful in this part of 
Ireland. Sir Henry Warren garrisoned this fortress, anno l€00, 
for Queen Elizabeth. On the 19th of February, 1691, a party 
of the adherents of James II., headed by Lieutenant-Colond 
0*Conor, took the castle of Balybrittain, which they sacked and 
burnt, extending their ravages, on the same day, to the neigh- 
bouring town of Edenderry. On the decease of Sir Peter Warren^ 
K. B; who died in the command of the naval station off Dublin, 
in the year 1752,^leaving no male issue, the estate passed to the 
heirs female.- A branch, however, of this family still exists, aif 
we believe, ia Ireland. 

At Ltetitnare an abbey was founded by St. Paleherias, called 



r- 
I 



[LEINSTER.] KIMO*t GOUNTr. 135 

In th« Irith langoage, St. Mocho«iDoc> ooncemuig whoa several 
tdes of miracles were invented in past ages. St. Paldierios died 
A. D. eS5. 

Gbaabill 18 a small village^ composed chiefly of thatched 

cabins, bnt noted for haTing one of the largest fiurs in Ireland £or 

the sale of swine. Here is a Charityoschool, opm to cUldrea of 

all per8nasion8> to which Earl Digby (whose ancestor was elc'* 

vafted to the peerage, under the title of Baron Digby of OetuhUi, 

A, D. 1690) is a liberal contributor. — 'The princtpal* interjSaC of 

this place proceeds from the rains of its Castle, and the aUMy 

connected with that struetore. Geaebill formerly belonged to the 

irah chief O'Dempsey (not to O'Molloy, as is asserted by 

Seward) ; and was afterwarda possessed by the honse of Kildare* 

Abont the year 16%, this estate passed to the noble £unily of 

Digby, in coaseqdenee of the marriage of l^ady L»titta> only 

daughter .of Gerald Lord OMey, with Sir Robert Dighy^ of 

Coles*faill in the county of Warwick. Her Ladyship sarriyliig 

her husband, expeiienced a meoMirable siege in her castle loi 

Geafehill> in the^dFil wars of the seventeenth oentnry. An' ao- 

count, at a conaiderivble lenglhi of this 'Bicge> is gmn in Mr. 

Ardidali's edition of the peerage of Ireland (aitide Digby, Lord 

^%hy) ; <ui<l ^ iBore concise notice is also presented in the iUrd 

volume of Le)and*s History of Ireland. This transaction todc place 

in the year 164^. The siege lasted for several rnooths, and the 

garrison, assisted by a supply received from Sir CSMfes Coote, 

persisted in a gallant defence until the Lndy Lmtitia (who, on the 

decease of her father, was created Baroness Offaley for life) was- 

safely conducted from the castle by Sir Richard Grenville.* 

* Several letters which passed between Lady Offaley and the leaders of 
<he besieging P>irt7> Ar« printed by Archdall, in the place noticed above. 
The whole of those written by her ladyship are highly honourable to her 
spirit and go«id sense* The following answer to the first summons of the 
assailants, has been deemed worthy of insertion in the pages of regolar 
history: 

*' 1 retrelved your letter, wherein you threaten to sack this my caatle, 



136 BBACniS OP IBBLAND. 



At Kit.Lci6H> -distant abovt four miles from GetsUlli «» 
abbey was founded, as is beliered, in the sisth centory, by St. 
Sincheal M'Cenenain. A nunnery was also founded here, for nans 
of the order of St^Aogostin, by the fiimily of Warren, soon after the 
anriTal of the English. A honse of grey friars was likewise erected 
here, in the . reiga of Edward I.--*Some renudns of a religions 
stroctnre are still to be seen, at the foot of ahill near the cbnrcb. 

TuLLAMonn, a neat and thriving town, sitaated in the barony 
of Balyoowan, and on the banks of the river Clodagh, is the 
estate of the Earl of Charleville. Few towns in Ireland have ex- 
perienced so rapid an improvement, as that now under oonsi- 
deration 5 a circnmstance to be attributed, partly, to the prindple 
of re-action after the sustenance of calamity. Late in the 
eighteenth century Tnllamore was a village of* an inferior class,, 
consistiiig chiefly of mean and comfortless thatched hovels. An 
accidental fire levelled those wretched habitations with theground ; 
and, on the site^ has since arisen a town of eligible disposal and 
a fair aspect. The Grand Canal, which runs along the borders 
of the town, is of obvious advantage to. the inhabitants, and se- 
veral branches of traffic are here pursued with considerable spirit. 
A handsome church has . been lately erected, but, as it would 
i^pear, at an inconveni^t distance from the more populous parts 
of the town. This building, which is highly creditable to the 
talents of F. Johnston, Esq. the architect employed, was com- 
pleted in 1818, with the aid of j^OOO lent for that purpose by 
the Board of First Frniu, and the gift of £eOi> from the 

by hit nu^esty*! authority. I am, and e^er have baeo, a ioyal snlyect 
and a good neighbour among you, and, therefore, cannot bat wonder at 
•Qch an anault. I thank yon for your offer of a convoy, wlierein I bold 
little safety. And, therefore, my resolntion is, that being free from 
offending his n^jeety, or doing wrong to any of yon, I will live and die 
innocently 1 and will do my best to defend my own, leaving the issne to 
God. Though I have been, and still am, desirous to avoid the sheddiog 
of christian blood, yet, being provoked,your threats shall no wit dismay me, 

" LETTICE OFFALIA,* - 



[LKINiTBB.] KINO 8 COUNTY. 137 

mse source. ' Tnllamore gives tlie tide of hkt6n to tbe EsrI of 
Onrievllle. 

In tlie immediate vicintty of the above town is tlie costiy 
mansion, and very fine demesne^ of the Earl of GharleviUe. 
The hoQse is a spacious strnctare, recently erected, chiefly in 
imitation of an antient English castle, after the designs of Francis 
Jolmston, Esq. The demesne is very extensive, and tmly bean- 
tifali although surrounded by bogs and moors, flat, dreary, and 
i^mlsive. The plantations are dminently fine, and the hand of 
tasteful cultivation is, indeed, visible throughout the whole of 
the grounds. The river Clodagh, supplied by several monntun- 
streams, pursues a rapid course through this demesne, often 
fidHng precipitously over disjointed masses of rock. Sequestered 
and lovely wallcs are formed upon the banks of the river. A dis- 
gusting piece of moor-land has been converted into a lake ; and 
various decorative operations of art reflect high honour on the 
good taste» and munificent spirit, of the successive noble owners 
of this estate. 

Within one mile of Tnllamore are the remains of Balycowen 
(more properly Baly^Ecoubn) Castls. This structure, when 
in its pride of strength, was taken from O'Melaghlin, A. D. 
1536, by Leonard Lord Grey, then lord deputy. Queen Elisa- 
beth having confiscated the estate of Art O'Melaghlin, repre- 
sentative of the antient kings of Meath, '' chief of the line of 
Heremon,'* granted, in 1589, a portion of his property, in- 
cluding the castle of Baly-econen and the district of Moyely, to 
Thomas Morres, Esq.* This castle surrendered to Sir Hardress 
Waller, the republican general, in 1650, and has since sunk 
progressively into decay. The extent of the ruins evince its 
former strength, and importance. 

DuRBow, now a small village, was formerly a place of some 

* Rolls Office. — Tbe above named Tbonias Morres, Esq. erected the 
mansion of Moyeloj in tbe style usually denominated Elizabethan i of 
which building the walls are still remaining. The manors granted to him 
by Queen Elizabeth afterwards pasted to the family of Herbert. 



13^ BRAUTIR8 OF fRKLAND. 

miAttod Ely.* It is sopposed^ by Sir Clurlee Coote, that nearly 
balf the contents .of the county were, in 1801, " bof, monntain^ 
and waste ; or not arable land, as towns, roads, water,'* he. 
The towns occupy bnt a small part of this vast proportion of nn- 
cttltiTated country. Great part of the bog of Allen lies within 
the county limits. Sevnal tracts liave been redaimed since the 
date of Sir €. Coote's ** Statistical Survey," but scarcely to a 
sufficient extent to affect, materially, the probable ^correctnes^^f 
his calculation. The continuous bogs and levels preclude all 
possibility of picturesque beauty 3 but, in the districts more readily 
amenable to cultivation, much com is grown. The pastures are 
not very luxuriant, bat, as we are told by Sir Charles Coote, are 
** kind and fattening in thdr quality, and excellent for sheej^ 
walks. Stores and yearlings are the more general stock of black 
cattle, and the sheep and wool trade the most considerable pur- 
suit" of the p&sture fanners. It is to be r^etted that manu- 
factures have, hitherto, met with little attention in this district ; 
but the linen trade is cultivated with some success, in one quarter 
of the county. 

This county may be described as being well watered. We have 
stated that the river Shannon forms its western boundary, for 
many miles. The little Brosna, which falls into that noble river, 
divides it from Tipperary ; and the larger Brosiia winds through 
the centre of the county. The Boyne and the lesser Barrow glide 
along its eastern borders. The Grand Canal crosses its northern 
part, and conveys vast quantities of turf, used as fuel, to the city 
of Dublin. 

There are no towns of great importance; but many handsome 
family-seats. Amongst vestiges of antiquity, the ruins of Clon- 
macnois, comprising two round towers, are of primary interest. 

* TUf plain* thoafb in appearance low, and almost covered with bof , 
is, at its centre, which ibrms the sommtt-leYel of the Grand Canal, more 
than 1300 feet above the harbour of Dublin. The waters produced on this 
cheerless plain find their way to the sea westward by the Shannon, and 
eastward by the rivers Barrow, Boyne &c. M. 8. by the late W. 
Boauferd, A- M. 



[lBINSTKH.] KJM€!*8 COUNTS'. 133 

A« fome of the principal proprietors ofi bod may be nolked* Earl 
I>igt>y } tbe Earl of Roaae -, the Earl of. Charleville ; and the 
ihatlies of Daley^ Stepnej^ and Bernard. 

Philipstown, distant fromDobltn thirty-eight and a half miles, 
towards the sooth* west, is tbe assize town of this oonnty, bot is 
otherwise a place of small importance. The Grand Canal passes 
close to one extremity of the town, but without commnnicatiDg 
to it any observable commercial benefits. Here are extensive 
barracks, and a connty gaol, completed some few years back. — 
This place formerly constitnted the chief seat of O 'Conor, dynast 
of Ofialey. , Its modern name was bestowed in honoor of Philip II. 
of Spain, hosband of Qaeen Mary, to whose- example and infln- 
ence are, probably, to be attributed mach of the gloomy asperity, 
and many of the contracted views, which nuurked the reign of the 
weak and fanlty, batgreaUy-;calnmaiated, Mary.— ^Ptn^oii CattU, 
the seat of the dynast O'Conor, was taken in the year 1538, 
by Lprd Grey, then lord deputy ; and again by the lord depnty, 
Kr WiUjam Bellingham, in 1£|46« at which latter period 0*Conor 
was forced to. take refoge, with his family, in the providee of 
Connangfat. By Sir William Bellingham a castle was erected 
liere, the mins of which are still to be seen. This place was 
taken and bnrned by the adherents, of King James IL, in 1690. 
Philip^town gives.the title of baron to Viscount Molesworth, so 
created in 1716. 

At Uie distance of two miles from Philipstown is Clon&arl, 
the seat of William Magao, Esq. of an antient Westmeatb family, 
whQ lately served tbe office of high sheriff of that connty. The 
snrronnding country presents, with a solitary but grand exception, 
that of Cr^ghan hill, one dreary expanse of bog. Cliiefly by the 
efforts of the father to the present proprietor (made at a very 
considerable expense), Glonearl, however repulsive in natural 
circumstances, has been gradually formed into one of the- finest 
demesnes to be seen in this county. A triumph of art entitled to 
extensive emulation ! Great improvements of the : mansion, are 
mow in progress, under the auspices of the present possessor of 
the estate. ^ 



134 BBACTIKtf OF lABLAND. 

Croghan Hili, which rises in lonely raigesty amid this flat and 
dispiritiog^ but thickly-populated^ tract of country/ is of gr^tft 
height and circamference^ and is^ even to its summit, beaatifoUy 
clothed with verdure. This fine emioence is celebrated by 
Spenser in his ** Faery Queen.'* At the base of the hill are the 
ruins of a church ; and, near the summit, are some traces of au- 
tiquity, described by Sir Charles Coote as '' an antient burial- 
place." 

At Ed£ndbrby> a small and mean town in this part of the 
county, are the remains of a castle. This bmldiogis situated on a 
considerable eminence, and was, in the sixteenth century, the 
residence of a branch of the Coiley, or Cowley, family, of Castle* 
Carbery. Sir George Coiley defended this fortress, in 1599^ 
against the abettors of Tyrone's rebellion. The property after- 
wards passed, by the marriage of a female, into the family of 
Blundell, Viscount Bhindell, which title is now extinct. On the 
Ca8tle*hill is a neat church, erected within the last thirty yeard. 
'Near this town a religions house, termed Monasteroras, of which 
remains still exist, was founded, in the year 1395, by the fkmihr 
of de Bermingham of Carberry, locally styled Mae Feoris. 

Balybrittaik^ otherwise Wabrenstown, Castle, near the 
eastern extremity of the King's County, was the antient seat of 
the family of Warren, formerly very powerful in this part of 
Ireland. Sir Henry Warren garrisoned this fortress, anno l€00, 
for Queen Elizabeth. On the 13th of February, 1691, a party 
of the adherents of James II., headed by Lieutenant-Colonel 
O'Conor, took the castle of Balyforittain, which they sacked and 
burnt, extending their ravages, on the same day, to the neigh- 
bouring town of Edenderry. On the decease of Sir Peter Warren^ 
K.B; who died in the command of the naval station off Dublin, 
in the year 1753,"leav!ng no male issue, the estate passed to the 
heirs female.- A branch, however, of this family still exists, aif 
we believe, in Ireland. 

At LktkiMre an abbey was founded by St. Paleherius, called 



[LEIX8TBR.] KIXG*t COUNTIT. I2t5 

in the Iritli laDgoage, St. Mocho«noc> coQceruing whoiA several 
tdes of mirades were invented in past ages. St. Paleherios died 
A. D. eS5. 

GsAaBiiii. is a small village^ composed chiefly of thatched 
eabins, bnt noted for having one of the largest fairs in Ireland for 
the sale of swine. Here is a Charity-school^ open to chUdrea of 
all persQasions> to which Earl Digby (whose ancestor was ele- 
vated to the peerage, under the title of Bafoa Digby nf QtfMdl, 
A. D. 1690) is a Kberal contrihator.— 'The principal intereal of 
thb place proceeds from the rains of its Cattle, and the «UMy 
cOTiBected with that struetnre. Geashill formerly belonged to the 
Irish chief O^Dempsey (not to 0*Molloy» as is asserted by 
Seward) ; and was afterwarde possessed by the honse ofKildare* 
Abont the year 1690, this estate passed to the ttoUe funily of 
I>igby> in coaseqoenee of the marriage of Lady Lmtitta^ only 
daughter ,of Gerald Lord OSaky, with Sir Robert Digby^ of 
CoIea*hill in the county of Warwick. Her Ladyship snnriving 
her hnsband, experieBced a memorable siege in her castle aI 
Geaehill> in the dvil wars of the seventeenth osntnry. An* ao«- 
cottttt, at a cottsiderable lengthy of this siege, is given in Mr. 
Arohdali's edition of the peorage of Ireland (artide Digby, Lord 
Digb}0 ; and a more condse notice is ako presented in the third 
volume of Leland*8 History of Irdand. This transaction to<dc place 
in the year 164^. The siege lasted for several months, and tho 
garrison i assisted by a supply recdved from Sir QiHtles Coote, 
persisted in a gallant defence until the Lady Latitia (who, on the 
decease of her father, was created Baroness Offaley for life) wa» 
safely conducted from the castle by Sir Richard Grenville.* 

* Several letters which passed between Lady Offaley and the leaders of 
fhebesiepnf party, are printed by Archdall, in the place noticed above. 
The whole of those written by her ladyship are highly honourable to her 
Spirit and good sense. ' The following answer to the first summons of the 
assailants, has been deemed worthy of Insertion in the ptiges of regular 
history : 

*' I received your letter, wherein yon threaten to sack this my castle, 



136 BBAITTIBS OF IBBLAND. 

At KtLLBiOB^ dittait above -four miles from Geaslulli an 
abbey, was founded, as is believed, ia the sixth eeotory, by St. 
Sbcheal M'Cenenun. A nnnnery was also foaiided here» for nans 
of the order of St.Aogustin, by the family of Warren, soon after the 
arrival of the English. A honse of grey friars was likewise erected 
here, in the . r^gn of Edward I.— Some remuns of a rd^(iov8 
atroctnre are still to be seen, at the foot of a hUl near the cbnrck: 

ToLLAMOXB^ a neat and thriving town, sitnated in thebsroay 
of Balycowan, and on the banks of the river Glodagh, is the 
estate of the Earl of Charleville. Few towns in Ireland have ex- 
perienced so rapid an improvement, as that now nnder consi- 
deration; a circnmstance to be attribnted, partly, to the principle 
of redaction after the sostenance of calamity. Late in the 
eighteenth centory ToUamore was a village of* an inferior class,, 
oonnsting chiefly of mean and comfortless thatched hovels« An 
accidental fire levelled those wretched habitations with the ground f 
and, on the site, has since arisen a town of eligible disposal and 
a fair aspect. The Grand Canal, which mns along the borders 
of the town^ is of obvioos advantage to. the inhabitants, and se- 
veral branches of traffic are here pnrsned with considerable spirit. 
A handsome chnrch has. been lately erected, bat, as it woald 
appear, at an inconvenient distance from the move popnlons parts 
of the town. This building, which is highly creditable to the 
talents of F. Johnston, Esq. the architect employed, was com- 
pleted in 1818, with the aid of jSSOOO lent for that parpose by 
the Board of First Fruits, and the gift of £W^ from the 

by his raiyesty's aatbority. I am, aad eVer have baen, a loyal ■abject 
and a good neigbbour among you, and, thereforey cannot but wonder at 
sncb an astault. I tbank yon for yonr offer of a convoy, wberein I bold 
little lafety. ' And, therefore, my resolution is^ that being free from 
offeoding his miyjesty, or doing wrong to any of you, I will live and die 
innocently i and will do my best to defend my own, leaving tbe issue to 
God. Though i have been, and still am, desirous to avoid the shedding 
of christian blood, yet, being provoked, your threats shall no wit dismay aie* 

" LETTICE OFFALIA;* - 



[LKIKiTSB.] KlNO*8 COUNTY. ISf 

tune source. ' TBllanore gives the tide of bardn to the Earl of 
Charieville. 

In tlie immediate vicinity of the above town is the costly 
mansion, and very fine demesne, of the Earl of Charieville. 
The house is a spacious struct ore, recently erected, chiefly in 
imitation of an antient English castle, aftor the designs of Francis 
Johnston, Esq. The demesne is very extensive, and tmly bean- 
tifttli althoi^h snrronnded by bogs and moors, flat, dreary, and 
r^nlsive. The plantations are Eminently fine, and the hand of 
tastefnl cultivation is, indeed, visible thronghont the whole of 
the grounds. The river Ckidagh, supplied by several mountain- 
streams^ pursues a rapid course through this demesDe> often 
foiling precipitously over diajointed masses of rock. Sequestered 
and lovely walks are formed upon the banks of the river. A dis- 
gusting piece of moor-land has been converted into a lake ; and 
various decorative operations of art reflect high honour on the 
good taste, and munificent spirit, of the successive noble owners 
of this estate. 

Within one mile of TuQamore are the remains of Baltcowbk 
(more properly Balt-Ecoubn) Castlb. This structure, when 
in its pride of strength, was taken from 0*Melaghlin, A. D. 
1S36, by Leonard Lord Grey, then lord deputy. Queen Eliza- 
beth having confiscated the estate of Art 0*Melaghlin, repre- 
sentative of the antient kings of Meath, '* chief of the line of 
Heremon," granted, in 1589, a portion of his property, in- 
cluding the castle of Baly-ecouen and the district of Moyely, to 
Thomas Morres, Esq.* This castle surrendered to Sir Hardress 
Waller, the republican general, in 1650, and has since sunk 
progressively into decay. The extent of the ruins evince its 
former strength and importance. 

DuBRow, now a small village, was formerly a place of some 

* Rolls Office. — The above named Thomas Morres, Esq. erected the 
mansion of Moyela^ in the style usually denominated Elizabethan ; of 
which building Uie walls are still remaining. The manors granted to him 
by Queen Elizabeth afterward^ pasted to the family of Herbert. 



13^ BEAUTIR8 OF IRELAND, 

^ minated Ely.* It is supposed^ by Sir Charles Coote, that nearly 

. half the contents, of the conn ty.were^ in 1801, '^ bog, moontaia^ 
and waste ; or not arable land, as towns, roads, water,'* &c. 
The towns occupy but a small [NiTt of this vast proportion of nn* 
coltiTated country. Great part of the bog of Allen lies within 
the ooonty limits. Seyeral tracts have been reclaimed since the 

I date of Sir G. Goote's *' Statistical Survey," but scarcely to a 
sufficient extent to affect, materially, the probable <correctnies^^f 

. his calculation. The continuous bogs and levels preclude all 
possibility of picturesque beauty; but, in the districts more readily 
amenable to cultivation, much com is grown. The pastures are 
not very luxHriant, but, as we are told by Sir Gharles Goote, are 

: '' kind and fatteniog in thdr quality, and excellent for sheep- 
walks. Stores and yearlings are the more general stock of black 
cattle, and the sheep and wool trade the most considerable pur- 
suit*' of the p&sture farmers. It is to be regretted that manu- 
factures have, hitherto, met with little attention in this district } 
but the linen trade is cultivated with some success, in one quarter 
of the county. 

This county may be described as being well watered. We have 
stated that the river Shannon forms its western bouadary, for 
many miles. The little Brosna, which falls into that noble river, 
divides it from Tipperary ; and the larger Bro'siia'winds through 
the centre of the county. The Boyoe and the lesser Barrow glide 
along its eastern borders. The Grand Canal crosses its northern 
part, and conveys vast quantities of turf, used as fiiel, to the city 
of Dublin. 

There are no towns of great importance; but many handsome 
family-seats. Amongst vestiges of antiquity^ the ruins of Glon- 
tnacnois, comprising two rouod towers, are of primary interest. 

* Tlus plain, thoof b in appearance low, and almost covered with bof, 
ii, at iU centre, whicbionns tbe lommit-leTel of the Grand Canal, more 
than 1300 feet above tbe harbour of Dublin. The waters produced on this 
cheerless plain find their way to the sea westward by tbe Shannon, and 
eastward by the rivers Barrow, Boyne &c. M. 8. by the late W. 
Deauford, A« M. 



[LEIN8TKR.] KING*8. COUNTY. 133 

A« fome of the priacip«l proprietoirs oft laod may be noticed* Earl 
I>^fby ; tbe Earl of Roese ; the Earl of .Cbarleville ; and the 
fiynilies of Daley> Stepney^ and Bernard. 

PaiLtPSTOWM J distant from Dublin thirty-eight and a half miled^ 
towards the sooth- weet^ is the assize town of this connty> but is 
otherwise a (rface of smiUl importance. The Grand Canal passes 
close to one extremity of the town^ but without communicating 
to it any observable commercial benefits. Here are extensive 
lMurracks> and a county gaol^ completed some few years back. — 
This place formerly constituted the chief seat of 0*Conor, dynast 
of Offaley. , Us modern name was bestowed in honour of Philip H. 
of Spain^ husband of Queen Mary, to whose* example and influ- 
ence are, probably^ to be attributed much of the gloomy asperity, 
and many of the contracted views, which uuirked the re^ of the 
weak and faulty, butgreatly-scalnmniated, Mary. — Dingan CoitU, 
tlieseat of the dynast 0'Conor,was taken in the year 1538, 
by Lord Grey^ then lord deputy ; and again by the lord deputy. 
Sir Willjam Bellingham, in 1§46» at which latter period 0*Conor 
was forced to. take refuge, with his family, in the proviuee of 
Connaught. By Sir William Bellingham a castle was erected 
liere, the ruins of which are still to be seen. This place was 
taken and burned by the adherents, of King James II.> in 1690. 
Pbalip^town gives, the title of baron to Viscount Molesworth, so 
created in 1716. 

At tbe distance of two miles from Philipstown is Clon&arl, 
the seat of William Magan, Esq. of an antient Westmeath family, 
whg lately served the office of high sheriff of that county. The 
surrounding country presents^ with a solitary but grand exception, 
that of Cr^ghan hill, one dreary expanse of bog. Cliiefly by the 
efforts of the father to the present proprietor (made at a very 
considerable expense), Clonearl, however repulsive in natural 
circumstances, has been gradually formed into one of thefincist 
demesnes to be seen in this county. A triumph of art entitled to 
extensive emulation ! Great improvements of the: mansion, are 
now in progress^ under tbe auspice:) of the present possessor of 
the estate. ^ 



134 SSACTISC OP fAKLAND. 

Croghan Hili, wbich rises in lonely majesty amid tkis flat and 
dispiritiog, bnt thidcly-popnlated, tract of eomtry^ is of great 
height and circnmference^ and is^ even to its summit, beavtildlly 
clothed with verdnre. This fine eminence is celebrated by 
Spenser in his '' Faery Qoeen.** At the base of the hill are the 
roins of a cbnrch ; and, near the sammit, are some traces of an- 
tiquity, described by Sir Charles Coote as " an antient burial- 
place." 

At Edendbrbt, a small and mean town in this part of the 
county, are the remains of a castle. This building is situated on a 
considerable eminence, and was, in the sixteenth century, the 
residence of a branch of the CoUey, or Cowley, family, of Castle- 
Carbery. Sir George CoUey defended this fortress, in 1599, 
against the abettors of Tyrone's rebellion. The property after- 
wards passed, by the marriage of a female, into the fsmiiy of 
Blundell, Viscount Bhindell, which title is now extinct. On the 
Castle-hill is a neat church, erected within the last thirty years. 
Near this town a religions house, termed Monasieroras, of which 
remains still exist, was founded, in the year 1395, by the family 
of de Bermingham of Carberry, locally styled Mac Feoris. 

BALYBRrrTAinr, otherwise Wabrenstown^ Castlb, near the 
eastern extremity of the King's County, was the antient seat of 
the family of Warren, formerly very powerful in this part of 
Ireland. Sir Henry Warren garrisoned this fortress, anno \€0O, 
for Queen Elizabeth. On the 13th of February, 1691, a party 
of the adherents of James II., headed by Lieutenant-Colonel 
0*Conor, took the castle of Balybrtttain, which they sacked and 
burnt, extending their ravages, on the same day, to the neigh* 
bouring town of Edenderry. On the decease of Sir Peter Warren^ 
K.B; who died in the command of the naval station off Dublin, 
in the year 1759,^leaving no male issue, the estate passed to the 
heirs female.- A branch, however, of this family still exists, aif 
we believe, in Ireland. 

At Lietitn&re an abbey was founded by St. Puleherius, caRed 



[lEIXSTEB.] KIXO*t GOUNTr. VHb 

m tW Irish language, St. Mocho«iooG> ooDceming whom sevtral 
Udes of miracles were iovented ia paat agea. St. PsldieriQs died 

A. D. ess, 

« 

Qbasbill ia a small yillage, composed chiefly of thatched 
cabins^ but noted for hayiog one of the largest Csirs in IreUind lor 
the sale of swine. Here is a Charity-school, open to dnldrea of 
all persnasions, to which Earl Digby (whose ancestor was ele-- 
vttted to the peeinge, under the title of Baton Digby of OeMhili, 
A. D. 1630) is a liberal contributor.— *The principal' intenist of 
this place proceeds from the rains of its Cattle, and the story 
connected with that structore. Geasbill formerly belonged to the 
Irish diief O'Dempsey (not to 0*Molloy> as is asserted by 
Seward) ; and was afterwardft possessed by the house offiildare* 
About the year 16^, this estate passed to the noble hmikf of 
Digby, in conseqoenee of the marriage of l^ady Lmtitta, only 
daughter .of Gerald Lord Offialey, with Sir Robert Digl^, of 
Cole»*hiIl in the county of Warwick. Her Ladyship sunrivinup 
her husband, experienced a memorable siege in her castle a£ 
OeaShill> hi the civil wars of the seventeenth csntnry. An* ao- 
count, at a considerafble lengthy of this siege, is given in Mr. 
Arohdall's edition of the peerage of Ireland (Artide Digby, Lord 
Digb)0 'y and a n»ore concise notice is ako presented in thaihird 
volume of Leland's History of Ireland. This transactiott took {dace 
in the year 1642. The siege lasted for several mouths, and the 
garrison, assisted by a supply received from Sir Owfes Coote, 
persisted in a gallant defence until the Lady Lmtitia (who, on the 
decease of her father, was created Baroness Offaley for life) wa» 
safely conducted from the castle by Sir Richard Grenville.* 

* Several letters which passed between Lady Offaley and the leaders of 
ihebesiepng party, are printed by Archdall, in the place noticed above. 
The whole of those written by her ladyship are highly honourable to her 
spirit and goad sense. The following answer to the first summons of the 
assailants, has been deemed worthy of insertion in the psges of regular 
ilistory : 

*' I received your letter, wherein yon threaten to sack this my castle, 



136 BBAITTIBS OP IMBLAN0. 

At KtLLBiea^- distant abovt four miles from Cteaslulli an 
abbey- was founded, as is believed, in the sixth centary, by St. 
Sincheal M'Cenenain. A nunnery was also founded here, for nnoa 
of the order of St.AQga8tin, by the fiimily of Warren, soon after the 
arriTal of the English. A hoase of grey friars was likewise erected 
here, in theiragn of Edward L — Some remmns of a rd^pona 
strnctare are still to be seen, at the foot of a hill near the chnrdk. 

TvhhAUOMM, a neat and thriving town, situated in the barmy 
of Baiyoowan, and on. the banks of the river Clodagh, is the 
estate of the Earl of Charleville. Few towns in Ireland have ex- 
perienced.so rapid an improvement, as that now under consi- 
deration ; a circumstance to be attributed, partly, to the prindple 
of re-action after the sustenance of calamity. Late in the 
eighteenth centary Tnllamore was a village of an inferior class,, 
consisting chiefly of mean and comfortless thatched hovels. Ao 
accidental fire levelled those wretched habitations with thegronnd ; 
and, on the site^ has since arisen a town of eligible disposal and 
a fair aspect. The Grand Canal, which runs along the borders 
of the town^ is of obviotts advantage to- the inhabitants, and se- 
veral brandies of traffic are here pursued with considerable spirit. 
A handsome church has . been lately erected, but, as it would 
i^>pear, at an inconvenient distance from the more populous parta 
of the town. Thb buildiug, which is highly creditable to the 
talento of F. Johnston, Esq. the architect employed, was com* 
pleted in 1818, with the aid of £3000 lent for that purpose by 
the Board of First FrniU, and the gift of £6O0 from the 

by bis raiyesty*s aathority. I am, and eVer have b««D, a loyal subject 
aDd a good neighboar among you, and, therefore, cannot bnt wonder at 
soch an assault. I tbaak you for your offer of a convoy, wherein I bold 
llttlo safety. And, therefore, my resolution is^ that being free from 
offending his nuyesty, or doing wrong to any of you, I will live and die 
innocently ; and will do my best to defend my own, leaving the ivsae to 
God. Though i have been, and still am, desirous to avoid the shedding 
of christian blood, yet, being provoked, your threats shall no wit dismay me* 

" LETTICE OFFALIA;* - 



/ 
f 



[lbin<tbb.] kino's county. 137 



saaie source* ' Tnllaiiiore gives tbe tide of btrdn to the Earl of 
Charieville. 

In tlie immediate vietnity of the above town is the costly 
mansion, and very fine demesne^ of the Earl of Charleville. 
The honse is a spacious stmcture^ recently erected, chiefly in 
imitation of an antient English castle, after the designs of Francis 
Johnston, Esq. The demesne is very extensive, and tmly bean« 
tifali although surronnded by bogs and moors, flat, dreary, and 
repnlsive. The plantains are Eminently fine, and the hand of 
tastefnl cultivation is, indeed, visible throughout the whole of 
the grounds. The river Clodagh, supplied by several mountain- 
streams, pursues a rapid course through this demesne, often 
falfing preci|Htously over disjointed masses of rock. Sequestered 
and lovely walks are formed upon tbe banks of the river. A dis- 
gusting piece of moor-land has been converted into a lake ; and 
various decorative operations of art reflect high honour on the 
good taste, and munificent spirit, of the successive noble owners 
of this estate. 

Within one mile of Tnllamore are the remains of Balycowxn 
(more properly Baly^Ecoubn) Castlb. This structure, when 
in its pride of strength, was taken from '0*Melaghlin, A.D. 
1536, by Leonard Lord Grey, then lord deputy. Queen Elisa- 
beth having confiscated the estate of Art O'Melaghlin, repre- 
sentative of the antient kings of Meath, " chief of the line of 
Heremon,** granted, in 1589, a portion of his property, in- 
cluding tbe castle of Baly-econen and the diiBtrict of Moyely, to 
Thomas Morres, Esq.* This castle surrendered to Sir Hardress 
Waller, the republican general, in 1650, and has since sunk 
progressively into decay. The extent of the ruins evince its 
former strength and importance. 

DuRBow, now a small village, was formerly a place of some 

* Rolls Office. — ^The above named Thomas Morres, Esq. erected tlie 
mansion of Moyela^ in the style usually denominated Elizabethan ; of 
which building the walls are still remaining. The manors granted to him 
by Queen Elizabeth afterwards passed to the family of Herbert. 



138 bejihtics or ixkland. 

note, on ftccooat of * mamatic inititatioa, fonndei} by 8t. Co* 
lamb, A. D. 546. In later times, u we are informed by Ware 
ud Anbdall, a moiiMtery for rcfnlarcasoniof St. AugnatiD wu 
founded at tbe eame place. In 1175, this religions hosBC, utd 
the snrronndiDg conntry, were laid waste by the Engliali.* After 
tftfl dissolotion of monsiteriee, Durroff Abt>ey was granted, by 
Qnem Elizabeth, to Nicholas Herbert, Esq. who convected it 
Into his family residence. The estate afterwards passed to th« 
family of St^tney, in which it is still Tested. 

CiiUtA, sitotfed to the north of Dorrow, is a small bot rather 
Met. town, luTing anngal birs, and a weekly market, at which 
andi omu is sold. Jn the vidnity of this town oconrred, in the 
year 1831, one of those phenomena denominated mov'wg bogt. 
The best KGonnt of this destmctire and terrific operation ofoatnre 
is GODtained in a letter of Richard Griffith, Esq. miaing engineer, 
whose name and talents we have before had occasion to notice, 
and who was requested by the Royal Dnblin Society to visit the 
accBC of davastatioii. The eruption commenced on the SStb of 
Jnne, 1831 ; and the very carious and satisfactory letter of Mr. 
Griffith is dated the 16th of Joly following. We present, in the 
margin, extracts, conveying the priodpal information afiordcd by 
this experienced and skilful enginecr.f 

• It is Mid, by loiDe nriteri, Ibal Sir Hugh da LMy, £&rl of Hsatk, 
trai murdered al Durrow, la the year 1IS3, while superinleodiDg tbe 
*orki of a caatle, commenced opnn the silo of 91. Columb'i Abbey, 
otber BDIhoritiel Uiit act of assaitlnatlon took place at Ard- 
'ealmeath. Il li generally adnitled tbal the earl wu italo 
*bUst In astoopifli poalgre, by ibeblow of aDaie,tnfllc(ed, 
'aryiog auerlions, either by one gf his own countrymen aal 
lonen, or by an Iriibman, named O'Cabary. 
og of Kilmaleady, from whence (be eruption broke out, 
1 tno miles to the Dorlh of the village of Clara, in the KlDg'i 
' considerable extent) it may probably contain abonl&OO 
ly parts it is 40 feet in depth, and it it considered to be tha 
. (he country. Il \% bounded op all sides, except (be south, 
!t of high land, wbicb arc composed, at tbe top, of limsglone 



[lEINSTEK.] E1N6 « COUNTY. 180 

Near Chra U Ckarlea'iowm $ coatignoos to whick viUago is the 
Cab'bim or KiLcou»8BY> once a place of consideraUe atrenglk. 



gfmvalv and beaeath of caTomow limetliMia rock, cootaaniaf tobterraii 
ytreamoi bot the fMiuUiern face of the bog b opoa to a noory vallej, aboat 
a qaarter of a mile in breadth, which, for nearly a mile in lengthy takeo a 
■ontbern direction in the landtf of Litaalsky* and then tamt at right angitt 
to the west, as»d continoen gradnally widening for npwardt of two amee. 
Tbffoaih the centra of this valley Aowt a etioam abont twol? e U 
brandlb, which eervet as a ^techacge for the waters from the bog and 
tile anrroonding conntryy and finally joins tlie river Brosaa above the 
bridge of BaUycumber* 

'* The bog of Kiiaalcady, like all other deep and wet bogs, is eoa^ 
posed » for the first eight or. ten feet from the surface downward, of a 
roddlsh-brown spongy maast fevased of the still nndecomposed fibuss of the 
bog moss, 9fh9gnMim*pmlmMtr»^ which, by capillary attrac^n, abaofbt 
Water in grant quantity. Beneath this fibrous mass, the bog gradaally 
becomes palpy* till, at length, towards the bottom, it assumes the appear* 
ancot ned, when examined^ the consistence of a black mod, rather heavier 
than water. 

*< The surface of the bog of KilsMileady was elevated upwards of 
twenty feet above the level of the valley, from which it rose at a very 
sleep angle, and Its external fiico, owing to the uncommon dryness of the 
senaon, bofaig much firssor than usual, the inhabitants of the. vicinity were 
enabled to sink their turf holes, and cut turf at the depth of at least ten 
feet beneath the surface of the valley, and, in fact, until they reached the 
bine day which forms the substratum of the bog^ Thus, the fitces of many 
of the terf banks reached the unusual height of thirty feet perpendicular | 
when, at length, on the 19th day of June, the lower pulpy and muddy peri 
of the bog, which possessed little eoheslott, being unable to resist the great 
pressure of water from behind, gave way, and being once set In motion^ 
fioated the upper part of the bog, and continued to move with astonishing 
velocity along the valley to the southward, forcing before it not only the 
clamps of turf on the edge of the bog, but even patches of the moory mea* 
dews, to the depth of several feet, the grass sarface of which heaved and 
turned over almost like the waves of the ocean i so that in a very sherf 
space ef time the whole valley, for the breadth of about a quarter of a ttile 
between the bog edge and the base of the hill of Lisanisky, was coveredl 
with bog to the depth Of from eight to ten feet, and appeared everywhere 
stndded with green patches of moory meadow. 

*^ The hill of iisanisky retarded the progress of the bog for seme time i 
atlengtbiit began to iow at right angles in its first course along the valley, 



140 BE^UTISB OF IKJtLAND. 

Hie buo&y of Kikoiirsef ^ wkich now gives the title of viscoant 
to the family of Lambart^ Earls of Clavan> was formerly denomi- 

where it tarns to tbe west» and continned with onabated rapidity tili it 
reached the bof road of Kilbride (which runt directly acrow tlie Talleyy 
and is elevated five or six feet above it)* and choaked ap tbe bridge throng h 
which the waters of the stream pass. This barrier retarded the progress of 
the bog for five daysi at the end of that time, the accomolation was such, 
from the still moving bog and the waters of the stream* that it flowed over 
the road, and covered the valley to the south of it for about half a mito» 
flowing with varied velocity, till it was again stopped, for a few hours, 
as I understand, by a second road across the valley, leading from Clara 

a 

to Woodfield* Having also overcome this obstacle, it proceeded slowly 
westward! And if its progress had not been checked by tbe very judicious 
means that have been employed, tbe whole extent of the valuable meadows, 
which compose the valley where it expands to the westward, must long 
since have been covered. But, when the bog bad passed over the road of 
Kil)>ride, and the consternation in the country became general, at the 
desire of the lords justices, Mr. Gregory employed Mr. Killaly, engineer 
to the Directors-general of Inland Navigation, to carry into execution any 
works that could be devised to arrest the progress of the bog. Mr. Killaly 
at once perceived^ that the only feasible remedy was to draw off the water 
that had accumulated! and to accomplish this end, he employed a number 
of labourers to open . the course of the stream where it was choaked ap, 
and also the drains through the valley that could be directed into the stream. 
By this means the h^ad of water wi^s soon lowered, and in consequence 
the bog ceased to flow-rand all the loose masses which floated on the river 
were broken to pieces, by labourers placed at intervals throughout ita 
conrse. 

" I shall now describe the present appearance and state of the bog and 
HMMtry valley. 

** In the centre of the bog, for the space of about a mile and a half in 
length, and a quarter of a mile in breadth, a valley has been formed, sloping 
at the bottom from the original surface of the bog, to the depth of 30 foet, 
where the eruption first took place. In this valley or gulf, there are num- 
berless concentric cuts, or fissures, filled with water nearly to the top. 

** The valley between the edge of the bog and the road of Kilbride, for; 
the length of half a mile, and an extent of between 60 and 80 acres, may 
be considered as totally destroyed. It is covered by tolerably firm bog, 
from six to ten feet in depth, consisting at the surface of numberless green 
islands, composed of detached parts of tbe moory meadows, and of small 
rounded patches of the original heathy surface of the bog, varying from 



[liinstkb.] kino's eovnrt. 141 

sated " Fox's Covntry/' md was the territory of tlie family of 
O'Shenagb, or Fox, whose seat is termed CUkghaUma. In the 
garden is still to be seen the rock, or stone, upon which the chiefs 
of this line were ioangnrated, on acceding to the toparchy.«— In 
this district, also, occur Balynammtan and JMar$Urook, seats of 
the family of Marsh; KUfylan, the seat of an antient branch of 
the family of De Bermiogbam ; and Proipeci, the residence of Mr. 
Holmes, to which are attached extensire bleaching-greens. 

MouniarfMtrong, beantifully situated on rising ground o?er 
the river Brosna, which winds through a luxuriant plain, is the 
seat of the family of Armstrong, of which name there are several 
resident gentlemen in this quarter. 

FsBBAiTB, FiBBAMB, or Fbabbanb, is B smsll post and lair 
town, finely situated on the banks of the Brosna, which river rolls 
its dear waters through a verdant plain, its banks adorned with 
rich and picturesque plantations. The views from the bridge are 
eminently pleasing, and embrace, on either hand, the principal 
objects in this attractive display of river-scenery. 

In the immediate vicinity of the above town, and on the bor- 
ders of the river, is Gallbn, or Gillan, a lovely seat, lately the 
residence of a branch of the Armstrong family. A Monastery was 
founded at this place, according to Colgan (Acta S S. p. 312) so 

two to ten feet In dUmetar, which are leparated from each other by brown 
polpy bog, and the bed of the original ttrean it elevated to about eight 
or ten feet aboTe its former coonet so at to flow over the road. 

** Beyond the road to Kilbride the bog hat flowed for one mile west- 
ward, and covered from 50 to 70 acret \ in thit part the heathy patches of 
bog generally letten in quantity i the green Itlandt diiappear, and nothing 
St obierved but a thia depotit, contitting of a granulated black bog mnd, 
▼aryiog from one to three feet in thicknett* Thit, though dettroctive for 
the pretent year, may, when dry, he burnt, and remoTed for manare to 
the neighbouring uplandt, or left on the tpot to fertilize the valley, 
t ** That, the whole dittance which the bog hat flowed it about three miles 
in length, namely, one mile and a half in the bog, and the tame dittance 
over the moory valley \ and the extent covered amountt to abont 150 acres." 
.—Letter of R. Griffith, Miniog Engineer} dec. ut tupra. 



142 BKAVTIBB OF IRELAND. 

earljr at the y6«r 49S» by Si. Canec. We ore tM by Mac Qeog- 
h^pto that a oelebrated school was established here, ia the year 
ddO, by *^ soma emigrants from Wales." O'Melaghliti, aided by 
T^-roe (O'Melaghlin) and Edmund Faye, an Anglo-Norman 
Uader> wasted this abbey in 1548 5 bat it was speedily restored, 
and still existed in Golgan*s time. On the suppression of mo<- 
nasteries this honse was granted to Sir Gerald Moore. The Castle 
of Gallon was built by Mac Coghlan, and was taken and plnndered 
by ireton, in 1650. 

Among other seats in the neighbonrhood of tiie same town 
may be noticed Kmcar, the residence of the Jessop femily ; and 
Bafylin, the handsome house, and well-improved demesne, of the 
family of King. 

At the distance of one mile and a half from Ferbane are seen 
the noble ruins of Kilcolgan, or Kilcoohi<an, Castle, formerly 
Che seat of Mac Coghlan, antient dynast of a large tract of conn- 
try, comprising the barony of Garrycastle, or Lower Delvin, and 
several adjoining districts. 

Stbawbbhby Hill, distant three miles from Ferbane, and 
one mile from the high road, was erected by, and formed, at the 
time of his decease, the residence of, the late Thomas Coghlan 
Esq, M. P. for the borough of Banagher, who was usually styled 
'' The Maw," and was chief of the name and arms of Mac Coghlan, 
antient dynasts of Lower Delvin, otherwise " Mac Coghlan'a 
country.*^ The estate of this gentleman extended several mUes 
in length and breadth, and contained numerous castle-rulns. It 
was inherited by him directly from his illustrious ancestors ; and 
censtitnted, as we believe^ one of the oldest hereditary tenures 
of landed property, passing by regular male descent^ to be fonnd 
in the possession of any family in Europe.* 

* With the assistance of a distin^ished correspondent, to whom this 
work is gready indebted, (the Cbev. De Montmorency) we are enabled 
to present the following particulars relating to Mr. Coghlan, in whom 
were most cnrionsly retained, even in our own days, many characteristics 
•f the Irish chieftain of the ** olden times.'*— Thomas Coghlan, Esq.— or. 



[lrinstbr.] kino*s county. 143 

MoTSTOWN, a maimion on Iho borders of the river BrOBia^ la 
the antient seat of the L'EstraDge family. Thomas^ afterwards 
Sir Thomas L*£straDge, Knt« of this place, was appointed one- 
of the qveen's privy cooncil, in the y«ar 198^. 

Glean-Ussbn, GrLEAN<> or Guv, is sttnated near Ferbanti 
An abbey was founded here by St. Diermit, or Dermott, .whose 
festival is obseryed on the 8th of Jttly. St. Coemgan^ aaccesaor 
of the founder, died <hmio 563. No records of this abbey hure 
been discovered of a later date^than 106S. At tbis place sto«d a 
castk, which was forfeited in 1641, by O'Mooney, the antieni 
proprietor. In the same district flourished, in nges long past, 
the Abbe^ of Mugmt, ibanded, as is said, by St. Finan of 

In attention to local phraseology, '* The Maw,** for be was not known, oi 
addressed, on his own domain by any other appellation — was a remarkably 
handsome man; gallant}, eccentric; proud; satirical; hospitable in the 
extreme ; and of expensive habits. In disdaia of modern opinions, he 
adhered to the national customi ef Ireland, and the modes of living prac* 
tited by his aacestore. His boaie was evisr open to strangers. His tenaats 
held their lands at will, and' paid their reatSt according to the aatieiiC 
fashion, partly in kind, and the remainder in money* '* The Maw** levied 
the fines of mortmain when a vassal died. He became heir to the defunct 
farmer ; and no law was admissible, or practised, within the precincts of 
Mac Cbghlan*s domain, bat such as savoured of the Brehon codi« Itranst 
be observed, however, that, most commonly, the ** Maw's*' conmandS) 
enforced by the Impressive application of his horsewhip, decided, inttanter^ 
a litigated point! From this brief outline it might be lupposed that we 
were talking of Ireland early in the seventeenth century ; but Mr. Coghlai\ 
died not longer back than about the year 1790. With him perished the 
rode grandeur of Ms long-drawn Tine. He died without issue, and desti- 
tate of any legitimate male representative to inherit his name, although 
mast of hit followers were of the sept of the Cogfalaas, none of wifoia, how- 
ever, were strictly qiiallfied, or were suffered by the ** Maw," to ase thet 
ilfac, or tQ claim any relationship with himself. His great estate passed^ 
at hu decease, to the son of his sister, the late Right Hon. Denis-Bowes 
Daly, of Daly's-town, county of Gal way ; who, likewise, had no children, 
and who, shortly before his death in 1881, sold the Mac Cogblan estate (o 
divers persons, the chief purchaser being Thomas Bernard, Esq. M. P. for 
this county, in whoa the larger proportion of the property Is now ^sted.-. 



144 saAUTin or ibilanp. 

. Clonard, on i piece of land given to him by Carbur, Kiog of 
Leiniter. 

DooNC Castli, ■ rainooa fabric in tiiis part of die county, 
wu For many ages the reaidence of O'Moooey, cMef of a sept 
which is taid to derive from a hnmch of O'Conor Failge. This 
Cunily, however, waa long tribatary to Mac Coghlan, during 
whicli time the manor of Doone waa held by O'Mooney, on tlie 
tennre of supplying the residence of fAe ^MD, daily, with acerbda 
qnantity of " Milch." This antient family became cxtingoisbed, 
in the direct line, on the decease of the late Owen Mooney, 
Esq. wboae nephew, — •■ Enraght, Esq. has assumed his mother's 
fomily name, and is now owner of the estate. The present bmily 
residence ia a plain house, of little interest. Hie Castle waa cri^- 
nally a spadons stmctnre, seated on a rock. One tower remains, 
covered with a thick and sombre cost of ivy. Tlie neighhoarlng 
country people cherish a tradition, respecting a dreadful massacre 
said to hare been perpetrated in this castle, by O'Mooney, on cer- 
tain chieituns, his rivals, whom he had invited to a banquet within 
its waQs. The legend adds, that never since the day of this base 
violation of the laws of hospitality, has the snn deigned to glance 
upon the profaned mansion. Tlie gloomy aspect of Doone tower 
is well suited to the preaerration, and popular belief, of such a 
traditionary tale. 

BALYCUunna is a neat and truly pleasing village, watered by 
the Brosna, over which river is a good stone bridge. Here is a 
handsome seat, belonging to the Armstrong family, lately occu- 
lUchard O'Connor, Esq. 

fiird, or Bttiiard, and Mount-Mullock, in this district, 
s ofthe family of Mullock. At the distance of two miles 
lycnmberia Ciutle-^rmitrong; the seat ofMr.Armslrong; 
ich are the ruins of Lemanaghan Church and Cattle, cn- 
led by an expanse of bog. On this dreary spot a mouas- 
I founded in the seventh century, of whicli scarcely any 
are now remaining. The castle constituted the antient 
1 chief branch of the O'Molloys. 



fLKINgTRR.] king's COUNTY.' 145 

The interestbg rniofi of Clvah, or Clonmacnois (the seclu- 
<1ed recess of the sons o^ nobles) are situated on the banks of the 
rirer Shannon, in the north-western part of this county. We are 
told by Sir James Ware, and the anthorities quoted in his His- 
tory of the Bishops of Ireland, that the Abbey of Clonmacnois 
was founded, A. D. 548, by St. Kieran, or Ciaran, who, like 
Willis, first bishop of Mayence, in Germany, was the son of t 
carpenter. The site of the Abbey, together with many neigh- 
bouring parishes and town-lands, was granted to Kieran by Der- 
mod, monarch of Ireland, the son of Fergus -Cerbhaol, son, or 
grandson, of Conal, one of the sons of King Nial, snmamed of 
" the Nine Hostages,** progenitor of the houses of 0*Melaghlio 
and O^NeUl. 

The religious hoose founded at Clonmacnois speedily became 
a monastery of great wealth and celebrity -, but St. Kieran pre- 
sided over the foundation for no more than one year. He died at 
this place, on the 9th of September, 549, and was succeeded by 
St. Tigernach. The abbey-church was afterwards converted into 
a cathedral 3 and the monastery, which belonged to regular ca- 
nons of St. Augustin, bad the reputation, for many ages, of pos- 
sessing more ample revenues than any similar institution in Ire- 
land.* '^ This monastic establishment,*' says Mr. Archdall, " was 
peculiarly and aniversaliy esteemed $ it was uncommonly exten- 
sive, and amazingly enriched by various kings and princes. Its 
landed property was so great, and the number of cells and moni^- 
teries subjected to it so numerous, that almost half of Ireland wm 
said to be within the bounds of Glonmacnoise. And, what was a 

* For a great p«rt of iu celebrity the mimestery wai indebted to the 
asMlleaee of the taition, alTordeil to diitiafuiihed yoath, by itf ieamodi 
i^nmtes. *' Jt becauM celebrated,*' wiitet J>r. {XCjouwt ** on the ceat^- 
Dept, wJien St. Colchu w«b the Fer^lel^iad, that it, moderator of tlje 
Schodi, or Lecturer, there, to 791* Cbarlema^e sent him a present of 
fifty fthekeli, through the handi of hit fa¥oared Alcuio, atappeart ia 
A]cnin*t epittle to Colchu, published by U^^. ' It wat the tchool whet« 
the nobility of Connacht had their cUidren educated, and wat therefore 
called Cluan'mC'Uoisy t^ secluded recestof the tontof noblet."'— Apaaa- 
^x to Bib. MS. Stovrensis. p. 39. 

« 

TOI.. II. L 



146 BEAUTtCS OF IRELAND. 

strong inducement^ and contributed much towards enriching this 
honse^ it was believed that all persons who were interred in the 
holy ground belonging to it^ had insured to themselves a sure and 
immediate ascent to heaven ^ many princes (it is supposed for this 
reason) chose this for the phice of their sepulture." 

The reverence with which most classes appeared to regard 
this consecrated spot, proved, however, unable to preserve it 
from the inroads of ferocity and avarice. The annals of Clon- 
macnois are, indeed, stained with instances unusually frequent of 
sacrilegious rapine. The great wealth of the see and abbey at- 
tracted the spoliating visits of all parties. ** The abbey and 
town,*' observes the author last cited, '' were frequently plun- 
dered, burnt, and destroyed by despoilers of every kind, from 
the unpolished Irish desperado to the empurpled king.*' The 
barbarous Ostmen repaired to the plunder of this religious place,, 
as if to a periodical harvest ; and some parties of the English, 
after their settlement in Ireland, imitated, in several years, the 
rapacity of those unhallowed free-booters. 

We gladly present, in relief of so dreary a picture, some few 
particulars of local history, relating to peaceful transactions. In 
840, there was held at Clonmacnois a great convention, by Fey« 
lim M'Criomthan, King of Casheil, at which were present the 
princes of Ireland, and most of the principal men of the kingdom. 
When Neill Gallan, Prince of Ulster, son of Hugh-Oirniodhe, 
0*Ndll, monarch of Ireland, submitted and did homage to Fey- 
lim. The annalist Tigernach died here, in the year 1088. 

In 1155, Tordelrach O'Conor, '' King of Connaught, Meath 
and Breffiny, and monarch of all Ireland, was interred near to the 
altar of St. Kieran." He directed '* his horse and arms to be 
deposited in this abbey, on account of his singular reverence for 
the patron saint.*' In 1170, money was coined at Clonmacnois. 
In 1198, Roderic O'Conor, the last monarch of Ireland, was 
buried in the great chnrch, on the north side of the high altar.'* 

* This anfortunate sovereign died in the monagtery of Cong^ C«« o/ 
Mmifo^ under which bead see his death a2:ain mentioned, with some further 
particulars. 



LBIN8TRK.J KING*S COUNTY. 147 

The instances of r^I interment at this place are extremely nn- 
tneroQS. The above are noticed^ on account of the exact locality 
of aepnltore preserved by history. 

The period has not been correctly ascertained^ at which Clon- 
macnois was constituted an episcopal see. Many^ indeed^ affirm 
tbat St. Kicran was the first bishop ; and Sir J. Ware^ commen- 
cing with that saint, names, with few interrnptions, a succession 
of prdates down to the year 1568> at which time this see was^ 
by parliamentary authority, united to the bishopric of Meath, 
which union has ever since subsisted.* The cathedral was en- 
dowed with large possessions^ and was, says Ware, '* above all 
others famous for the sepulchres of the nobifity and bishops." 
Many undent inscriptions have been discovered amongst the 
ruins at this place, some in Latin and others in Irish, but not any 
tn Hebrew or Oreek^ as is said by Sir J. Ware, Mr. Arcbdall, 
and other writers. 

We have already stated that the great sanctity attached to 
Olonraacnois, caused it to be selected as a place of sepoltpre by 
many of the antient princes of Ireland. The cemetery, writes 
Archdall, contained about two Irish acres, on which, in addition 
to the cathedral^ ^' ten other churches were afterwards built*' 
(as places of sepulture for their families) '* by the kings and 
petty princes of the circumjacent country^ who, though at per- 
petual war whilst living, were content to rest peaceably -beside 
each other. The several founders named theise churches as foU 
lows : Temple Righ, or Melagblin*s Church, built by 0*Me1agh- 
lin. King of Meath, and to this day it is the burial place of that 
family 3 1 Temple 0*Conor^ built by O'Conor Don; Temple 

* 

* See an enumeration of the bishops of Clonmacnois, in Ware's IVorks, 
by Harriiy vol. i. p. 165-174. The Deanery of Cloomacnois still exists, 
and ii mentioned in our account of the diocess of Meath. 

f Flan O'Melaghlin, King of Meath, and the learned Abbot Coleman 
Kac AiUealla, built, A. D. 901, the churcbr called «« Of the Kings;*' 
which became the place of sepulture of the O'Melaghlin family. They 
likewise bnilt the great church, or cathedral, wherein were de^sited the 
relics of St. Kieran, their patron.— De Montmorepcy MSS. 

l2 • . 



14S aKAUTiEi or msLAMo. 

KeUy ; Temple Flniui, or M'Carthy, bnilt by M'Cwtby-iDonc 
C( Minister } Temple Harpui, or If 'Laffy't Church ; Temple 
Kieran ; Temple Gaoney; Temple Donlin, Hhich U now the 
parish chorch ; and Tenqile M'Dennott." 

The remaina of these celebrated buildings are aitnated in * 
wild and cheerless part of the county, in the vidnity of a lai^ 
toa«^ of the bog of Allon, The immediate site of the dnrche* 
is rising ground, on the eutern border of the Shannon, nnqnen- 
ttonably the most eligible spot which the neighbonrhood affords. 
The whole of the buildings are now in a atate of rain ; and tbia 
movmfal assemblage is chiefly iodebted for the air of grendenr 
spread over its decay, to its lofty piUar-towera, a species af 
monument demonitratire of past magnificence, and almost calcu- 
lated to dnide the effects of time.* 

Few rfiflnements of architeatnre appear to have been empbycd 
IB the buildings at Clonmacnois ; and few, indeed, could be ec- 
pwted on a spot bo often virited by the sword and firebrand of 
spdiaton, against whom the sanctity of the altar itaelf was no 

* We have Boticed, in our IntrDdastar; |>a[M, lite coqjectDre of Mr. 
Harrii m to tli« PUlBr-towen of Iralasd being deiifned fbr tlie nee «f 
'* Ike Anachont monkg lenned Stylltei." From the freqnenc;, aad tfes 
•lat«I; deracter, of thpie itrncliirM, It would appear to be veryiBipra- 
bable IbM tbey were, ia reality, coDelracted for faDatici to taw and 
•ccentrlc. Some fnrtber arsnmeDti, derifedfrom thecMi(titii*Hlpan*af 
tbepillan of Ireland, are pmentedbj IbeCliev.de Uontnorency, amongst 
nbkh may be iMllced tbe followlDK. " la tbe light in wUcb 1 view tbai 
•itiect, 1 conceive SyuiM tbe Stjille'e plUar at Antiocb, to bare bees'a 
baaTj and solid thafl of matonry, of tbe Tnicaa erder, luiMonnted ky a 
flat capital wl(b a parapet orniltngt) and, like tbe Fbaddan Obalis^, 
naceaded oatwardly by a ipiml or wladiag ilair-way, witboat (tepa. A 
itair-wa J of tbii oalnre, onl j Intemalt j, — 'an eicaller eoipinleet tana 
narcbet,' — may be aeea and admired, la tbe tplre of Iba nperb QotUc 
tteeple called the Qlralda, belonging to (be catbedral at Seidllei and 

'■■— >n ibe royal caatle at Amboiie- In tbli way, alone, can I flgnre 

', tbe pouibility nf many penoni communicating and convening 
lib tbe Stylite. Tbe aleeder ihape and conitrucUcn of tbe Irish 
raclndettbe practicability of holding uy mcb coUoqniei, either 
r wUbaatdde."— Eisay on ihe Origin, ftc. «f tbe Irish PBIar- 



(lbinbtbe.] king's county. 149 

prolection. The atructare termed Temple^ or TeempQUj Ml^ 
Dermod^ was of the largest dimensions^ and exhibits the rich^t 
architectural vestiges. The Qorthern door of this fabric is of 
the pdnted form^ and its attendant decorations exhibit som^ 
remains of scalptnre^ which will be viewed with additional ia^ 
terestj on account of the rare occurrence of such relics in the 
ecclesiastical edifices of this country. The doorcase is richly 
ornamented throughoot. In the space over the arch of entrance 
are three figures^ representing St. Patrick^ in poniiJkalUm», and 
St. Francis and St. Dominic^ in the habits of their respective 
orders. Small carvings^ in an upper band^ again present the 
same saints, together with Odo> dean of Clonmacnois, whosf 
re*edification of this part of the church is denoted by the following 
inscription : Domi Odo Decamu Cluanm. JSerit fecit. The west 
door of the same church, also of the pomted form, was less 
omameDted, and evidently in an earlier style of architecture. 

Here is also an antient stone-roofed chapel, ususdly termed 
Si. KterafCe chapel. 

Five Crosses were raised in different parts of this cemetery. 
Of these we are told, that one was erected in 1073, in memory 
of Con. O* Melaghlin, King of Meath, mardered that year by Us 
nepbew; a second in 1100, to 0*Heyne, Dynast, or petty King, 
of Siol-mu.ireadhy ; a third to Rory-ma-Suighe-buidhe O'Conor, 
King of Conaught, mno 111S> and a fourth to Tordelvach 
0*Conor, monarch of Ireland, (&ther of Roderick* last monarchy) 
who died SOth May, 1155, aged 68.* Two of the above oroases 
are still in a tolerable state of preservatioo, and are of large 
proportions. That situated near the west door of Temple Mae 
Dermod is fifteen feet in height, and is ornamented in every part 
with rude but elaborate sculptural representations and devices*t 

* Montmorency MS 8. 

f The Mulptiire on this curiont cms it tbas doMribed by Dr« lacdwiieli' 

(Anti^ft. &c. p. 76.) *^ The llgaret are comneBMiratlve of St. JPavaib Il9l4 

4he re^ediflcation of the chorcb by Deao Odo. Tbo oMteca Mi is divided 

:iato .eonpartinentt. Its centre, or bead aad anaSf exhibit &!• Kisnuiat 

full leagtby being the patron of CUuaacnois* In oae band be boldt |ia 



150 BEAUTIKI OF tRGLAMD. 

In the Ticinity ot the ecclesiasdciU td'hib at this place are two 
RoDDd, or Piltar, Towers, now denominated, from circamBtutce* 
of contiguons building or sepattore, O'Ronrke's tower, and the 
tower of Mac Carthy-more. The former, which is destitnte of 
roofing, IB, according to Archdall, alxty-two feet in height; tho 
walls are three feet eight inches in thickness. Mac Carthy's 
tower is fifty-six feet liigh, and seven feet in diameter, witliiD. 
"nie walls are three feet in thickness. This tower is attached to 
the bnilding termed Mac Carthy's Chnrch, a small and decayed 
stmctnre, of considerable antiquity. The arch of the choir still 
remains, and is well executed. The door of the tower opens into 
the cbnrcb, and is level with the present surface. 

A reltgioua house for Nnns was foanded here at an early period. 

baanter, uid in Ihe other a mallet, eipreuiag bli deiceat, bb Ctlhar beiiis 
a carpenter. ' If ear Um are three laea and a dog dancing, and ia the niva 
■re eight tnen mora, and above the Saint ii the portrait of Dean Odo. 
Th4 men are the anlBcen employed by Odo, who ihow their joy for Iba 
lutnoBr done to their patron On the ihaft are two men, one ilripplng 
the olher at hii old garments, Bliiidiag to the new repaln. Under theM 
are two loldiert, with their twordi readj' to ieftad the chnrch utd religioa. 
Neil aro Adam and Bte aad the tr«a of life, and beneath an imparfBCt 
Iriah inecription. - On the pedeilal are eqaeitrian and chariot iporta. Ob 
the north lido Uapaapar carryingachlld, indicatingllieChriilian virtae. 
Charity. Below theie a theplierd play* on hl> pipe, and under bim ii aa 
eccleiiailic lilUng in a chair, holding a (eacbar'i ferula, iin the top of 
which Is an owl, the symbol of Wiidum, and iu end resii on a beaii, de- 
noting Ignorance. The other tide* are finely adoraed with loieage net- 
work, aehnle monldingi, roem and Soweri." 

'A great part of Ihii deicrlption appean to be eitremely (knclful, and 
is probably erroneooe. The carvinga are evidently of much greater anti- 
quity than the re-ediGcaliun effected by Odo, wbicb ■■ laid to have taken 
place about the year 1280. In eooie itriclurvi on Dr. Ledwich, by a very 
able writer in the Gent'* Mag. for 1198, are tbefollowing remark* : "Tta 
biiloriei on the ihaft are teriptural. The flrd oa the south lide may be 
the iaptiim of Chrlil, hod the Birdklrkfont in jirchaelegta, vol. IL p. 
131 ; the lecood, two apoetle*, one, perbapa, St. Paul, with a iword. 
7\a pauftr tarrying a child, on the north aide, ii evideatly 8l. Christo- 
pher carrylBf (be lafasl Jeaua. The tMtpkrrd pUi/img qh kit fife, wltJs 
two ibeep al hii feel, it (be Pnlar bona:" 



[leinsar.] kino*8 county. 151 

In the year 1180^ the church of this nunnery^ '' together with 
the houses in the church-yard^*' was destroyed by accidental fire. 
Dervorg^lla^ the daughter of Murrogh 0*Melaghlin^ King of 
Meath^ and wife of Tiernan O'Roirk^ rebuilt the fabric. A cir- 
cular arch (engraved in Ware*s works by Harris^ vol. i.) is now 
the only architectural vestige of that structure. At the distance 
of about one furlong from the ruined cathedral and abbey^ are 
the remains of the bishop*s palace, a strong but rude building, 
reduced, at the present day, to an uuinteresting mass of ruin. 

The spacious cemetery of Clonmacnois is still greatly venerated 
as a place of burial. The patron day, or iwniversary of St. Kieran, 
is very numerously attended. In the Statistical Survey of this 
parish, inserted in the work of Mr. Shaw Mason, it is said that 
" from 3000 to 4000 persons assemble here on that day (the 9th 
of September) to do penance^ from different parts of Ireland, even 
from the county of Donegall. Tents and booths are erected round 
the church-yard, for the accommodation of the people.*' Clon- 
macnois is now a vicarage, in the gift of the Bishop of Meath. 
The nearest village is Shannon'brldge (so called from a bridge 
thrown over the river Shannon) where there are small barracks, 
and some other buildings connected with the military establish* 
ment. 

Banagheb, a small but respectable town, is situated on the 
banks of the Shannon, at the western extremity of this county. 
The surrounding country is flat,* and. in parts subject to incon- 
venience from the overflowing of the river Shannon. In the 
vicinity of this place is Moystown, a good house with an im- 
proving demesne, belonging to the family of L*Estrange. 

Clogban, a small town or village, four miles to the east of 
Banagher^ consists chiefly of neat dwellings, white- washed and 

* In the neighbourhood of Banaj^her are very extensive bogs, from ten 
to twenty-five feet in depth ; beneath which (according to a MS. by the 
late Mr. Beauford, now in the posselsion of the present writer) are oftea 
discovered traces of antient forests and paved fvads. 



i 



15? BKAUTISS or ISELABTD. 

thatched witb straw. The building now used as a barrack for a 
troop of borse> was formerly the manorial residence of the Mac 
Cogblan family^ and was sold to government by the late Thomas 
Coghlan^ Esq. styled " the Maw^*' whose descent and character 

« 

have been noticed, at some lengthy in a preceding page. 

Clog HAN Castle is situated in the parish of Lusmagh, which 
district was taken from Galway at the time of dividing this part 
of the country into shire ground, O 'Madden being then the old 
proprietor. The castle of Lusmagh was taken by storm, A.D. 
1595, by Sir William RusseU, lord deputy, who pat Ibrty-six of 
the garrison to the sword, in consequence of what was deemed 
the audacious conduct of O'Madden. When that chief waa sum- 
moned to surrender, he boldly replied '* that he would not yield, 
even if the whole army were deputtea^ A Franciscan friary waa 
founded at Cloghan-Cantualaig, by 0*Madden, early in the 
ifteenth century. The present proprietor of Cloghan castle is 
Garret Moore, Esq. descended, as is said^ from a branch of the 
family of 0*More, of Leix. 

The small towB of Frankfobd is seated on the Silver river, 
and is a place of some traffic, as a market for grain. Here is a 
Charter-school, designed for forty children. A Monastery for 
Carmelites, or White Friars, was founded at this place in the 
fifteenth century, by Odo, the son of Nellan O'MolIoy, dynast 
of Fearcal. The founder died on the feast of St. Remigius, (St. 
Remy) mmo 1454, and was interred in front of the high altar. 
On the suppression of monasteries, this house, and its depen- 
dancies, were granted to Robert Leycester, of Clouneryeil,* in 
this county, gent. 

From the family of Leycester this estate passed, by a marriage, 
into the family of Magawley, or Macaulay, antient dynasts of 
Colry, deriving from the sept of O'Neill; in which family it is 
stall vested. Count Magawley-Cerrati, of Parma (a count of tlie 
Roman empire) the present proifrietor, now or lately filled a high 

* Now lerned Chncarly and at present the s«at of the Magan family. 



[lsinstek.] kino's county. ihi 

staiioQ in the cdtincils of the ATchdochess l^ary-LouiBe^ of Aitttria^ 
widow of the Ex-Emperor Napoleon. The seat (but nnfortunateiy 
not the residence) of this family, termed Teniora, is situated in the 
Vicinity of the town of Frankford. 

Bboghill Castle, situated on the Silver river, near the above 
town, was formerly the chief seat of 0*Molloy, dynast of Fearcal, 
and was also, at one time, held by the sept of O'Conor^Faly. 
This castle was taken, in the year 1638, by Lord Grey, then 
lord deputy. At the great period of for^tore, in the seven^* 
teenth century, it fell into the provident hands of Sir WDHaa 
Petty. The estate of Broghill was sold, by the late Marquess 
of Lansdovni, to — ^ Fitz Simmons, Esq. the present proprietor. 

Balvbot, a town of little consideration, imparts its name to a 
barony, which is situated in the district formeriy constituting part 
of the territory of Fearcall-«0*Molloy . * The principal historical 
event connected with this town, relates to the wars of the seven'* 
teenth century. In the month of lOetober, 1690, a detachment 
of General Sarsfield's army, which had been encamped between 
limerick and AtUone, took Balyboy by surprise, although the 
gurrison comprised six companies of Lord Drogheda's regiment of 
foot. After killing and wounding matiy English soldiers, the 
assailants retreated in good order, but not without sustaining 
some loss from the English, who had rallied and pursued them. 

In this neighbourhood are several handsome mansions, amongst 

* The chief of Ihe 0*Molloys obtained, at an earjy period, by a graot 
from the crown, the office of hereditary standard-bearer in Ireland, of tlie 
king of England. An additfonal and olilcial coat of arms was granted to 
that chief at the Banie time, viz. verf, a mioanted knight in armonr, the 
hone argent, and bearing in his hand the British standard, proper. It 
innst be remarked, however, that O'Hanloa, of Qrlor, also lays claim to 
the same office. 0*Molloy of Ughterheere, otherwise 0*Molloy's Hall, 
Co. of Roscommon, which place is now called Coote Hall, lii supposed 
to be the chief of the name of O'Molloy. There are still in the King's 
Connty some respectable fcmiltes belonging to this lept, and the rninft of 
many antient castles attest their former conseqluence and dignity. 



154 



BKAVTXJBS OF IKSLAND. 



which most be noticed Palace, the highly-improved seat of the 
liilaloDe family, and Drouffkiville,* and JFldgAorough, aeatt of 
the family of Drought. 

At Rathlin^ or Rathlibthen, an Abbey was founded by St. 
Ilkuif who flourished A. D. 540. In the ruins of the antient. 
church was preserved, during many ages^ a statue of the saint. 
The image represented a prelate, in p&ntificalibMj holding in one 
hand the episcopal staff, or crozier. A sacrilegious hand, writes- 
Colgan, broke off the head of this venerable statue, not many 
years back* Here was a castle of the 0*Molloys, forfeited by 
Conoily MoUoy, in 1641. 

Bian, sometimes called Parsonstown, is a neat and flourishing 
town, distant from Dublin 64 miles. This place formerly consti- 
tuted the chief seat of O'CarroU, dynast of Ely-0*Carroll, but 
was lost to the old proprietor^ amidst the numerous forfeitures in 
the year 1641. The family of Parsons (now Earl of Rosse and 
Baron Oxmantown) have he^ this estate, and resided at Birr, 
from the date of the restoration of Charles II. down to the present 
time To this family the town is entirely indebted for its im- 
provements and prosperity. Formerly a small and mean village, 
it has become, under the fostering care of the Parsons family, a 
well-built, populous, and commercial town, the resort of many 
families of distinction. Several eligible public buildings have 
been lately erected. The Church is a modern structure^ built of 
stone, in a highly-enriched modification of the pointed style. It 
requires to be noticed, although the erection is not very oma- 

* Id the vicinUy of Drougbtville U the antient church of Dramcnllio, 
DOW in ruins. It it obiervod by Sir C. Coote, that ** The surroundlnf 
plains have been the scenes of bloody battles, as, within a spade's depth, 
vast quantities of hnman bones are found. Each height has yet the vestiges 
of antient fortification, and, on a very strong rath, which commands the 
whole district, there remains an entire fort, of most difficult access, de- 
fended by a regular and double course of works, still in great preservation. 
The rath has been planted by Mr. Drought, and has a striking effect in 
this truly romantic scene."— Statistical Survey, p. 100. 



•>. iii 



[lEINSTSB.] king's COfJNTY. 1&5 

mental to the t6wn, that there is at this place a pedestrian .statie 
of William^ Pake of Camberland, standiog on a colamn of coa- 
siderable height. This statoe^ which is cast in lead^ and painted 
stooe-colour^ was erected in the year 1747. 

. Binr^ although not greatly distinguished in history^ has been 
the theatre of some military transactions. Gerald, ninth Earl of 
Kildare, kid siege to the Castle at this place, in su]^)ort of the 
usurpation of one of the O'CanroUs, who was his son*in-law, to 
the detriment of the lawful heir. The earl received a wound in 
bis bead, from which he never entirely recovered^ andi on ex- 
pedendng that accident, withdrew his troops and returned borne. 
Sh^itly afterwards he was arrested, and sent prisoner to the Tower 
of London } which circumstance occasioned the rebellion of the 
eari*s son. Lord Thomas Fitsgerald. The lords-deputy Grey and 
Brabazon respectively besieged, and reduced, this castle. Teig 
0*Carroli, submitting to the latter in \M9, was created, by Ed- 
ward VL Baron of Ely, but only for his own life. 

The Cattle of Birr, formerly the residence of the 0*Carrolls, 
has been entirely rebuilt by the Parsons family, and has recently 
been much enlarged and improved, chiefly after the designs of the 
late Mr. John Johnston, architect. Under the new arrangement 
which has taken place, in attention to the spirit of these improve- 
ments, the former back of the house is now converted into the 
principal froat, and is ornamented in imitation of castellated ar- 
chitecture. The alterations of the .interior are entitled to high 
commendation. An air of distinguished el^ance pervades the 
principal apartments ; and the drawing-room is justly celebrated 
for excellence of proportions and beauty of disposal. The noble 
proprietor of this seat, Laurence Parsons, Earl of Rosse, and 
Baron Oxmantown, is author of several nseful tracts respecting 
Ireland, and has directed his studies, with equal ardour and good 
taste^ towards the history and antiquities of the island. 

• The country surrounding Birr abounds in bog, and has little 
claim to natural beauty in any respect j but many ornamental seats 
are found in this district, and the prevailing dreary aspect of the 
country is curiously, and finely, ameliorated by the highly-im- 



1$6 BBAUTISf QW IRBLAND. 

^r6yed demesnes attached to several of these mansioDS of resident 
gentry. 

Amongst the most distinguished seats in the vicinity of this 
tbvm, is Gloucester^ or Glosteb^ the noble demesne of the 
Lloyde family. The present Earl of Rosse is allied with this 
Very respectable family^ having married^ in the year 17974 Alice^ 
daughter of John Lloyde> of Oloster^ Esq. 

Castlb-Bbbnakd (formerly C&nieiown) another spadons seat 
in this neighbonrhood, is the residence of Thomas Belnard, Esq. 
6ne of the representatives for the King's County in the imperial 
parliament. The atstle on this estate was built originally by the 
thmily of 0*Carroll.— T^V^Biam O'CarroU^ of Castletown (who was 
living in 1630^) married Grany, daughter to Daniel Mac Gilfoyle* 
of Shinrone^ in this county^ Esq. chief of his sept. Kyan O'Car- 
roU^ son and h^ir of the above-named William^ forfeited the 
Castletown estate in l<t41 } and the property then passed to the 
Ikmily* of Winter. John Pratt Winter, of Agher4ionse^ in the 
county of Meath> Esq. is seized of this manor in fee^ but it is 
leased^ for ever^ to Mr. Bernard, at a yearly rent 

The Leap, a castle so termed, situated between the towns «f 
-Bfarr and Roscrea, was formerly a strong hold of the O*0arrolls^ 
and is now the improved and very desirable residenoe of the Darby 
family.* 

* Many tradttioiud tales a» carefully preserved coneerniog tbis antient, 
aod originally fortified, seat.— It is said that a barbaroas massacre was 
perpetrated, io the sizteentb century, by '* O'Carrollof theLeap," upon 
very numerous persons, belonging to a rival branch of his own sept, whom 
he bad basely invited to a feast, under the mask of frlendsliip. If thb 
story have a real foundation, it probably refers toTeig, Baron of Ely; for 
we read, that, when Bdward VI. signified his wish of granting to 0*Car- 
roll a patent for his estate, the king was advised against that measure by 
tlie Lord Deputy Grey, who gave as a reason that the person for whom the 
favour was designed, *' watfalte,** It may be noticed, as an instance of 
the lasting, and almost indelible, effect of such denunciations amongst the 



[lbinster.] kino's county* 15^ 

At SsiE Kuan, or Saxoba^ distant four miles from the towi^ 
of Birr, a monastery and bishopric were founded, at an earfy 
period, dedicated to St. Kieran, who is often styled the ** Father 
of Irish Saints." This abbey was frequently plundered by the 
Danes and other freebooters. We are told, in the annals of 
lonis&lkn, that, aurno 1144, Conor 0*Conor, King of Meath^ 
was slain at Beoilach'mmme'na^Sirridk (this place) by O'Douley^ 
King of Fearcall. The see of Seir Keren was removed, in 1053, 
to Aghaboe ; and was finally translated, in the latter part of ttie 
twelfth century, to Kilkenny.— We must not omit to observe 
that, mmo 1384, the bishop Oeoflrey de St. Leger recovered, by 
the trial of single combat, the manor of Seir- Kieran, as forming 
a part of the see-lands of hb diocess. 

DuNKBRMiN, nominally a fair town, but, in reality, a small 
and mean village, is situated in a tongue of land that runs into 
the county of Tipperary, and is called the barony of Clonlisk. 
The 0*Carrolls, Mac Gilfoyles, 0*Daigans, and De Mariscos 
were the antient proprietors. The Parochial Church, a ci^Mcious 
and appropriate structure, was completed in 1818, with the aid 
of £1200, obtained, in way of loan, from the Board of First 
Fruits. Here is a Charter School, designed for 50 girls. In 
the vicinity of the town is the handsome seat of the RoUeston 
family. 

^« 
' BusHBBSTowM, the seat of the Minchin family, was origi- 
nally called BoucBAUDSTowN, and formerly belonged to the De 
Mariscos. Bouchard de Marisco, from whom the name of this 
place is derived, left a daughter and heir^ who married 0*Carroll, 

Irish, that this character for falsehood^ or treachery, created a prepos- 
seMion, in this part of the coantry, against the name of O'CarroIl, which 
scarcely expired with the last male representative of tlie '* O'Carrolls of 
the Leap," who died at Lisbon, in the year 1759.^Story (** Hist, of the 
Wars in Ireland,** Ac.) relates, under the year 1691, many anecdotes of 
the dexterity of ** one Captain Darby, of the Leap,'* who, aecordinf to 
that writer, was eminent for his exploits against certain noted Rappar§€i. 



1 



15B BBAUi-iBS or 

of Clonlisk and Conloge. Teig O'CarroU forfeited th» csUte in 
1641, and his poiterity lank into otncority and want ! 

L^DOKTON, distant one mile from Monpgalt, is tbe name of 
a handsome mansion and well-improved demesne, the property 
of Thomas Ryder Pepper, Eaq. Amongstolher seats in this part 
of tbe county mast be mentioaed (rrem-AiVA; Balyntempie} mi 
Camgort. 



[lginsteb.] county or mbath. IS9 



MEATH. 

The district formerly termed MtdhCj Miadhanagh, or Bfeath,* 
comprehending the present counties of Meath, Westmeath, and 
Longford^ together with parts of Gavan, Kildare, and the King's 
Coonty^ constituted an antient principality of great strength and 
importance, " the princes or chiefs of which,** says Beanford, 
" frequently styled themselves kings of Ireland.** It is observed 
by the same writer, in the eleventh number of the Collectanea, 
that, '* according to several Irish poems and MSS, Midhe, in the 
early and middle ages, was, as at present, divided into two parts, 
that Is, east and west ; the eastern part, or East Meath, was 
denominated Otreamholn, or eastern country \ and the western 
part, or West Meath, EircamhtAt^ ; whence the Heremon of the 
irish poems and romances.*' Some authors assert that this district 
was at one time set apart as the appenage, or mensal lands, 6f 
the *' monarch*^ of Ireland, nnder the name of Fearon Buird 
Rig-h Eriou, 

This province suffered severely from the incursions of the 
I>aiiet, to whom its fertile lands afforded a tempting booty. Upon 
the entry of the English^ Meath, then wrested from the family 
of 0*Melaghlin, its Irish possessors and princes, was bestowed 
by King Henry II. on Hugh de Lacy, to beheld by the service of 
fifty knights ; and by that potent lord the territory was subdi- 
vided, and parts granted to various of his friends and followers. 
With anobvions and oonnaidable policy, De Lacy endeavoured 
to advance the security of h\$ large possessions by the erection of 
nnmerons castles and strong holds ; and the same precautionary 
dnty he enjoined npon his military tenants. It is well known, 
however, that a fortified recess was often the instrument of 

* In an antient MS. poem, repoiited in the noble collection at Stowe« 
is an attempt to explain the name of Meath in fifty-four versei, begiflnin^ 
Midke Maigin nambarc mear ; Meath, plain of swift-sailing ships'! 



tyranny, in the hands of facdoiu and aspiring barons. Thai, 
the history of Meath, throughout the middle ages, presents a 
coastaat inccession of family dispntes, terminating in battls, 
siege, and all the horrors of civil war on a circnmacribed scale.* 
In the thirty-fourth of Henry VIII., Meath was divided, by an- 
thority of parliament, into the two con a ties of East and West 
Meath j but Longford remained an integral part of the latter divi- 
vision nntil the reign of Elizabeth. 

The coooty of Meath is bonnded towards the north by Cavan, 
Mona^han, and Lonth. On the east its limits are formed, for a 
email extent, by the Irish sea. Tomards the south-east lies the 
conn^ of Dublin. On the south is Kildare, and on the west the 
Gonatyof Westmeath. The greatest length, measuring from east 
to weqt, is abont thirty-five miles ; and the extreme width about 
tweoty-nine miles. Thus, in point of size, it ranVs as tenth 
amongst the connties of Ireland. The soil is, in general, rich, 

* Tbe followins ptrtlcaUn, relating to Um coanly of U(«(hi are 
eairact«d fron Ike HS. «ril«ctWn* of Sir W. Betham. Ja ib« fint y«Br 
of Htmtj TI. 4a.GommoDi and clerc;. snfnlqd a labddy lo ihe kinf, tbe 
t«tat»T of 860 markli Ike lattar of ISO narki. Id aid df the nar Kfainst 
O'CoDDor Falej' aod tb« Bermiiigbami, who (realty diitreised tfaii couDly 
bj (heir iaroadi. Tbe «ame year another inbiidy wai graDled by the 
coromoiK and clerfy, who, coniidering the probable conqneat of (he said 
coanty by O'Gonnin- Faley and tbe BermiDglwmi, bad applied to Iba lonb 
jnitlceiforaid, at wboM iiMance JaaMi, Bad of Detqtond, wilh6(K^ 
bane aiH f«at from Maailer, weal .to the said .O'CoSDor and Bermiof- 
kaaii Gonnu7> and deWroyed [be cwinlry and burnt dteir corn, &c. aod 
•apleiely bumbled them, itopplng there ibirleea days, for the eipenies 
f which eipeditioD Richard Nugent, Baroa of Delvin, wneichal of the 
berileB of Meath, became lecurity, and delitered himaetf (o tbe aarl ■> 
oltage for the payment. For bli relM wia chargad I3t. M. so B«acy 
arncate af laad In Heath, aoi «M. on a* itryjikta^ vf Jaod tat t^^.^/nji 
kattala. it»t. P»t. B. T. The rallowftg ,fnvM mem to be Jeried on fhe 
nriCMei of reipective toirni ; ^ad (bo Dol{ee of them will giTO eome idea of 
10 reladTe impor(aDce of thoie placet at th/it period t Dy veiek I3i. id. { 
:a(houth I0(.[ Greook lOi. ; Dunboyag lSt.4rf.) Duntbagbly S mark*| 
lavwi M)t. I filane lOt.; Sydan 6t. Rd.i Noby* 3i. 4if.t Kenlyi gtt.t 
lnHac*vra|hS(.4d.i Ath>aySOf.t Four ^(.4(1.) Kyllallon 3(. i Rath- 
eyrat.M.! MolyitfiT ei.,V. ; Slamolyn Si. 8i{. i Kylby3i.4if. 



1 



[LRIKTSTER.] :DOUlITy OV MSATH, Ml' 

cftD$i9lii^» most coDunonly, of a strong and dcap day vpos a 
aahfttraftaoi of limetf one graral. Here are lew devations entMed 
to the diaracter of moantains, and bnt little bog. A great part 
of the eoonly is occopied by yalnable pastnre groonds^ divided 
by verdant banks ; and tbe general aspect of the conntry may be 
described as that of an nndalating plain. 

Tbe farms vary greatly in siae, bnt are often very extent ivis. 
The crops commonly cultivated are wheat, oats, barley, here, 
rye, maslin, clover, iiax, and potatoes. Amongst crops only 
partially cultivated we are sorry, considering their nnquestbn* 
able value, to enumerate turnips, vetches, peas and beans. Not- 
withstanding the richness of tiie pasture-grounds, there are Isw 
ddries of eonsideraUe extent, and the butter nmde in this county 
is not hdd in mudi estimation. Great attention has been laldy 
paid to the improtvemeot of live stock | bnt, in regard to tiM 
general system of grazing, Meath must be considered as a feedingy 
rather than a breeding, or rearing, country. The larm*lioases, 
except when they belong to persons occnpying extensive tracts 
•f land, are, in general, wretched huts, formed of earth or day i 
and, as they are raised at the expense of the tenant, are not 
desigited to last longer than the term of his lease ;^ period 
often too long for tbe duration of tenements so fragile and 
•ordid. 

*^ Ontinary language can scarcdy express the mingled astonidi- 
iient and regret of the examiner, on finding thns miserable the 
dwellings of those who farm one of the most fertile districts 
in Ireland, a region snuling in abundant ^Its ol nature } and the 
pain of his reflectiotts is increased when he yIows the still more 
cheeiiess abodes of the peasantry, who constitute the great bulk of 
popnlntion aa a soil sogenid. These hovels, except on ftwennd 
spots where affloent. reddents yield peendary assistance, or cobh 
nnuiicate the still greater benefits of jadieiooa advaoe and iospkit- 
ing «qsm|de^ are in wiably composed of mad, ub nsodly with* 
•utdiimnefs, and mre too often not preo£ against the ifinds s>Mt 
runs of indement seasons. In these fedora 'haUtatienst as It 
observed by Mr. Thonqis<)n>. in the Agdcultaral Survey of Meath, 

TOL. II. M 



U9 KtAdTIM OP IRELAXB. 

" the hog is smei^ly an inmate ; the beni conilurtl; ; and if 
thatnunt is pocfecued of « cow, she alio i> introdKCMl, asrf 
btootnea one of tb« family," 

Altliough this district is not eminently rich- in mhieTals, 
apper-ore is discovered in considerable abundance. Slate, 
ochres, and pottera'-clay are also found in different parts of the 
coanty. The chief m an n facta res are those of sacking, dowUa, 
apd coarse linens. 

The prindpel rivers are the Boyne ; the Blackwaler ; the 
N am ag i and the Bonra, The " pleasant Boyoe," as thta 
river 'is, with strict propriety, designated by Spencer, flows 
throngfa the connty from sooth-west to north-east, dividing it 
nesrly into two equal parte. Its banks are in aevend places deco- 
rated with noble nansiooi, uid afford nnmerona soft and pictn- 
fta^ueviewB. The Blachw&ter, which taltes its rise in Loogh 
lUmar, falls ioto the Boyne at the town of Navan. The Nannay, 
and many sabordinate streams, intersect the country in variona 
directioDS. A want of teood prevails throughout the coanty, 
except in the vidoity of family seats. The climate is believed to- 
be colder tlian ia the more westerly parts of Ireland. 

The mansions of nobility and gentry are numeroas, thronghont 
every district, and in several instances are spacioas and splendid. 

Although, from the want of bold inequalities, this coanty is 
not pecnliarly attractive to the pictorial traveller, it yields, with 
few deviations, the gratefnl aspect of a rich and highly-cnltivated 
nrfeee. To the antiquary it affords an abnndant field of grati- 
fiation. Earth-worlea, the vestiges of very remote ages, are 
extromdy noinerons, and io some examples, as partictilsrly in that 
*f Neit Orange, near Slase, are of onusoal interest. Remains of 

tellated stTDctares, the decayed memorials of DeLacy's policy, 

1 of a long train of siihseqnent feads, are also frequently seen. 

leediBsiasticalstmctaresofpastagea, venerable and pictnrceqiie 

Si the variow stbgea of decay, abonnd io nearly every part <rf 

'Cosiity { sad id tbelr vidaity are still remaining several ri^oaa 

HBSj of elabortttt wdrttmaasbip. 

If frill bejsadily.belieVod that few parocltiat churches of high 



[LSrNSTKR.] vatmTY' OF MIATH. I6i 

antiqlBty aro ttow «xiBUiig/ in a good stete of premrnftioo^ when 
welioldr.til roMembttMt the rep frt aam i oniirie ^f^flWA^ 
Sydney to Qaecn Elizabeth^ in the year 1576. That able Tieero^ 
Bobmitted to her majesty^ that there were> at that time^ within 
this diocess^ 294 parish chorches^ the state of, which he thas de* 
scribes. " In maney places the very walles of the churches are 
donne; verye few chaaocells covered j the wyndowes andidores 
myned^ or.spoyled. There are 52 parishe churches in the same 
dioces^ who haye vicars indoed upon them> better served and mayn- 
tdned than the other^ yet bot badlye. There are 58 parishe charchea • 
more, residae of the first number of 224> whidi pertein to dyvera 
perticular lordes, and these, though in better estate then the Test 
commonlye are, yet farre from well." Many churches ia this 
diocess were rebvilt early in the seventeenth century 3 and we 
have great pleasure in observing that the instances of renovation 
are still more numerous in years since that period. Fifty parochial 
churches have been built in Meath, since the commencement of 
the year 1800. 

The county of Meath (which affords the title of Earl to the 
family of Brabazon) is politically divided, according to the Agri- 
cultural Survey, into two districts, separated by the Boyne; one 
called the district of Kdls, comprising the baronies of Siane; 
MorgtdHtm$ KeiU; Fawre; Lune, wndNavani and the other^ 
called the Diviiiion of Dnnshaughlin, comprehending Duleek; 
Skrffmy RatMih; Dmnbayne; Deece; voA Mayfenrath, These 
twelve baronies are subdivided into 147 parishes, the whole df 
which are in the diocess of Mcath. One half of a parish in the 
bishopric of Kiimore, and a part of a parish in that of Armagh, 
are also situated in this county. 

Mr« Edmnnd Hyde Hall, in his valuable analysis of the Down 
Sarvey, praftxed to the second volume of Mr. Shaw Mason's Sta«- 
tifftical acooiBkt of Ireland, observes that " a remarkable, and Jt 
irooUeaomOii liatare belonging to the baronies m the eounty of 
l^oathj is, that several of them have detaehed parts, enchased in 
others/* 



M t 



M4 



KBAUTUtS OP IIBLAND. 



Tb€ niMiil^r of hoiiBes and inhftbiUoU, scooipdmg to the 
tfMW Wide tiHlMr Ihe troptkiioB act of lU^, u «s f<dlo#»^ 



Bkronlci, or' HalfHatoatet, 



Mcaterof 
Hooiet. 



Deece^ Loirer 66Q 

Deoctt, Upper 733 

Duleek, Upper 1^386 

Duleek, Lower 1^560 

Dnnbbyne, 3S8 

Fower batf «/)17 

KellSy Lower 3>076 

Kells, Upper 2,887 

Ltine, 1,702 

MorgkllioD, 1,7^ 

Moy{ear«gU, 1^699 

Moyfenragb, Upper 1,292 

Navan, Lower 2>493 

Naynn, Upper 718 

Ratoath, 866 

Slane, Lower 1,442 

Slane, Upper ; 1,180 

Sfcreen, ' 1,190 



P(»pttUtioii. 



Total. . . . 25,921 



3,548 
4,066 

7.8^7 
8,296 

2,163 

10,753 

11,604 

15,803 

8,859 

9,438 

9,529 

7^89 

13,027 
3,682 
5,289 
7,790 
6,519 
7,197 



142,479 



According to the returns obtained in the year 1821, the ann- 
ber of booses in this coanty was then dO,431{, and the number of 
inhabitants 174,716 5 makiog an increase of inhabitants, since the 
year 1813, to the nomber of 32,237. 

The Diocess of Mbath, 

Which now extends over parts of siic connlies, has been pro- 
igreasively formed from several small biihopries. '* TheM-were 
JSmnerly,'* 4^ser?es Sir J. Ware, " many episcopal sees inMeath, 
fasClonard; Daleek; KellBj Trimi Ardbraccan; Dtttishaghlis; 
SiMm^ •nd>Feare> besides others of less nole, all ulikh, Except 
(Kdls, or Koaamise, were consolidated, atid their eotamon s6e 
was fixed at Clonard, before the year 1152, at which tinfe the 
divisions of the bishopricks of Ireland were made by John Paparo, 



[lsinstki.] county or mbatii« Itt^ 

legate trowL Pt>pe Eogene III. to the Irish. Ilie two sees of 
Daleek and Kdis afterwards submitted to thm sanie tjM" 

The bi Aopric of Qouard wm fouled ia the pece^n of St. 
Finiailf an eminent philosopher, and .difinej wha had rtsided for 
some time with St. Da.?id, Bishop of Menem, and who eitablished 
a school at donard, which.prodjiced many men ef imiiOiff saactitj 
and learning. This prelate.died abont the year 54a> and is termed 
by Archbishop Ussher " the chief of the saints of the second order 
in Ireland." There are bnt few memorial spreserved concerning 
the snccessort of St. Finiaa, muil the aniral of the Bttglish and 
theremoTfllof the see. Simon Rochfott, aa'BngKsbtian, was 
the last Bishop who sat at Cleiiatd, and H is obserfable that 
several intervening prelates^ whilst remaining in that see, had 
nsed the style and title of bishops of Meath. 

We refer to other pages a. brief notice of inferior ^es, now 
merged in tUs bishopric, and continue the iaunediate history of 
the diocese of Meath, by observing tbat» abovt the year 19M, 
Simon RoohiM translated his episcopal chair lo the abbey of St. 
Peter and 8t« Panl, at Newtawn> neac Trim, wWdi be hid recently 
founded. In the year 1568> the. Ushofrio of GtotkSMcnois was 
incorporated with thia see, by act of parliameni. The accession 
of prelates, from Bishop Rochfort to the existing date, may be 
stated as follows, on the aathority of Ware and Harris, aided by 
information afforded by the Office of First Fruits, Dublin. 

Bishops of Mbatm* 

Svcr. 

Simon Rochfort* IIM 

Deodat 1«4 

RalphlePetit 1527 

Richard de la Comer 1930 , 

* la mmfi to tlM liale of this prslato'S sacyr H io p wa UHl^m fir 4* 
Wvsi bat Mr. iiarris, in Jiiaa44iU«niitotM writer, s^f^sts^t^ yrih 
habiliiy of Miboy Rochfort bfing advancsii to this s«e loaie years prf- 
.viMsto 1194. His virtust in hit bifh ofllce are |au«li praiied hj ^^ 
biegrapher. 



106' SEAUTIKS or IBILINB. 

Uni^dBTadimon* 1«0 

TboBM St. LegMT 1SS7 

Jnkn O' Oaroll 18S1 

WiWRDdflRul 1397 

WiHiu St. Leger 13S0 

- NicboUi AU«nt 1353 

- See yacoMi iAtm ftMrt. 

Stephen de Vdle, or Wale 1300 

Wiliun Andrew 1880 

Alexander Vetit, or de Balscott ISas 

Sn yacant nearlg boo years. 

Robert Montdn 140S> 

Edirard Dantoey II 1413 

WiUUm HwJwr 1430 

WilliunSUk 14M 

EdDtiDd Onldhd 1450 

WilUam Sherwood ( I4« 

JohnPaiBf :.... 14B3 

■ Hugh da Tacbmou wu lord high (rcaiurer of Irelftod, in the reigni 
of H«Dry III. and Edward I. 

-f Thli bishop wu lord bigh treuurer of Ireland, in IS57, bat did 
not loDF retain that office. Stephen de Valle, hit incceMOr, wa» alio 
digpilj. 

Jed the office* of lord higb ireMarer, cbaneeihir, 
land. 

rcr; and (in 14?8) lord deputy lu Sir John de Gray, 
and. 
depaty to George, Duke of Clarani^, lord llen- 

acllfely engaged in the politic! of hli day, and waa 
for Mme time, of Oerald, Earl of Kll^lv, In coa- 
« nied man; eierlioni to place I«ialMrl BinfiMl on 
VMcntioii of Iheie effnrU be wa* appciMed to preach 
Elaim the Ijtk of tliat imposlvr, at hi* eoronatioii In 



[LKIlfSTBA.] COIfNTY OF ITRATfl. 14T 

[Srcc. 

.WJUiam Rokeby 1507 

Hugh loge 151!ft 

Hi^kard Wilson 16«8 

Edward Staples* 1590 

William Walsh t 1664 

Hugh Brady * 1568 

Thomas Jones 1584 

Roger Dod 1605 

George Mountgomery 1610 

Junes Ussber || 1621 

AnOiony Martin^ 1625 

H^nryLedy 1660 

Henry Jones 1661 

Anthony Doppmg ^ 1661 

. Richard Tennison < 1697 

WilUam Moreton 1705 

JohnEvaas 1715 

Henry Downs 1734 

Ralph liarabert . 17^6 

Welbore Ellis 1781 

ft 

* Deprived in the reign of Mary, for endeavouring to advance th^ 
Reformation. s 

+ Deprived in the reign of Elizabeth, for obsfrncting the Reformation. 

X The 060 was to poor when Bishop Brady received the temporalities, 
that a respite of five years was granted for his payment of the First Fruits. 

I This celebrated prelate is again mentioned amongst the archbishops 
of Armagh. 

^ The sufferings of this manly and conscientious bishop, in the troobles 
of the seventeenth century, are very impressively* stated in Ware*s Hist, 
of the Bishops. He died at Dublin, oppressed with extreme poverty, and 
.wifh the frowns of evil* men and evil days, in July, IS50, of the plague, 
wbidttben raged in that city. 

Y An unasttal clause was inserted into the letterB«paleot by which th^ 
bishop was translated to Meath, stating that he should be admitted into the 
privy-council. '* 1 am of opinion," writes Sir J. Ware, '' that from hence, 
and for that the bishops of Meath have frequently been privy-councellors, 
hath sprung that vulgar notion that the bishops of Meath are privy •conn* 
cellors in right of their bishopHck.*' 



H8 BKAOTUS OF IIKLAIIII. 

ArtburRrice 1738 

Henry Mania 1744 

Hon. WiUiun CarmkhMl 1766 

Blchard Pocock 176S 

Arthar Smythe 1766 

Hon. Henry Muwell 1766 

Thotntu X^ffis O'fieirpe 1799 

Nath&nid Alexander 18S2 

The ffiihop of Meath bos no cathedral-ofaiircti ; and the con- 
■titntion of the diocesa posseaaee sevend peculiarities. There it 
BO cbapter, not is there s dean. The only difDitarieii are the 
dean of Cloamacnois and Ihe arcbdeaconof Mokt^. Aa a aobeti- 
tiite for achapter, there is held a synod, of whicbevery beneficed 
dergynun within the dioceta is a uwmber. Tlus synod uses a 
common seal, which ia reposited in the hands of merabera named 
by the Tote of the miyority. The bishopric is divided into twelve 
rnral deaneries. The diocesa is in length aboot eighty, and in 
breadth abont twenty-fire English miles ; and comprehends, in 
the coQuty of Meath, 147 parishea; inCavaotno} in liongford 
one ; in Westmeath fifty-nine ; in King's Connty sixteen ; and 
in Kildare part of one parish.— In our general statement of the 
ecdeuastical division of Ireland, we have remarked that the 
bishop of Meath has precedence of all other auffrogsna in ibis 
conutry. 

Trim, 

The assize town of the county of Meath, is sitoated on the 
banka of the river Boyne, at the distance of ZH miles from Dub- 
lin. This is a considerable town, but its chief dependance for 
interest with the traveller, reels on the rnios of its noble ca>tU> 
CttrmM-lv th« mnat nntent fortresa within the Lord de Lacy's tarri- 
1 historical events, connected vrith this place, 
ir notice of that decaying atruetnre, and the 
which once flonrished here. Such as are of 
ay be briefly stated. 



[lbinstsb.] «ovny or nMTv.' IM 



k (brat mttUiUmti, in thd aonab tl bntmA, at tb« placi 
tt whidi aabnrclkwiis bnUt^ aod a biiboprio iautdti, Wjr a Miaitad 
•ockaiaalie, lbaa«plievofSL Fhitrick. AftattfakMswasaatted 
to the bishopric of Meath^ the town remained of some oonseqaeaoa^ 
OB aoeonat of ao Mbey, fMHided at the same time irit^ the bish* 
Ofpricy which incRased in presperity throogh sereral ceatariia»« 
The neat hiatoricai noticca bear reiiriDce te scenee of rapine aad 
conflegratioii. In the year 1106^ Connor 0*lfelagUin, aawe 
are told by M'€kogh€§an> bamt thia iawn, on whkh ocoaslen 
too peraonsj who had fled to the chnrch for preteolion, perished 
in tiie iaraea. The town was else deatroyed by 6fe in the yeaM 
1143, and li5&# Trfan conatitoted a piinc^ml dty andstroag 
hold of MaghdeLaey, lordol Meath^ andwas thesoeneef san« 
gainnry oonteaition in the eivil bn>ils winch took place between 
8lr Hligh de Lacy, the younger, aad William, Earl el Pambrehf. 
It miderwent a regular siege Iroai the latter nobleman, and was 
with diflicBlty maintained against his arms. As the strength of 
the English settlers increased. Trim acquired a considerable no« 
eenaien of importance. Sevend paiiiaments wen held here. A 
mint was established in 1459, aad Richard, Dnke of York, whilst 
lovd Bentenattt of Ireland, resided for some time in this town, 
ihe lordship of which was Tested ia himself. 

In the dTil wars of the serentaenth century this place, ea 
account of its strength andpeution between Dublin and Drogheda, 
attained an undesirable degree of notice, and was at different times 
occupied by both contending parties. The town surrendered, 
nffcer n siege of two days, to Lord Inchiqoin, at the head of a 
royalist force ; and was ipven up to Cromwell, wiAont a straggle, 
directlf afker the horrible shiughter perpetrated by that cem«> 
Blander on the inhabitants of Drogheda. Whilst the town was 
p d BSMsed by the parliameat party, in 1M9, it becnme the scene ef 
a skirmish that proved £stal to Sir Charles Coote, of ensanguined 
memory. The Irish beset the town, at the break of day, in a 
tnmnltnoos party, said to have been 3000 strong. Sir Charka!> 
on the dHt alarm, issued from the gate, at the head of a fdw 
horse soldiers, leaving others to foHow as qukkly aa they conid 



L. 



L 



170 BUUTIM or IICUVO. 

Buter. In the cfairga wkidi be made vpon the lawaJMiti, Geete 
vulhotdekd, ud it wu thought that OeboUvMidiieha^ffld 
by one of his own troopers. Thii event Koerred on the Mrenth 
of M«y. 

Tie Cattle, which formi the moat contpicnoDB and attractive 
object ID the town of Trim, iras first bnit b; Hugh de Ijk^, or, 
u some writers assert, by William Pipard^ or Peppard, at a atUI 
•arlier period after the Brrival of the English. Its strength and 
extent, as at this-day evioced by the rainBj show that.it was d«- 
ugned for the principal sti^n in the defence of the palatJBate, and 
it, Gonseqaently, became the scene of many importmit events.— 
Whilst De Lacy was absent in Eng^ad, the custody of this (or^ 
tress was iotrasted to his confidential adherent, Hagh TyrreL 
Raymond le Groa was at that time in Wexford, engaged in cele- 
hrating his nuptials with the sister of Earl Strongbow. At Ma 
jonctore, ^parently favonrable to the enemies of tlie Brkish 
settlers, Roderic O'Conor, King of Cosnaiight, at the head of a 
large confederate army, suddenly entered the territory of Mcath, 
Spreading mia in the Indc of his march. On the advance.of this 
powerfol enemy, Tyrrel destroyed the fortifications, and abaa> 
doned the castle of Trim. At the spproaob of RaynKHid, who 
quitted his nnptifd festivities to sncconr the harassed palatinate, 
the Irish retired, and the fortress was qn'tcUy repaired. 

We have observed that during the ferodons contests between 
Hagh de Lacy the younger and William Earl of Pendirolce, Trim 
waatbesi^ed by the forces of the latter nobleoinn, bnt was da- 
fended with muchgallantry, and escaped capture. Itisgenwally 
believed that the existing, castdlated strocture was built by 
the. younger De Lacy, anbseqnent te that siege, about the year 
13iO; in which belief, as respects the greater part of the 
boildii^s, we are warranted by the architectural character of the 
fortress. 

When private dissensions yi^ed to public exigency, the 
castle of Trim proved of great utility to the general interests 
~ of that narrow pal», to wiiich the influence of tbe-Eogliah was 
confined for,naDy ages. It may benoticed, as a curious particolB- 



[lEINSTBE.] iMMJlim •V MBAVB. 1(1 

Hlmali)^iUrf, tlMilKkigllidiivdll^ wlwnimirelattdulkejwr 
lM9i, M obteiQiag iikfceli%eace of Ihe MMoewfal progress in Bng^ 
kndof liitrMml, .and efoiidtsi racceston t)M Briee of L«Mm^rer» 
•OBi o§ ptisoners to tbiB catftk^ Henry^ tie son of that doke, )Avd 
ft BOB of tbe D«ke of Glooceiter^ wbo lBkd;atl6ndfld hni Ib Ui 
Iifsh expedition. > It will be reoolleetod that ^ first-naoNd of 
tkaae ittoistrioiis priaoDers was afterwards Kng Efeary Vth. 
• I& the year 1498, Edmaad Mortimer, Earl; of March and 
Ulster, then Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, died in this castle. We 
have dready metttioaed Aat BiiBhard Dnke of York, father of Ed-* 
ward IV, resided here lbs .some tiaie, and that several parliaineats 
were, here assembled. It has also beea statedi in our bsisf annali 
of the town of Trim, that this fortress was, at. several times, a 
seeae of aetion in the intestine wars of the seventeenth centnry. 
The caatle was dismantled soon after the year 16$0, and has sinet 
remained in a state of progressive decay* The raias overhang 
the banks of the river Boyne, and present a laagnificent, andj 
lit some, points of view, a picturesque spectade. The. remains 
show tbe building to have been erected in what has been tarmed* 
in the ItOrodtuition to the B^auti^s o/Mnghmd, the mited Anglo* 
Norman style of military ardiitecture j a mode of arrangeoieat in 
fortified : struptnres wjkich grew into nse in the early part of the 
thirteenth Century^ Considerable traces of ontworJcs are still lo 
be seen. 

The following religions foondations added atoBce to the^ wealth, 
inflaeace, and celebrity of this plture, in ages previous to the 
reformation. 

J7» AlAmf, to which we have already adverted, as having 
been founded by St. Patrick, was'occupied with Cawms^ mgiUmr, 
and plaosd ander the invocation of the Vligin Maiy. The oharch 
acted as the cathedral of Trim, until the union of this see with 
that qH Meath. The bnildiogB suffered severely in, the varioas 
assaults to which the town was exposed, and were re-edifted by 
the i>e Lacy, family, towards the close of the thirteenth oen^ry, 
bat were again destroyed by fire in 1368. On tbe dissolntioB of 
r^l$sous houses, the principal estates of this abbey, which were 



194 BKitrnM m mkukd. 

T«r7 MtoidM. w«w grntad t»8ir AadtoMr St. L«gtr, Knt. 
AmoDg^ito pMHSiioM wtn eighty kcns of Itnd, caUe4 Pmnk- 
JbU, ritnat«d near tba abbey, which were |pf en to tUi Mdetf 
by Itidud Dukeof York, The abbot and bo^ "PP*" ^ ^f* 
bees mach attached to the prhieea of the houe of Tock, aa owe, 
indeed, nearly all dasseain tin* part of Irdaad. In 140r> tb* 
abbot Christopher weot to Eogland, «■ aa embatty to King 
Sdward IV. ; and a fotnre abbot waa an active nipporter of tlie 
impostor Lambert Simael. 

Amoag the reliqnes and corwutie* poeatMMl by tiiiaabbeyf 
wai an image of the Vvgio Jibry, c^bnted throegfaout tlie 
Ungdon for the performance of miraclea. In the year 1638, tbia 
hr-iaffled image was pabiicly burned by the agents of the refor- 
mation. Some remaina of the charcb are still to be seen, oom- 
prhiDg one half of the steeplcj termed the yellov tower. It ia 
IraditioDally said that the rained part of this tower was batterod 
down, in the wart of the aerenteenth centnry. 

Uu Frimcitoan or Oref Friary, dedicated to St. BonaT«itnre> 
waa foonded, as is most commonly belierad, by the Hnnket 
faiuty, in the tldrteenth centnry. This frisry was r«fonned by 
the Obserrantineo, before the year I3S&. It is recorded by Pen- 
brtdge that the rirer Boyne orerflowing its banks, A. D. 1330, 
the boildlnga of this religious honse were nndermined, and much 
of the bbric fell to the ground. The sessions- home of Trim waa 
built on a part of its alto. 

"The Dttmimewit Friary, situated near the gato leading to Ath> 
boy, was fonnded by Sir Geoffrey de Oenerille, I^ord of Heatb, 
^ *^ year 196S, who retiring hither became a friar, in 1306, 
ere died in 1S14. This convent obtained great celebrity 
iitlactiop. Several parUameaU, and general chaptor* «f 
dv, were bald in this religiois bonae. It is noticed by 
idg* that tbo drarcb of the Dominicans was consraned by 
1 the year 1368. 

« Priory, or HmjAuU, of CrMtbemren in this town, is 
It to bave been foonded by one of tiM blsliops of Maath, and 
irtain that many prelates of that see were emiaent ktenebo- 



[lbinstsii.] aovnty ar msata. )79 



fort to diis iofttitotion. The boildiiigs are said to have beea of a 
?«ry megiiificeiit character^ but no vea%es of aaptrior apltadew. 
are to be aacertabed in the few exiatiDg remaint. It has been 
coiyectnred that several of the parlianents aaaembled at Trin^ 
were held in the great hall of this priory. 

In regard to eoclesiastical amiigeineDt« Trim forma part of an 
anion, of which the other portions are Newtown j TnbberviUe; 
Senrlogstown} Kilcoolyj and ToUyghanogae. TheChnrch isn 
reapectaMe stroctare, lately re-^ihed. In this charchj or in that 
of Na?an, the bishops of Meath are nsoally enth^ned. The town 
has lately acquired an ornamental addition, of aome interest, in 
the erection of a tropkjf, or monnment, commemorative of the ex- 
ploits of Arthur, Dake of Wellington. This tribute to the fisr- 
qvead military (ame of an heroic native of the county of Meath« 
consists of a Corinthian column, surmounted by a statue of the 
duke. Here are barracks; a sessioos-honae; and a/atrong and 
capadous gaol. In the neighbourhood is a Charter-school, for 60 
girls, endowed by the Earl of Momington, The internal govern- 
ment of the town is vested in a portrieve and town-clerk. 

On the banks of the Boyne, at the distance of about half a 
mile from Trim, is Nbwtown, where are considerable remaina of 
monastic foundations. A Priory of reguUar Camms, of the catt* 
grq;ation of St. Victor, was founded here, about the year 1906y 
by iSimon Rochfort, the ihrst Englishman who eat as bishop of 
Meath. This prelate erected the church of Newtown abbey iate 
a cathedral for hia dioeess, and forsook Cloaard, the cathedral- 
church of his predecessors. In this church he held a synod is 
1216, the constitutions and canons of which are still extaai. At 
hia decease, in 19S4, Kshop Rochfort was interred here. The 
prior of this house was a lord of parliament. liaaBBnce Wbtte^ 
the last prior, surrendered the priory, which was richly endowed^ 
lA the thirtywfirst of Henry VIII. On the <9poaite baoka of the 
river was a Priory, or Hotpiial, dedicated to Si. JoJm ikoB^pAi. 
This institution was designed for Cross-bearers, or Crouched 
bmnj and was founded in the thirteenth century, probabljx by 
one of the bishops of Meath. 



174 BBAXItlBH OriRSLANft. 

The remains of these monastic' houses' are extenifi^^j' ind 
inehide parts of the former cathedral, which appears to hafe beeitf 
a spadotts and massy, bat tiot highly-ornamented « strottare. 
Among several monuments at this place is that of Sir Lucat 
Dillon, of Newtown and of Moymet, ih this county, and his first 
lady. Sir Lucas was one of the ableist Irish lawyers of Elizabeth's 
reign, and long bore the office of chief baron of the exchequer* 
He was son and heir of Sir Robert Dillon, attorney-general to 
King Henry VIII. to whom the Priory of Newtown and its pos- 
sessions were granted by that sovereign. 

Trimlbstox, a seat of Lord Trimleston, is distant from Trim 
two miles, towards the noith-west. This is a spadons mansioUj 
with ornamental towers, an embattled parapet, and other marte 
of the style which prevailed in the latter part of the sixteenth 
century. Adjoining the house is a small chapel, which forms the 
cemetery of the noble family to whom this estate belongs. The' 
demesne is so truly' beautiful, that the neglect which/ prevldls is 
viewed by the examiner with equal surprise and regret. ' 

At the distance of two miles and a half from Trim, towards the 
south-east, are the ruins of the castle and church of Scurloo's- 
TOWN. These were erected by William de Scnrlog, ' about th€^ 
year 1160, on lands granted to him by Hugh de Lacy. The castled 
exhibits the remains of a square keep, of spacious proportionSj,' 
with drcular towers at the angles. The apertures ibr the ad- 
miasion of Hght are few; and the whole fabric wears a chili and 
repulsive air, indicative of military harshness without any of the 
trappings of chivalry, or decorations of baronial sway. 'Mere 
fragments of walls denote the former existence of a church, tn 
these, however, two rude circular arches are still remaining. This 
church was franted by its founder to the abbey of St.Thomas^ 
DttUin, arid wastconhrmed to that relijjloiis house, by Walter de^ 
Lacy, in the year 1900, under the name of the church ofW^Kam 
Scofiagge^s town, 

* 

Laracor^ distant from Trim nearly two miles towiffda the 



[lbinitbr.] eocifTr or hbath. I7& 

MMith, w9I be viewed, wkliaiiterettt as the former benefice^ and 
tbe principal residence for several years^ of tbe celebrated Dean oC 
St. Patrick's, To the vicarages of liSracor and Rathbeggan^ and 
tbe rectory of Agber, at that time united^ Dr. Jonathan Swift was 
instituted on the Q2nd of March^ 1699, and retired hither when: 
the Earl of Berkeley^ lord lieutenant^ to whom he had been chap- 
lain and private secretary^ left Ireland.'* It is recorded^ to his 
hononr, that^ at this place^ he '' continued to exercise his clerical 
doties with more regularity than had been usually pracUsed by his 
inredecessors ; he read prayers three times a week^ and preached 
regularly on Sundays.** f The churchy by this means/ adds Mr.' 
Moncke Mason, from whom the above passage is quoted, ** be- 
came well attended by the neighbouring families." Swift is known 
to have had a great partiality for gardening and rural improve- 
ments. He now derived a rational amusement from improving 
his glebe. He formed a pleasant garden, and dug a canal, which 
he planted with willows. To these improvements, and the grati- 

* In the work termed " SwifUana *' ii a ladicront, but fictitious, de- 
icription of Swift's journey to take potseMlon of his vicarage of Laracor. 
Accordiog to the author of that work, Swift performed the journey on footf 
and in the following dress : '* a decent suit of black clothes, with strong 
worsted stockings, of which he carried a second pair, and a shirt, in his 
pocket} a large grey surtout; around slouched hat; with a pole, con- 
siderably longer than himself, which he had probably procured from some 
country hay-maker." In opposition to this fanciful description, it has- 
been truly observed that Swift, when in places 'at which be was knemi, 
was so attentive to exterior appearances *' that he never went abroad with- 

I ont his gown.*' He was, also, at this time chaplain to the chief governor 

of Ireland, and may, consequently, be supposed to have paid more than 
Bsnal attention to a becoming decorousness of externals. 

f The performance of divine service oa week-days, was^ at that time, 

I not Bsual in Ireland, and Swift's congrtgatioa was, at fi^ty far from beiiig 

numerous* It has been said that on one occasioa» finding that no porsim^ 

I was present but himself and his clerk» he began with the words, '* Dearly, 

I beloved Roger ! the Scripture movetb you and use in sundry places," and 

proceeded in that manner througlioBt tbjs service. But this anecdote rests 
entirely on the authority of I«ord Orrery, whose assertions respecting 
Swift , shoald, In many iDita9osi» btregardsd,witb sipspkion. 



176 BJUCTIM OF IBBJUAND. 

fkifttioD he foond in retirement* hefrcqMnClyeUadeeiBUs joonttl 
and iother writingB, 

It was doling liSs residenoe on this viearage, that he inTited to 
Ireland Esther Johason* whose peculiar fortunes were so inti- 
mately blended with all the prirate events of his future life* Mrs. 
Johnson was accompanied by her chosen friend, Mrs. Dingley, a 
lady about fifteen years older than herself, who remained wkh 
her nntil the time of her ^decease. ** Every possible precaotion,** 
observes the writer last cited, ** was taken to prevent scandal. 
The dean and the ladies never lived in the same house ; when 
S#ift was absent they resided at the parsonage j when he returned 
they removed to the house of Dr. Raymond, vicar of Trim, a 
gentleman of great virtue and learning* and Swift's intimate 
friend; or to Mr. Beanmont*s, in that town; neither were they 
ever known to meet, but in the presence of a third person. Mrs. 
Johnson was, at this time, about the age of nineteen.** 

Laracor constituted the chief residence ^ Swift until the 
spring of the year 1710, and his various improvements here are 
noticed in the works mentioned in the margin.* A new glebe- 
house at Laraoor was completed in tiie year 1813, with the aid of 
5KK)/. given, and 550/. lent, by the Board of First Fmits. 

The attention is so powerfally excited, while we are invest!- 
gating this neighbourhood, to the far-famed and mysterious inter- 
course between DesA Swift and the accomplished lady whom he 
poetically denominated Stella, that we indulge in some few remarks 
ott'that subject;—^ tribute of reminiscences to the spot on which 
the intercourse may be said to have commenced, or, at leasts 
where it first assumed a character obnoxious to public scrutiny. 

• Joarnal to Slell«, Nkhob* edit. p. 4, et seq. andSwifl't Works, by 
Seott, vol. xvl. p; 999. AflMDg' 8wlft*t mioor poems are tome bumoroos 
Uaei, eatMed ** Atrao aad fUthfiri Inveatory of the Ckwds beloBfiag lo 
Br^ Swift, vic«r«f Lameer, apea lendiag-lilt boaae to tfcehiihop of Meath» 
till hit palaee wat rebailt»*' heftmriag tiiasr 

Aa oaken- kn^Kea elbow-chair % 

A-cattdle<H3«p withoat ao ear f 

A batteHdrinttor^daeh^bedstoadl % 

A bM «of deal,.wltheet a Hd, Ac. 



r 



>/ 



£lein8ter.] bounty or mbatb. 177 

The person of Stella bas been thus noticed by tbe pen of 
Swift. '* Sbe wts looked npon as one of tbe most beantifal, 
graoefal, and agreeable young women in London, only a little toe 
fat." Respecting ber mental qualifications, it may not be on- 
p1«»rfBg to i«ti«ce, » tut page, some few pauage. from an 
estimate of ber cbaracter, begun by tbe same writer tm tie dag of 
ker decease, *' Never was any of ber sex bom witb better gifts 
of tbe mind, or wbo more improved tbem by reading and conver- 
stttion. I cannot call to mind tbat I ever once beard ber make a 
wrong judgment of persons, books, or affairs. All of us wbo bad 
tbe bappiness of ber friendsbip agreed, unanimously, tbat in an 
afternoon or evening's conversation sbe never failed, before we 
parted, of delivering tbe best tbing tbat was said in tbe company. 
With all tbe softness of temper tbat became a lady, sbe bad tbe 
personal coorage of abero.*' In confirmation of tbis remark. 
Swift records an adventure in wbicb sbe resisted tbe attempt of 
boasebreakers, and discbarged tbe contents of a pistol into tbe 
body of one of tbe assailants. 

e proceeds to observe tbat " sbe was but little versed in tbe 
common topics of femide cbat,*' and bad not, indeed, mucb com- 
pany of ber own s^, but '' ratlier cbose men for ber companions ; 
the nseal topics of ladies* discourse being sucb as sbe bad little 
knfowledge of, and less relisb. Sbe was a pradent economist, yet 
wHb a stronger bent to tbe liberal side, wberein sbe gratified her- 
self by avoiding all expense in clothes (wbicb sbe. ever despised) 
beyond what was merely decent. Her charity to tbe poor was a 
duty not to be diminished, and, therefore, became a tax upon those 
tradesmen who furnish the fopperies of other ladies. Sbe spoke 
in a most agreeable voice, in the plainest words, never hesitating, 
except out of modesty bdbre new faces, where sbe was somewhat 
reserved; nor among ber nearest friends ever spoke much at a 

time. Prom her own disposition, at least as much as from the 

... , , • .It 

frequent want of health, she seldom made any visits -, but her 
lodgings, from before twenty years old, were frequented by many 
pe;^ns of the graver apct, who all respected her.lugbly, oip^n ber 
good i»eiiaej good manners, and oonvecaatioD. AiMWg these weie 

VOL. M. X 



178 BEAUTIES OF IRELAND. 

the late primate Lindsay; Bishop Lloyd; Bishop Ashe; Bishop 
Brown ; Bishop Sterne; Bishop Pnlleyn; with some others <^ 
later date; and, indeed, the greatest number of her acqoaintance 
was among the clergy," 

From the arguments produced in a recent work^ cited ip several ^ 
previous pages (Hibernia Antiqua, &c. by Mr. Moncke Mason) it 
would appear that the public has been subject to error^ in sup- 
posing, that a private and unconsummated marriage had takea 
place between Swift and Mrs. Johnson. In that work the first, 
direct assertion of such a marriage is traced to Lord Orrery, and 
to the tongue of rumour; — ^authorities which the judicious will^. 
perhaps, hold in almost equal disregard. It would be vain to 
seek for the cause of so long and particular a friendship having 
existence, without the usual consequence of an entire union be- . 
tween the parties; and it would be necessary, before we entered 
on such an examination, to ascertain that a love for her person 
was really entertained by the friend who derived so much pleasure 
from her conversation. 

The connexion between these eminent persons afforded' so 
fertile a ground for scandal, and is still a theme so agreeably^ 
irritating to the very prevalent love of mystery, that many more 
pages have been written upon the painful subject than its real 
character, and degree of importance, would appear to demand. 
Pain/ui we may with justice term this exhausted topic, for the 
most zealous advocates of Swift can scarcely exonerate his cha- 
racter from the stigma of a deep and bitter reproach, arising from 
the grave of the ill-fated Stella. We have seen that, at the youth- 
ful age of nineteen, she was invited by Swift to remove to the 
vicinity «f his residence. That the situation was liable to the 
charge of impropriety, himself proved, by the constant endeavours . 
used to " prevent scandal;'* and yet, in this suspicious intercourse 
he persevered, until the death of his fair and excellent victim re- 
lieved him from dread, but without allowing him to indulge in a 
public denotation of regret.* 

* It if worthy of remark that the Intcription placed over the remains 
of Stella, in St. Patrick's Cathedral, was evidently not composed by Swift$ 



[lbinster.] county of mrath. 179 

That Swift might not entertain the most distant idea of 
marrying Stella^ and never^ in words> encouraged her to, antici- 
pate such an events may be quite probable. But, until it be 
proved that the ordinary laws of nature^ and the opinions pro- 
ceeding from custom^ failed to operate in the bosom and reflections 
of this lady^ it cannot be admitted as possible that she did not 
expect such a result of his continued attentions. What fair argu- 
ment can prove that he was justified in appropriating to himself, 
Iby an avowed and particular friendship, cultivated sedulously from 
youth to the decline of life^ the sentiments of a woman whom be 
did not intend to make his wife ? And what can be plainer than 
the line of duty prescribed to lum by sound morals and a correct 
understanding } Unless in reply to some late endeavours to free 
his memory from all imputation of blame on this occasion^ it 
would be superfluous to observe that he should either have for- 
borne the withering cruelty of his attentions^ or have ratified the 
connexion by those bands, to which, in the esteem of all but 
himself, his persevering intercourse appeared the natural prelude. 

SuMMERHiLL, thc seat of Clotworthy Rowley, Baron Lang^ 
ford, of SummerhUl, is distant from Dublin about twenty miles. 
This estate was possessed, in the early part of the seventeenth 
century, by the baronet hmilj of Langford, from whom it passed 
by a marriage, in the person of Mary, eldest daughter and heir of 
Sir Hercules Langford, in the year 1683, to the family of Rowley, 
ennobled in 1765. The titles of Viscount Langford and Baron 
Summerhill became extinct, on the decease of Hercules, the first 
viscount, whose mother had been advanced to the peerage as 
Viscountess Langford, and Baroness Summerhill, with limitation 
of those honours to her heirs male, by her husband, the Right 
Hon. Hercules Langford Rowley. This, and the other estates of 
the family of Rowley, descended, on the above event, to Frances 
Rowley, niece of the deceased nobleman, who married her first 

a cirdunfttaace the more forcibly entitled to notice, m he was enfaged, foe 
several years foUowiog her decease, in the reparation of monaments in hia 
cathedral. 

N ^ 







180 BBAUTtSa OF IJIBLAND. 

cousin^ Clotworthy^ third son of Thomas^ Earl of Bective> wbo 
has assumed the name and arms of Rowley^ and was created Baron 
Li|n|^ord^ of Sammerhill^ in the year 1800. The mansion on this 
demesne is bollt of stoae^ and is a GommodioQS hot onomamesteA 
pile* The gnmnds are extremely fine» and are adorned with muck 
foll-grown timber. 

Con^igvous to Summer-hill is Danoan, memorable as theplaoe 
at which was b#rn Arthur^ Doke of Wellington^ on the Ist of 
Mayj 1769* This is an extensive and. well^wooded demesne, but 
qpw deserted. as> seat; of noble residenc;e. The manmal estate 
of Dangiui; together with that of Morningtoii, and otbefv of greuft 
valae^ first came into the pojuession of the Wellesley ff^ly in the 
fourteenth century, ia consequence of tl|e mar^riage of WiUiate 
Wellesley, a distinguished military officer in the rei^. of Ulchard 
U. with the heiress of the formca: proprietor. ThiB family \oog 
foqri^d atDani^^ an4 nnuDtai^ed. th^ antient seat in muck 
hc)spitable flfflendour. 

Garret, or Gerald, fVesley, or Wellesley, who ^ed in 1728, 
4eFl8ed thi9, and other parts of his real, estaton to his cousin^ 
R|(;kBrd;Colley, Esq. and his heirs male, on condition of their 
3)S{^jug the afms and name of Wellesley. Thialatter gentleman 
represented the.horough of Trio^ in the Irish parliament, and waa 
ereated Baron of Morningtpn in 1746. Garret-^Colley Wellesley, 
hU lordship's son and heir, was advanced^ in 1760, to the dignities. 
<%f Viscount Wellesley, of Dangon Casile, and Earl of Momington> 
in th^ county of Meath. Among the other issue of this noblemaa 
ace conspic^Qua Rkkard, Marqu^s$ WelUdey, and Ar$lmr^ Dmk» 
ofjrellmgum, 

Dan^^ Castle a^d demesne were sold by the Marquess 
Wellesley to — — ^ Bnnoughs^ Esq. who much improved the build- 
ing by wingf ^ cotntalning an elegant chapel and library. The 
caa^e^ wl^ch presented jome remains of an. antient en^ba^lleA 
pale, combined with large additions, was destroyed by fire some 
few years baek^ and only a mehmcholy shell of the building now 
remains. 



«.." 



[LKINSTER.] OOITNTY op MX4TH. 181 

At the distance of tiro miles from Sommer-biB, and mo«t 
agreeably situated in aa elSTated- tract of conntry, the surface of 
which is varied, and in some places rendered picturesque, by 
gentle nndalations, is Agbbr-housb, the handsome seat of John 
IVatt Winter, Esq. The exceilence of this mansion, and tfie 
beaaty of its demesne, are contemplated by the examiner with 
vnalloyed admiration, when he beholds the numer<fos peasantry, 
on the surrounding estate, living in eligible dwellings^ and with 
decency and comfort, under the judicious protection of its esteemed 
and exemplary proprietor.* 

Clohabd, in antient writings Cluanarakrd, and Clummormd, 
a small and decayed town upon the river Boyne, was of great 
celebrity in past ages, on account of its eoclesiBStical and learned 
inttitntions. This place was constituted a bishop*s see by St. 
Finian, about the year 520. We have already observed that 
Simon Rochfort, the first English bishop of Meath, was the last 
prelate who sat at Clonard. St. Finian «lso foonded at %hts place 
an Abbey, in which he established a sdiool, which liecame one of 
the most celebrated academies of Ireland at a thne when this island 

* We canaot too strongly recommend to pobUc noti^ the ciftTectaieia 
of jadpnent displayed on (he Af ber estate, in the benevolent jneasnrea 
adopted for improving the condition of the laboaring tenantry, Mr. Winter, 
is aothor of a sensible and well-written letter, pabHshed in the Appendix 
to Thompson's dnrvey of Meath, in whieb is the following passage, illoB- 
trative of the just opinions by which he has been guided ia ibrmiag plans 
for the cottages of his dependant peasantry ; ^ It is easy fora geatlsaiau^ 
regardless of expense, to lodge a poor working man- with wiwtever mag- 
nificence he may fancy % he thus, possibly, bestows comfort on a few per- 
sontf', at a very needless cost, and gratifies his ow» taste—but this is all. 
The man who proposes only plain neatness, convenience, -and economy, 
does more i lie sets a useful exampts, which his neigbboars may be^ induced 
to follow/' The sentiment thvs tncolcated Is peonUariy applicable ta 
Ireland, where, even when a wish to amend the maaners of the poor la 
evinced) It U by ao means aaaaaal to aee^ as mmaanwrtStoAe ^^eiaaga of 
a favourite demesaaybeaatlfiil aad romaatk, hata«psarfve,cottaf>i^artliig 
as improvemeati on the ordinary dwellingi of the wratchad peasastryt 
Whkh can never be ladtated except by the aflaent* 



182 BBAUTIB6 OP IBBLARD. 

was famed throDgbont neighbooriog countries^ for the snccesv 
with which letters were caltivated in the sanctity of its cloisters. 
When w^ reflect on the piety and urbanity of the schoolmen of 
Ireland^ in^the sixth and seventh centuries^ and recollect^ on the 
testimony of fiede^ if foreign evidence be wanting, that they re- 
ceivedj with benevolent hospitality, aspirants after learning from 
other conntriwy inclading Britain, we must needs look back with 
veneration, and must also regard with a sigh of pity the present 
humility of this fallen town ! 

The Abbey founded by St. Finian was often destroyed by fire, 
the first recorded calamity of that description occurring A.D. 746. 
In the ninth century it was repeatedly plundered, and twice 
destroyed, by the Danes. From these frequent instances of de- 
molition by casualty of fire, or the ravages of predatory bands, 
we learn that the buildings, however extensive, were composed 
of firagile materials ; and the same calamities occurred in several 
succeeding ages. About the year 1 175, the abbey was refounded 
by Walter de Lacy, for canons regular following the rule of St. 
Augustin. Its possessions were ample, and were chiefly granted, 
by Queen Elizabeth and Edward VI. to the families, of Cusack 
and Slane. In the year 1610, the monastic buildings, with lands 
in this county, were granted to Sir Thomas Loftus, fourth son of 
the archbishop of that name, to hold by the twentieth part of a 
knight*8fee; which estates were confirmed to his son, in 1639, 
in virtue of the commission for the remedy of defective titles* 

The remains of the buildings erected after the refoundation of 
the abbey, were, until a recent date, of some extent, and of con- 
siderable interest 3 but we regret to state, that, with indifl*erence 
almost amounting to barbarous apathy, they have lately been en- 
tirely** destroyed, with the exception of the antient and richly- 
sculptured font, which is removed to the modern church of Glonard, 
a fabric completed in the year 1810.* 

* We believe tbatthe only memorial eilant, reipecting the state of fhe 
mintof Clonard in tlie latter half of the eighteenth centory , is that contained 
in tlie Monasticon. It may not be undesirable to reprint, in the present worlCy 
the account there drawn up by Mr. Archdall. ** The entrance into this abbey 




/ 



[lbinstbr.] eouNTT or mbath. 18S 

A Nunnery, Hader the iiiTocation of the Virgin Mary^ was aho 
foqndedhere, by O'Melaghlin, King of Meath, before the entry 
of the Eaglish. This nonnery was reformed to the mle of St. 
Augastin^ by Pope Gelestine III.; but afterwards sank into 
poverty^ and became a cell to the nunnery of St. Brigid of Odra^ 
er Odder. 

At Balltbooan^ two and a half miles from Clonard, towardis the 
sonth- west J a Priory was founded^ in the twelfth century, by Jordan 
Comin^ for canons of the order of St. Aogastin. Thomas Ber- 
mingham, the last prior, surrendered the priory and its possessions 
Ml the nineteenth of Henry VIII. In the sacceeding year was 
publicly burnt a cnidBx, belonging to this priory, which had 
been held in great yeneration. Remains of the buildings are still 
to be seen, on the banks of the river Boyne. 

Athbot, a small market and fitir town, is distant from Dublin 
twenty-nine miles, towards the north-west. A Friary, dedicated 
to the Blessed Virgin of Mount Carmel, was either first established 
or refounded here^ in the year 1317* Chapters of the order were 

Iho WMt Bide, was throogh a small buildiog) with a lodge over it, which led on 
iato a imall court. To the right of this court itand the kitchen and cellar, 
and over them the dormitory, ranging with the river, and overlooking the 
garden which sloped from thence to the water*i edge. Oppoiite the en- 
trance was another small apartment, and adjoining it the refectory, which 
was carried for some length beyond the square, and joined the chbir, a 
large and elegant bnUding, most part of which still remains, and the -win* 
dows are finished in a light Gothic style. On the south side of the altar, 
fixed in the wall, is a small double arch, in the old Saxon manner, and 
divided by a pillar, through which iron bara were fixed. This. is supposed 
to have been the founder's tomb* There are many remains of walls, ad- 
joining the other parts of the abbey, but in so ruinous a state, that little 
information can be gleaned from them. At a little distance from the east 
window, in the burial ground, stands a small chapel, in which is a table 
Bonnmontt ornamented with the efligies of a man and a woman, in a 
praying posture, and dressed in the ruff of Queen Elizabeth's time. The 
•ides are adorned with many coats of arms ; that of the family of Dillon it. 
most conspicuous.**—- Monast. Hib. pp. 525-6. 



* ^ TT 






284 ' BEAUTIES OF IBEIii.N0. 

held at this friary in the years 1395, and I4IS7. Ita 4itlK>fa|tioik 
took place in the thirty-first of Henry VIII. Thomas BUgh, fSsq. 
ancestor of Earl Darnley, had^ in 1G81, a grant of fovir yearly &ira 
at this town. He also obtuned permission from King Wiliiamj in 
the year 1694^ to erect into a manor^ termed the manor of Atbboy, 
his estates in the parishes of Athboy, Rathmore, Moyagher^ and 
Kildalkey^ with power to hold courts^ and many other privileges. 
This is a town of little trade. Its annual fairs are chiefly for the 
sale of cattle^ hot are not largely attended. 

Rathmobe^ the estate on which the Bligh family, ennobled by 
the title of £arl Darnley, has been seated since the middle of 
the seventeenth centnry, is distant from Athboy abont one mikj^ 
towards the north-west, John Biigh^ Esq. the first of this family 
who settled in Ireland, was a citizen and dry-salter> of London, 
who came to this country in the time of Cromwell*s government^ 
as an agent to the adventnrers for the estates forfeited in the 
rebellion of 1641, He speedily became an adventorer himself, 
subscribing the sum of 600/. to a joint stock in which two other 
speculators were concerned ; and on ctMmg lots, %mong other ad- 
venturers, the allotment for himself and his associates fell in the 
baronies of Lune and '' Moghergallen,'* in this county, on pro« 
perty winch had chiefly belonged to the Gormanston family. He 
seated lumself at Rathmore, a part of the estate thus easily ac- 
quired, and shortly augmented his purchases. 

In the first parliament after the restoration^ Mr. Bligh was 
returned member for Athboy^ which town sent two representatives 
to the House of Commons, previous to the Union. He was after- 
wards joined io several lucrative commbsions* under government. 
Thomas, his only son, who erected into a manor the principal 
estates of the family in this neighbourhood> was also empowered, 
by grant from King WiUiam, to hold 500 acres in demesne, and 
to impale 800 acres for deer. John, gnrndmni to the founder of 
Oiis fimuly, was created Baron Clifton, ofRatkmare, mi } Vis* 
ctmnt Damley, of AiUo^, .17^ i and Earl Damley, 1795. 

Navan, a populous, busy, and improving town, is finely situ- 



• p %^ 






%i 



[lBINSTER.] G0ONTTOV HMXtB. IQb 

atod in the central part of the ooonty, on the banks of the Boyne, 
which river here unites with the Blackwater. This was a place of 
considerable importance doring many ages subsequent to the entry 
of the Anglo-Normans^ and is said to have been one of the towns 
walled and rendered defensible in the time of Hngh de hacyf 
If this be not entirely erroneous^ it is certain that a fresh erection 
of mural outlines was found to be necessary in the sixteenth cen- 
tury. By an act of the thirty-fourth of Henry VIIL it is directed 
that '^ every ploughed land within the county of Methe and West 
Methe^ used to be charged with Aubsidie^ and not free from im- 
position^ shall be^ during the term of four years^ charged with the 
sum of three shillings and four-peace towards building the walls 
of the town of Navan.*'* 

In the sub-partition of Meatb^ Navan^ with attached palatinate 
privileges^ fell to the Nangle family, who took the title of baron 
from this estate. By that family was founded here^ towards the 
termination of the twelfth century^ an Abbey for regular canons^ 
under the invocation of the Virgin Mary. Richard Nangle^ or 
D*Angulo, abbot in 1488, was concerned, together with most of 
the ecclesiastics of this part of Ireland, in the rebellious attempt 
to place Lambert Simnd on the throne^ for which offence against 
the state he received a pardon from Henry VII. The abbey was 
surrendered to the crown in the thirty-first of Henry VII I. and 
horse barracks have been since built on its site. 

The Church of Navan is a commodious building, lately re- 
edified, with the aid of 600/. given, and 1100/. lent, by the Board 
of First Fruits. The new structure was completed in 1817* Dr. 
Beaufort, author of a " Memoir of a Map of Ireland,'* was for 
many years rector of the Union in which Navan is situated, but 
did notreside here. A school for gratuitous education was founded 
and endowed by Alderman John Preston, in 1686. 

This town has received very important advantages from a 
canal, communicating with the great com port of Drogheda. The 
weekly market for the salci of corn is largely attended, and the 

* laiAslh liSS. m cited in the Appendix to Thonpion'f Survey of 
Meiitli. 



^J^ 



1B6 BEAunn of ikklakd. 

inhabitants are actiyely engaged in tarions brandies of tbe pro- 
vision trade. Much sacking is also mannfactnred in the town and 
neighbonrhood. The benefits arising from the snccessfnl spirit of 
commercial enterprise^ are apparent in the rapid increase of eligible 
buildings^ and the great rise in the value of local property. 

Athluunt Castlb, on the borders of the river^ in the vicmity 
of the above town> exhibits the extensive rnins of a spacious 
mansion^ in the style which prevailed in the seventeenth century, 
united with the harsher vestiges of a fortified bailding. 

* 

DuNMOw Castle, situated on the north-east of Navan, was 
originally built by De Lacy. Tbe fabric at present consists of an 
oblong pile^ flanked with circular towers^ fn the manner of the antient 
Norman keep. This castle was fortified in the seventeenth cen- 
tury, and was defended for the royal party by Captain Power, in 
the year 1641, until he was induced by a stratagem to surrender. 
The building was aftenvards repaired, when the second King James 
was in Ireland. 

At DoNAGHMORB IS a rouud or pillar tower; remarkable for 
having, on the key-stone over the entrance, a carved represen- 
tation of the Saviour on the cross. Contiguous are the rnins of 
an antient church. It is said that St. Patrick founded an abbey 
here, over which he placed St. Justin. 

Bellintbr, the seat of Lord Tara, Is distant three miles from 
Navan, and is agreeably situated on the sonthern banks of the 
river Bope. The mansion was erected by the grandfather of the 
present nobleman, after the designs, as we believe, of Mr. Cassels, 
memorable for introducing to Ireland the Palladian style of archi- 
tectnre. The plan comprehends a central structure, containing 
the principal apartments, with wings, having the appearance of 
square distinct houses, communicating with the main building by 
colonnades, now occupied as conservatories. CenAideroble in- 
ternal improvements have lately been carried into execution. 



[lEIN«TEH.] COtmTYOP MEATS. 187 

voder the tastefal direction of Lady Tara. The attached gronnds 
are disposed with much jndgmentA and are greatly enriched by 
iioe and diversified views of the river Boyne> the fertile country 
on its borders^ and mountainous tracts in the distance. 

On the northern banks of the river Boyne^ in the vicinity of 
the above seat^ is Abdsallaoh, or Ardsalla^ the estate of Eart 
Ludlow. A monastery was founded here^ early in the sixth cen« 
tary^ by St. Finian of Clonard, but no particulars have been pre- 
served concerning the history of that foundation. Ardsallagh> 
which had constituted part of the large possessions of the Nangles, 
barons of Navan, passed into the family of Preston^ by the mar* 
riageofHugh, son of Martin Preston, Esq. third son of Jenico, 
third Viscount Gormanston, with a dangfater of Jocelyn Nangle^ 
baron of Navan, in an early year of the seventeenth century. 
Mary, daughter and heir to John Preston, Esq. descended from 
the above Hugh, married Peter Ludlow, Esq. who represented 
the county of Meath in parliament, in 1719, and 17^7* By this 
marriage the estate passed to the noble family in whose possession 
it still remains. Peter Ludlow, son of the last-named gentleman, 
by Ihs wife Mary Preston, succeeded to the maternal estate, and 

m 

was created Baron Ludlow, ofArdioHagh, in 1755; and Viscount 
Preston, of Ard$iUlagh, and Earl Ludlow, in 17^* The family 
aeat and demesne at this place, unite with those of Belliater in 
greatly ornamenting the banks of the Boyne. 

The ruins of Bbctive Asbbt, distant three miles from the 
town of Trim, and four miles from Navan, afford an interesting and 
picturesque antiquarian ornament to the banks of the same river* 
This religious house was founded for Cistertian monks, and placed 
under the invocation of the Virgin Mary, by Murchard O'Melagh* 
lin. King of Meath, about the year 1146 ; and was called the 
Abbey de Beaiitudine. The foundation was richly endowed, and 
the abbot, who was a lord of parliament, appears to have lived 
in considerable splendour. The demesne land, at the time of the 
dissolution, in the 34th of Henry VIII. consisted of 245 acres.^ 



^ 



.^ 



IW SKAUTISS or IBXLANP. 

Ilia most memorable tramaction recorded^ ia such tcaaty 
annals of this abbey as liave descended to the present day^ relates 
to a dispute concerning the interment of Hagh de Lacy^ the first 
Lord Palatine of Meath. The body of that nobleman was b«rie4 
at this place^ with mnch solemnity, A. D. 1195 ; bnt his head 
was placed in the abbey of St. Thomasy in Dublin. That i^bey 
was founded by an Anglo*Norman chief (William Fitz Andelm) 
and de Lacy had himself largely contribnted to its possessions. 
The monks of St. Thomas claimed the whole of their benefector's 
remains^ and a long controvei^sy eosoed between the rival abbots. 
A reference was made to Pope Innocent III. ; and, eventually, 
the bishop of Meath, the archdeacon of that diocess, and the priopr 
of Dnleek, who were i^pointed by the pope to decide between 
^ contending .parties, gave, sentence in favour of the abbey of 
St. Thonnfl. The vidne of this award was not entirely chimerical, 
when we remember the aceeesion of repute obtained by monastic 
chnidies, in eonseqnence of the interment of distinguished per- 
sonages within their walls. . . 

On the sonrender of this abbey, the fabric consisted of '' a 
idraoeh, hall^ and doistjer, with certain chaml^s and other 
bnildings" 3 and none of thesis, except the domeBtic parts, and 
light eittraneons bnildings, hAve entirely disappeared. The di- 
lapidated vestiges of this stroctnre present, indeed, very carious 
traces of the whole former arrangement and oeconomy of the most 
important parts of amonSStic edifice. The tower of entrance is 
of ample proportions, and imparts, in some degree, a castellated 
•^eet to the:raiBs. The hall was also spacions ; and the dottter^ 
Much is pnfcly in good preservation, exhibits a range of pointed 
arches, divided by piers lightened and adorned withdnstered 
pilars. Among the remidning particulars of decoration, is a 
scnlptue of dm Vkjpn and child, placed on a pedestal, beneath a 
coronal canopy, and inserted in one of the. piers. 

Abobhacoan, distant rather more than two miles from the 
town of Navan, towards the west, was one of the astient bishop- 
rics which now form the diocess of Meath. At this place St. 



•4 



[lsinstbb.] county or mbatb. 189 



Braccan foondod an abbey, in the ytar 650, of which he became 
the first abbot, as, also, the first bishop of the church erected 
by himself. The abbey was often plondered and burned, by the 
Danes and domestic enemies ; and little has been recovered con- 
caming its history since 1 170, in which year a part of the buiM<o 
ings fell to the ground. 

* Ardbraccan has constituted, from a very early period, the 
principal residence of die bishops of Meath. In a scarce pamphlet, 
which details many transactions of the civil war ib 1641 and the 
liAoving year, this episcopal reaidence 14 described as a '' strong 
castle.*' It was captured in that war by the party opposed to' 
government, and renmined for some time in their possession. 

This structure has been entirdy rebailt since the year 1766, 
by bishops Maxwdtt and O'fieirne, from the designs of the late 
James Wyatt, Esq. A considerable part of the re-edification took 
place at the expense of the last named prelate, and was performed 
under the superintendence of the late Dr. Beaufort. The house 
is. ia the Palladian style, but In a modification adapted to the cfi- ' 
mate and maunevs of thia country. The design consists of the 
nfain buildiag and two wings, connect by circular walls and 
niches, in general character, the building combines the splen- 
dour, of the palatial edifice with the ceibfort of an English man- 
sion. The whole is composed of limetitone from an adjacent 
quarry, vfiuch-is peculiarly ap^icable to the purposes of embd- 
lished architecture, as, unlike much of the building-stone of Ire- 
lamd, it dees net absorb water, ndc cdntracta green hue from 
nurturing the griiwth of Uchens. The tnteiior of the palace is a 
fine example of the elegant taste and correct judgment, often dis- 
played by the iMe Mr. Wyatt, eqealiy in the stat^ and family 
afraHgemtnts of a dignified nunsion. 

The aittachM pleasure-grounds are extensive, and are enriched 
with arnamental plantations, chiefly made, in a style of disposal 
highly creditable to the taste of that prelate, by Bishop O'Beime. 
Among the various beautifiil trees and'shrubs in these grounds, 
will, however^ be noticed some cedars of Libanus, and other 
exotics, planted by Bishop Po(oeke> wl^Ut ihat learned traveller 



190 BEAUTIES OP lAELAND. 

resided for a short time at Ardbraccan, and presided oyer llie 
diocess of Meath. 

The parochial chnrch of Ardbraccan was rebuilt onder the 
aaspices of Bishop Maxwell, between the years ifBS, and 1799» 
bot in a homely mode of design, the hints of which would appear 
to have been taken from domestic rather than ecclesiastical archi- 
tecture. The interior is enriched with the episcopal appendage 
of a throne. The ceremony of enthronization is^ however^ nsuatty 
performed at Trim or Navan. Detached from the present struc- 
ture is an antient tower^ which constituted a part of the church 
formerly on this site. 

Two monuments in the burial yard demand attentive notice. 
The tomb of George Montgomery, bishop of Meath and Ciogher, 
who died in 16^0. presents figures^ rudely executed, of the bishop, 
his wife and daughter. For an account of several peculiarities 
in the remaining embellishments of this monument, we profit by 
some remarks afforded in Mr.Shaw Mason's Parochial Survey* 
** Over the figures is a Latin inscription, purporting that the mo- 
nument having suffered froni the devastations of time, or rather of 
sacrilegious hands, was repaired in the year 1750. The original 
inscription, which is on the east side> written as on the two op- 
posite pages of a book, is to the following effect : — ^Deo et Epis- 
copo Midensi posuit Georgius Montgomerius Scoto-Britannus di- 
vina providentia Episcopus midensis et Glogherensis,* ntatis 
suse 51. 

'' On this side is a bust,* with three plumes, surmounted by a 
mitre \ and over the mitre is a cup, with a figure of the sacramen- 
tal bread, or wafer, used in the church of Rome. Underneath 
the bust are two swords laid across, interspersed with fleurs-de- 
lis. On the west side is an angel sounding a trumpet, and a shield 
with armorial bearings ; and the motto non nobis nati; underneath 
these is the legend *' repose," S.M. (Sarah Montgomery, the 
bishop's wife.) The shield is, on this side also, surmounted by 
a cup, and the figare of the sacramental bread.*' 

From the representation of the wafer used in the church of 
Rome (a device obviously inappropriate to the monument of a 



[LBINStER.] COUNTY OF MSATH. 191 

protefitant bbhop) it is coDJectnred by the writer to whom we 
are indebted for the above particulars, '' that the repairiDg of 
the mooument fell into the hands of unskilful persons, and that 
some part of the monuments of bishops, who lived before the re- 
formation/* was then added to its embellishments. 

To the south of the above monument is a small slab, the hum- 
ble and ill-execateid memorial of Dr. Richard Pococke, bishop of 
Oisory and o/Meath, whose name, and many claims on the regard 
of posterity, are noticed in our account of the cathedral of St. 
Can ice. 

There are at Ardbraccan a Charter-school^ capable of accom- 
modating «ixty boys, and a parish-school for gratuitous education, 
conducted under the benevolent auspices of the Bishop of Meath. 
In the neighbourhood are several schools of the same description, 
founded and supported by resident individuals. — ^As a distinguished 
native must be noticed Dr. John Steame, Fellow of T. C. D. who 
was born in the year 1722> at the house of his uncle. Dr. James 
Ussher, then bishop of Meath. Dr. Stearne was author of seve- 
ral works on divinity, which obtained considerable attention in 
the seventeenth century. 

Kells, a small town, distant from Dublin 31i miles, towards 
the north-west, is pleasantly situated on the river Blackwater. 
Although the domestic buildings possess 4ittle regularity, an air 
of neatness prevails in the principal part of the town, and the 
church-spire and neighbouring pillar-tower, shooting above the 
mass of habitations, impart a dignity and interest to the approach, 
not always possessed by places of greater real importance. How- 
ever deficient in commercial consequence, Kells was once of great 
ecclesiastical celebrity, and was of so much value, in a military 
point of view, that it was formerly deemed the key of Meath, 

This town is first recognised in history as the site of a monas- 
tery, founded about the year 550, by St. Columb. That religious 
house progressively attained very distinguished celebrity, and 
Kelb was constituted the see of a bishop, which advantage it en- 
joyed until the thirteenth century, when the- bishopric was united 



19a BBAOTIH or HKLAND. 

to that of Heath. The abbey and town were frequently plondered, 
and otberwiK mndi iojared, by tba Danes ; and were aoyeral 
tanea deatrayed by acndental fire, prerions to the expiration of 
the twelfth century. In the year 1152, a memorable gynod was 
held here by John I^paro, Cardinal of St. Lanrence, Ic^te of 
the pope. 

Hie entry of the Anglo-Normans effected a considerable change 
in thefortnnesofthis town. Hi^h deLacy, Lordof Meath, aware 
of its local importance, strongly fortified hts town of Kells, the 
" key" of his new dominions ; and erected here a castle, which 
it said to have occnfued the site of the present market-place. He 
alto made a considerable grant of lands to the abbey, whidi, thus 
enriehed and protected, shone forth with new splendour. This 
grant was confirmed, with additional beoe^tions, by John Earl 
of Mertaln, Lord of Ireland, afterwards King John. In tie year 
IftlS, B9 is asserted by several historians, Edward Brace obtained 
near Kellt a victory over the forces of Soger Mortimer, afterwards 
Earl of March, and lord justice. On this occasion the Conqneror 
is tmd (o have borned the town. We hear hot little of Kells, at 
a military post, after the fourteenth century, and it had certainly 
oeaied to be defensible before the civil wars in the time of 
Charles I. 

The aMey of Kells was designed for regnlar canons, and was 

placed nnder the invocation of the Virgin Mary. The last abijot 

Innhet.whosnrreadered the abbey Nov. ISth, 1541. 

part of the possessions was afterwards granted to 

nket. Scarcely any traces of the bnildiogs are now 

ilso a Priory, or Hotpital, under the invocation of 
(aptist, for Crouched-Jriari, founded by Walter de 
eign of Richard I. This hospital was sorrendered 
rat of King Henry VIIT. and its buildings and ap- 
ere granted, in the eighth year of Qneen Elizabeth, 
ne, for the term of twenty-one years, at an annaal 
0*. The bnildings stood at the lower end of the 
led 8t. John's street. 



/ 



i- 



[leinbter.] county of heath. 193 

The Ckurck of Kells is a plain structure, of do great antiqoityj 
well fitted up and in good preservation. The most conspicuous 
monument is that of Sir Thomas Taylor, first baronet of his family, 
and ancestor of the Marquess of Headfort, who died August 8th^ 
1736 ^ and Anne his wife, daughter of Sir Robert Cotton, of 
Combermere, County of Chester, Bart, who died August 92nd, 
1710. The monument consists of a large sarcophagus of grey 
marble, which rests on three eagles' claws, and supports an urn 
upon an altar of wh;te marble, between two Corinthian pillars. 
The rectory of Kells is united to the chapdries of Burry, Duleeoj 
and Rathboyne, and with them forms the corps of the Archdea- 
conry of Meath. 

On the north side of the church is an insulated tower, on one 
front of which are three busts, carved in stone, representing a 
prelate and two other dignitaries of the church. Beneath is an 
inscription, stating that the church of Kells, being in decay, was 
re-edified, A. D. 1572> by Hugh Brady, bishop of Meath. It 
may be observed that this conduct was particularly meritorious, 
as the see of Meath was so poor when Bishop Brady took posses- 
sion of it, that a respite of five years was allowed to him for the 
payment of first, fruits. 

In the vicinity of the church, towards the south, and also near 
ike site of the abbey founded by St, Coiumb, is a round or pillar- 
tower,^ said by Mr. Archdall to measure ninety-nine feet from the 

* It 18 a circumstance highly worthy of observation, that we uniformly 
meet with these towers as former adjuncts of such monasteries in Ireland, 
as are said to have been founded in the early centuries of the Christian sra ; 
to which ages we have, in the Introduction to this work, ventured to ascribe 
the erection of the Irish Pillar-towers. This very remarkable coincidence 
is noticed by the Che v. de Montmorency in the following words : ** It is 
certain that we only meet these PlUar-towers coupled with our very 
oldest monasteries and abbeys; those that owe their foundation to the 
Dedans, the Abhans, the Patricks, &c. and to their immediate contem- 
poraries and disciples; subsequent to whom, since the latter end of the 
seventh century, no more Pillar-towers were built. — For instance, there 
is one, very high and beautiful, attached to the Abbey of Downpatrick, 
seated on the Lough of Strangford, in which St. Patrick, the founder, was 
VOL. u • . ^ . J 



gronsd ; tMt tfaM tacMonoMt ptabebly iaclnded tbe wDtient 
conical xxpfiaf^ which hat faika nnae Mr. Arcbdall eoBq»Md 
(be MoButicen. Near the top u« few apRtnreB, bm% thenar- 
dUnl ipoinCs. The eatrsace ■■ oa the north side. In thie dtnrid^ 
yard are the fragaieirta of a cnm, richly tiocoratcd witk varioia 
omemenla. 

In a iln«et Mar tbe site of tbe fariDer caatle it a aecond rtotB 
troiB, elaborately and beantiUly carred wi^ a great varie^ vi 
^gwea and flwlMa, many ofirhich have aeriptatal alhwioDS, We 
Are toM, by ^be iMthoT of the " Surrey ef MeRtb," <tbat till* 
fine Grms " formerly lay proctrate," (bavbg, proMlly, beaa 
thrown down at the time of tbe RefortnaUon) '< but wai raiaail 
by the dJMire, aad at the expeaae of, die celebntted Swift, jDean 
ttf St. Patrick's." Anong the few veatigea of antiqnity in tfafa 
town. Is, also, to tte seen a aaeU fltone roofed cell or dwp^ 
lo«Blly'tormed'Co/M)i^.firi/r« AoKW. 

Tbe Roaun Catkelie titapel h a bandsoaie building, efectad 
«fter the deaigm «f F. JohHcttdii Eiq. ; and the SanoiU'kome wa* 
pleUned by the aame orehitoot. Tbe town of KeUs is intemai^ 
"govenied 'by a towniga and defHity, and givee tbe title of Ac- 
count, in the Irish peerage, to tbe binlly vf- Choknosdeley, 
Marqems of Chtrimoadeley- 

At the diltanoe of abont one aile from the above town ia 

Hbadpokt, tbe fine demeane of ^Aomaa Taylonr, Marquees of 

"— "-- 1 and Earl of Bective. The mansion is a spadoos strac- 

nsistiDg of a centre and wings.'bilt it by no means oonspi- 

>r architactoral beauty.* The grounds are very extensiTe, 

ia 493 1 anoibcr, u ws baT« lecn, at Ardmore, dcdlolsd to St. 

two U ClonnwcnoU, uid a third at F«rufb, to St. Kleran t <»• 
>b», at Emiy ) bm at Sitb, to St, Catumt i ong to S(, Sanaa, ia 
lof lokcatluf there wu «BOib«r at Ardfart, that bu lately 
reMedlo8l.BTeiidaa,earljlatlie(isttacentar7t ona at Roscrea, 
baratCloadalkia, toSt.Croaapt tba Town at hnA, to Sb 
ad) of SwoTda, to St. Colnaib and St Finaai of DamUaoia, to 
lae I of GlMdaloatb, to St. Kovln, brother to SL Dadaa, ftc." 

Ib« OrifUoflba Iriih PUIai'.4ower, kc.pp.M,SS. 

ar« lafomcd by Mr. Johaitaa, thai pUat hava bata faralsliii 



[LKINSTER.] COUNrV OP UBATH, 195 

ai| ar69 of niof0 t|^ Ij^OQ acres ba^ng endowed witbin itone. 
W^* twelve feet in height. The rirer here expand* into a noble 
sheet of water, »fid tbe p^mtatioasj whi^h^ together with the other 
improvepi^^nt^ ait this place^ were entirely made by t^e late Earl 
of Bective, are nnmeroas^ w^l-disposed^ and thriving. 

Thoip^as Taylonr, Esq. ancestor of the Qoble proprietor of this 
demesne, came into Ireland with thjd celebrated Sir William Petty« 
whose associate he had been at school and col^ge. He assisted 
Sir WHliam in making the Down Survey 3 and, abont the year 
19^t jmrchased large estates in Meath, including the town and 
t^^^nlands^ Kells. 9k Thomas Taylonr,. the third baronet of 
thia family^ was created Baron Headfort in 17^0; Viscount 
Headfort 10 176S 1 and Earl Bective> of Bective castle, in 
176€. Thomas^ second Earl oi Bective, was further advanced 
in Ae Irish peerage, aa Marquess of Headfort, 01^ the $9th of 
Deces»ber, 1800. 

SU9t$eirooie, the residence of the Rev. the Archdeacon of 
Meath, situated at an agreeable distance from the above town^ 
on the north side, is one ^f the prindpd ornaments of this 
neighbourhood. We are not aware that a finer spot for the erection 
of a villa is to be foand in this part of the county, and the whole 
demesae is judicioasly diiaposed, and preserved with great care. 

At Caatlh KiSBAif^ distant from Kells four miles, on the 
north of the road leading to Oldcastle, are some remains of a 
amall ehiirch, dedicated to St. Kieran, who flourished in tbe early 
paprt of tihe sixth icemtury, an^ is said to have been educated in 
the neighbourU^ scheal of Clonard. In the cemetery attached to 
these rniDS is a very fiue stone cross, richly sculptured. Here is 
a hoiy qiring, much resorted to by the peasantry on the fir^t 
SJnnday in Aagust, who believe that it has the property of curing 
diseases by miraculous influence. 

A curious discovery of the remains of some moose deer, onc^ 

by thftt jttdicioas architect for altorationt and improvemeDta of the 
maasion of Hea«Mbrt, which we hope may 100& be carried into effect* 

o2 



196 BRAUTIBS OF IRRLAND. 

iiumerous in Ireland, has recently occarred on the estate of Mr. 
Dyas^ a few miles distant from the town of Kells. Some labonrera 
employed in catting turf, on an elevated part of^n extensive bog 
belonging to that gentleman, found, at the depth of a few feet 
beneath the surface, the tops of a row of strong oaken poles, from 
six to eight inches in diameter, which proved, on sinking to the 
earth into which they were driven, to vary in length from ten to 
fifteen feet. It was, also, then fonnd that they were placed at Inter- 
vals, of about six inches apart. A considerable quantity of the bog 
adjoining these poles having been cleared away, it was ascer- 
tained that they formed a portion of an extensive enclosure, 
of a circular form. Within this enclosure, and in the im- 
mediate vicinity of the poles, were fonnd very numeroas fossil 
remains of the moose deer. A discovery of the vestiges of 
this animal, nnder such circumstances, we believe to be unique. 
It may, with every appearance of probability, be conjectured that 
the pole, or stakes, formed an enclosure used for entrapping the 
deer, who were driven into it by hunters. It will be recollected 
that the same method is still used, in capturing the elephant, by 
hunters in Africa.* 

At KiLMAiNHAM-BEG (locdlly termed Kil-heg), distant from 
the town of Kells four miles, towards the N. £. a Commandery 
for Knights of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem was founded, 
in the reign of Richard I., by Walter de Lacy, lord of Meatfa. 
A lease of this entire commandery was granted, in the year 
1500, by the prior of Kilmainham, to Peter Bamwall, of Stack- 
allan, Gent. ; and, according to an inquisition made in 1588, 
it was found that the fabric was in a ruinous condition, " owing 
to the devastations committed bv Sir Thomas Barnwall, Knt. 
Alexander his son, and Sir Thomas Cusackv" Scarcely any 
traces of the buildings, which comprised a " castle, chapel, 
legate-house, and bawn, with a stone wall," are now to be seen. 

* For the nbove particulmrt we are indebted to informciUon coDve>o4 
by William Morrison, Ksq. 



[LBIN8TKB.] COUNTY OF HEATH. 107 

MoYBATH Castlb was originally buiit^ according to the annals 
of IttDiafallen^ in the year 1219, by the Viceroy Lord Geoffrey 
Morrea (Baron de Montemarisco). The Bianor and castle of 
Moyrath were purchased by William-(^e Nagent, second son of 
William, first Baron of Delvin, and^from that time became the 
seat of a branch of the Nogent fismilyy denominated after this 
place. The above-named William-Oge was knighted by Edmond 
Mortimer, Earl of March, and married* before the year 1382, 
Joan, daaghter of Sir Thomas de Tbite, of the Sonnagh, in 
Westmeath, by whom he had, among other issue, Thomas Nugent^ 
progenitor of the baronet family of Nugent of Moyrath. 

NoBBBB, a small fair and post town, is celebrated as the birth- 
place of Caroian, the lati nunHrel of Ireland, whose compositions 
rival those of the antient bards of his country, in beauty, in me- 
lancholy, and in pathos, although the triumphs of war, or the 
melody of lamentation over the public sorrows of Erin, were not 
with him, as with his predecessors, the great inspiriting excita- 
tions of musical genius. 

Turlough O'Carolan was bom in 1670, and was the son of a 
farmer, in humble circumstances. He was deprived of his sight 
by the ravages of the small pox, at so early a period of life that 
he ** remembered no impression of colours." He was accustomed 
to say, when speaking of this calamity, " that his eyes were 
transplanted into his ears 3'* and so apparent became, even during 
childhood, his acute seusibility to the coucord of sweet sounds, 
that his friends procured him a professional instructor on the harp, 
before he had completed the twelfth year of his age. He was, 
however, a natural genius of the first rank, and was born to 
create rather than to practise. Although his harp was rarely un- 
strung, he, in general, as is observed by Mr. Walker, " only used 
it to assist him in composition j his fingers wandered amongst the 
strings, in quest of the sweets of melody.*' In proof of the cor- 
rectness of such a statement, it must be noticed that, in his. 
desultory travels, he was attended by a harper, who accoropanie^d 
bis voice, and supplied his want of skill in practical music, 



i9$ BUVTiM «r rnxuMD. 

A kMQ Hioe|AibHiiy to tW cfaM-Bw of nulcii Aiiaudj 
fitvounble to an iidnlgeace of Ae tender pMrivni. At ta urijr 
age CanflMi beowae entBioQred ri a lady, by name Mas Bii d g w t 
Crnise ; and the nng addresMd by bin to that fair ot^ect of hia 
wiahe«i is lapposed to be bia vit/ttarnvfe. Miw Croln, bOTrever, 
refased his band j bat the tytapatby remaining tnie, althongb tb« 
tbject might change, he shortly toaad a aolacc in marriage witb m 
yonag WomBH of a respeotabla baily, named Mary Mac Goirc, 
by whom he had sereu chiMren. He now fixed hie leiideaceoa k 
■mall form near MoeUll, in the coanty of Leitrin ; but the fiUa of 
genius followed him to his little habitation. He prosecated bia 
studies in music and poetry with great care, bat quite neglected, 
in the ardour of aiich puranits, attd in the pteaaares of as nn- 
bonoded hospitality, a dne attention to pradentiBl concerns. Hff 
coBSeqnently soon abandoned a fann that was an inoambraBO* 
rather thao a loorce of emolnment, and commaaced the life of •• 
itinerant musician. 

Although we must dqilore, tn oar sympathy wltfa bn at « 
hnsband anda father, the irregularity of habiU which led to wander- 
ings so strange in modem times, this is, etidently, the pa>t of 
Carolan's tut^r^y in whidt the geoeral reader is most iatereated. 
Whilst reflecting npon the high dtaraeier be has obt^ed as a 
mnucal composer, and the attractive light ia which he afqwatl aft 
a socceasor, and representative, in an altered season, of the an- 
tieot berdi, we are anxioiH to Iibow the d(%ree of perHoasl cmafr' 
qaence he assamed, and the reception he experienced. 

We learn from the remarln <rf Mr. Walker, ia the AppestHl to 
that writer's " Memoim of the Irish Bards," that " he travslM 
on a good horse, and was attended by a harper in tb« character •# 
a domestic." By the same aathor we are told, that, in regard to 
pectiniary affairs, he was enabled to maintain a middle aoMse, 
neither safferiog poverty nor (as will be supposed) knowing, by 
experience, the msaning of the word affluence. If such be the 
&ct, the degree of competence he enjoyed most have proceeded, 
flo far as we are informed, from tbe assistance of these who ad- 
mired his geoias ;— nor could bis proper prMe be hurt whan 



[uiIlliTSB.] COUNXV OK MSATS. VBl9 

acm^kif &vottfft deUcRtel]! rendered, UAce ^rnk a coiule- 
acMisioa ol Udent ta weaUh be w«U koew to have beeii> through 
tkao unmcan^rial^ the ciMtom of hia bardie j^adecaaaora. 

la tUa oavBtry every deaerviog imiA ia sure of a hospitable 
raeaptba ^ and il ia traly grateful to have the opportanily of 
ohaerriag that, witb tme eieef tiaa (aa iiiordiaata attaclweqt ta 
wtUkBf, tk» mm 9/ Irehm4^, the moral worth of Carobn in- 
sored the reifeet of tbaae, whoae firai indiicameiit to admit him 
to ft coMMxion proceeded from hia lepatatlon for taleat. Hid 
want of tamperanee was excnaed ia Urn, aa a poet pleadiog the 
aaageef aatiquity; and it deea ncit appear th^t hia Bbationa 
were habttnaHy carried te a diagiaeeM exeeas. He baa^etted 
with the lorda of mansioM, and waa raedved^ aa a deeoroaa 
aad amnsinf eompaaion^ by their hdiea and di^ughlers. Such 
aela of hoapitality he repaid by maaieal compoeitiooa ia honour of 
hM entagaiaara> deatiaed to delight posterity, aad to add to the 
fame of bis country ! 

In theae bardic lamMiaga were paaaed the prime aad tto da* 
dine of Can>lan*e life. His eon^titetioa waa flowlyi bat per« 
oeptibly^ einking, before an indnlgcaca la tba aae of 8f»ri|nooa 
liqnorSj when his feelings experienced an insormonntable shock, 
fma the loaa of hia wife, who died la i73d. SighdesQ, oU» and 
aidi, he cooU aol bag eoabat with the world aAor sadi an 
ef ent. He e^ired at Alderford, ia the coaaty of Reacomaaon* ia 
the year 1788, aad ia the 68th yew of las age. 

A dissertation en the raerila aad defecta of the mmcal coaqio- 
sMotts prodaced by this distingnished man, wW not be eapeetad ia 
the i^eaeat work. He is amd to have ** ovfestripped hk predeoea* 
sors ia the three speciea of compoaitioB ased among the Irish/' 
We can tmly assert, from experience, that his best pieces, whea 
pecfermed on the fevoarite iaatmmeni ol his nal&ve i$land, go di- 
rectly hoaie to the heart, aad lead the feieHitgs willing and 
delighted captires. Cardan's is the mnaie of natara, the mnsic 
of the passions $ and, as sach, must last whilst Jiast tas^e aad 
a love of simplidfty maintain their stations ia the human bofom. 
If ever neglected by the icoartly^ his atrs will sUU be cherished on 



9100 BBAUTllEg OP tEBLAND. 

4 

the moontaiDS of Ireland, and in the nistic seclasioo of ita vales j 
for nature responds when the harp vibrates to his conceptions. 

His music has lately been mnde, in some degree^ familiar to the 
English public, by a popular adaptation, and by the words of a 
modem favourite writer. The airs of Carolan were chiefly com* 
posed daring his wanderings, and were principally designed as 
bardic compliments, and expressions of gratitude and esteem, ta 
the persoDS by whom he was k:ndly received. We have already 
noticed the best of his amatory pieces. His *' receipt for drinking 
whiskey** was composed on his recurring to the fatal indulgence 
of his libations, after an abstinence of six weeks. He also com- 
posed several pieces of church music. His inspiring genius pre- 
sided over the chords of his harp alone : as a poet we are not 
aware that he has ever risen above mediocrity. He was little in- 
debted to education. Of the classical languages he was enturely 
ignorant, nor had he acquired much knowledge of Eng^h until 
an advanced period of life. 

At Britieu, near Nobber, is the handsome villa of Thomas 
BKgh, Esq. recently enlarged, and much improved, after the 
designs of Mr. Francis Johnston. 

Slanb, which gives name to a barony in the north-east part 
of this county, is very finely situated on the river Boyue, at the 
distance of twenty-four miles from Dublin. The houses of which 
this village is composed are chiefly modem, and of an ornamental 
character. The neat and respectable aspect of the dwellings ; 
the natural beauty of situation ; and the highly-cultivated scenery 
displayed in several neighbouring demesnes, unite in rendering 
this village one of the most attractive spots in the eastern part of 
Ireland. 

Slane, which had* been a place of considerable note previous 
to the entry of the English, constitnted, in years briefly subse«- 
quent to that event, a borough in Hugh de Lacy*s palatinate. The 
manor and its dependencies were long possessed by the family of 
Fleming, whose ancestor entered Ireland with De Lacy, and who 
took from this place the title of Lord of Slane, fixing his resi- 



w 



I 

[lbinstbr.] county Hf ueath. 201 

deuce at a castle in the vicinity of Ibe town. These proprietors 
forfeited the estate in the unhappy year 1641, and it was soon 
afterwards acquired by its present possesdors, the family of Conyng- 
ham, ennobled by the titles of Mvqaess Conyngham 5 Earl 
Conyngham -, Earl of Moont Charles 5 Fiscouni Stane and Co- 
nyngham 5 and Baron Conyngham, in the Irish peerage'^ and Baron 
Minster, of Minster Abbey, in the peeragt of England. 

An j46bey was founded In Slane, at an early but unknown 
date, which existed, throngb many vicissitudes of fortnne, vatil 
the general suppression of religions booses in ^ reign of Henry 
VIII. To this monastery was attached a school of g^me cele* 
brity, which is said to have afforded appropriate edn< v y>Q f^ ^ 
royal personage. It is traditionally asserted that Da^-i^i^ 
King of Aastrasia, when treacherously removed from his k ,. 
dom, in 653, at an infantile age, was received into the abbey 01 
Slane, where he continued for nearly twenty years, at the ex- 
piration of which time he was recalled to his throne, and was 
found to be well qualified for the duties of government. This 
abbey was repeatedly destroyed by the Danes, in the ninth and 
tenth centuries, and was, likewise, exposed to injury from 
domestic assailants, in the year 1170, at which time Mac 
Morough, King of Leinster, with a body of the English, com- 
manded by Earl Strongbow, burnt and sacked the town of Slane. 
The same ravages were again committed by the English, in 
1175. 

Under the protection of the baronial family of Fleming, this an« 
tlent abbey experienced a renovation of prosperity. By Sir Christo- 
pher Fleming, Lord of Slane, and Elizabeth Stuckle, his wife, it 
was refonnded, in 1512, for friars of the third order of St. 
Francis. The buildings were then restored, on an extensive 
scale, and some fresh endowments made. .After the dissolution, 
this friary was granted to James, Lord of Slane, at the annual 
rent of one penny, Irish money. The remains of the buildings 
include the tower- of the chapel, and add an interesting feature 
to the picturesque charms of this neighbourhood. V 

A Herm'Uagewiks established here, in an early age, uud named 



1 



rftor St. Kre, who dMd in the jwr S14. Two uceUc ftiwB 
wwe dwflUing i* thia reooM, when Chmtvpher Lord Sbne le- 
fiMuded ti>e abbey, and wa* hj bim rtmorad to that noo'vaUd 
iwtitiitiM. Serenl of the family ot Fleming, Lorda of SUae, 
were b«ied in tku benucag*- The nina of the boildiag an to 
the aonth x>( the liUago, m the margin of the riter, and wiUuB 
the grouQda of SlaAe Caatta. 

The Chmeh of Slaoo ii a neat and well<|preaar?ed bmldfaig, 
iMviiv a handsane aMpie, recently erected after the deaigns of 
Hr. FVancia Johnriwi. The Bm. Menym ArtlMl, who waa 
bore at Dnhlin. on the SSnd of Afn\, 1723. was for aone tiae 
rector of 8^*- To tku name of thia gentleman we often advert 
in ^ p»<eat work, aa Mtiw oftha JUomaitieom Htbtnueum, and 
^tor jf an eidirged edition of Lodge's Peerage of Ireland. The 
^^ of Mr. ArchdaU for inqairiea coaoeniag the Monastic and 
■iraealogical Hiatory of Irdand, waa encoon^^ed, in the early 
pert of hia life, by Mr. Harria, the learaed and jndidoaa editor 
of Ware'a worhi, and abo by Snitii, the hiatoiian of aeveral 
Iriah covotaei. In his mora mature yeara he wna favonred with 
the fnendly patronage of the celebrated tmeller, and excelleat 
pTBlate, Dr. Richanl Pocoeke, bishop of Oeaory and of Meath, 
to whom he was dooieatic diaplain. 

Thia eradite biahop, aa Mr. ArchdaU lumielf gntefidly atatea, 

" pouted oat the method adoptedin the MooasticoD lUbemicnm ; 

procared many necessary docnmenta; and had the goodnesB to 

anoonrage the Mtborwith solid isTovs." The materisla col- 

nted for that work were snffictcat for twoTolnmea fi^Iioj bat 

[r. ArcLdall was constrained, from a want of natienal patron^, 

> curtail his l^toars, and print the work, in the year 1780, as it 

; present ^>pea(S, in one Tolnme qnarto. We ngeA to have 

te 4q>portBBity of obwnring that, evcm in a form so limited, ORly 

w copies were aold doriag the life of the author. Mr. Aichdall's 

ilarged edition of the Peerage of Ireland by Lodge, was pob- 

riied in 1789. Thia amiable man, and Tcry useful writer, died 

1 the Cth of Aognat, 179L. 






[I.XIN5TBII.] COUVn 00 llflATH. S(W 

Sijuf s C4yBTtB> the tett of Henry Bmrtaii Conyftglita^ Mar-* 
quess GonytigbaiD, is a ipacioas aiid splendid stmcCwa^ occupying 
Ml ^T%l6d she 00 tbe bsttks of the rif er Boyoe* The ttaoaioA 
comprises parts of the castle built by the Flemings, lords of Skuie^ 
greatly altered and enlarged, at different periods since the estate 
1mm been vested in the noble CMiily to which it at present belongs. 
The moet important altmratioHs were made by the Right Hon. 
William Gonyngham, in 1765, a>id scTeral following years^ after 
the designs of the kite Mr. James Wyatt. The entramce to the 
«aatle> and eonsideraUe improvements of the interior, were e«a* 
euted at a more recent date, andef the direction of IVancis John- 
ston, Esq. architect of the board of works. 

The exterior features of the building are in the style termed 
flsodern gothic, and the embattled parapets and Mphriag turrets 
prodoce romantic and striking comUnations, at many points of 
view; but the boasted /pic^Mr^i^^ ^ ufohkiMmre is here attained 
by the sacrifice of consistenicy. As a whole, the fabric is impo^ag^ 
and indeed magnificent^ but it does not, in its eompodent partsj 
hear resemblance to the cnstlo, or olk^ pile of bulUing, of any 
kaowa antient period in the history of otr datisnal ardiitectnre* 
The interior contains many spacioas and sup^b apartments. 

The groondB by which this mansioa is san'ounded are extea* 
nve, and extremely beautiful** They present much inequality of 
aurfiicei and are richly, eiothed with woodL The river Boyae hoN 
winds through its most attractive shorea* Devious in its couvsOji 
its rocky and partially wooded bunks afford a lovely variety of 
SDeaecy. Thro«^h aeveral breaks of tbe aobk woods and wide 
plantations^ the neat vittagOi and the rttae of the abbey* o o mbiii e 

• tt is recorde4 \y Mr. VTslker tbat sia af «to maeait lastrmasati, 
toitasd Cirr«3iwiM«| were fMMid by persons digfiaf ia the park ef Mans^ 
in tlie year iT81. The corabaina 11 described by this writer as a '^clroriio 
instrumeDt of tbe andeot Iriah, of a complex form, and conBistinf of two 
circular plates of brass, connected by a wire of tbe same metal 1 twisted ia 
a worm-like manner, which jingled rdufid tbe shanks vfhen the plates were 
ftrvck upon hj the fitt|;eri. It was used for the purpow of keeping ttmo.*' 
Hist* Bletts. of Irish Bards, p. 90. 



If 



^04 BSAOTIES OF IRKLAND. 

faapjHly with the cultivated landscape. — ^It will be long remembered 
in thie annals of this mansion, that his majesty. King George IV. 
honoured Slane Castle with his presence, in the month of August^ 
1821. 

Contiguous to the above demesne is Bbacpabk, the seat of 
d. Lambart, Esq. The mansion is spacious, and the extensive 
grounds, which are richly .wooded, and encompassed, with a wM, 
partake of the characteristics and attractions of the neighbouring 
territory. These demesnes, indeed, borrow and communicate 
charms i whilst, by their seeming union, the aspect of decorative 
caltivation is spread over an unusual extent of prospect. 

Adjacent to the demesne t>f Slane Castle, towards the sooth, is 
StackallAcN, the seat of Gnstavus Hamilton, Fiscount B<nfne, and 
Baron Hamilton, of Stackallan, This fine residence is situated, 
with impressive propriety, near the baoka of the river which im- 
parts a title to its noble owner, and was the scene of the exploits 
which led to the selection of that title, when his lordship's ancestor 
was advanced in the Irish peerage. Gustavns, first Viscount 
BoYNE, among other important services in the wars consequent 
upon the expulsion of the Stuart family, headed a regimeot at the 
battle of the Boyne, and narrowly escaped death, having his horse 
killed under him . He was created Baron Hamilton, of Stackallan, 
in 1/15; and Viscount Boyne, in 17 17. His lordship died Sep- 
tember 16th, 1723, in the 84th year of his age, and is buried in 
the church of Stackallan, where also are interred his lady, and 
many other members of this distiogaished family. 

DowTH, or DouTB, situated on the river Boyne, at the distance 
of two and a half miles from Slane, gives the title of Viscount to 
the family of Netterville, whose ancestor. Sir Formal de Netterville, 
entered Ireland in the reign of Henry 11. Richard Netterville, 
son of Sir Formal, married Catharine, daughter of Hugh de Lacy, 
lord of Meatb, and settled on the estate of Dontb, which has ever 
since remained a seat of the elder branch of this family. Nicholas 



;#s''= 



[lsinbtbk.] county of meath. 1205 

Netterville was created Viscoiint Nettei'viUe^ o/Danih, by King 
James I. in 169^. The mansion of Dowth is finely situated^ and 
commands extensive views over a country highly coltivated^ and 
rendered, at several points, interesting by memorable passages of 
history* 

At New Grange, near Slane, is a celebrated and interesting 
work of antiquity, often termed a subterranean temple^ but whicb 
may be described, with a greater appearance of correctness, as a 
place of sepulture, of a very unusual character, constructed in the 
interior of a tumulus. This vestige has produced rather extensive 
dissertations from several vmters, fhe most important of whose 
opinions we notice in the foUowing remarks. 

The large earthen mound in which this tomb is worked, is of 
an irregular form, and was originally surrounded with upright 
stones, unhewn and of a vast size; several of which still remain. 
On the summit of the mount stood a single stone, of the same 
character. In the possession of this stony circle the monument of 
New Grange exhibited a marked distinction from the generality 
of barrows, both in Ireland and Great Britain; and the interior 
works present a still more curious deviation from the prevalent 
character of tumuli in these countries. The diipovery of its con- 
tents is said, by Dr. Ledwich, to have taken place about the year 
1699 ; at which time " a Mr. Campbell, who resided at New 
Grange, observing stones under the green sod, carried muck of 
them away to repair a road ,- and proceeding in this work, he, at 
length, arrived at a broad flat stone, that covered the mouth of a 
gallery.** 

The entrance to this gallery, which is on the north side of the 
mount, is so low and confined, that a man can gain admission 
only by placing himself in a flat position. He then finds himself 
in a long avenue, the sides and roof of which are formed of large 

* The action between the armies of William III. and James II. em- 
phatically termed the Battle of the Boyne^ took place on the borders of 
the river in this neighbourhood. Our account of that important transaction 
is presented in our description of the county of Lonth. 



S06 BAkirriM 6V ia«L4irD. • 

md rode itOMcs* TowMrds its teraUiaitioD die gallery tbrewv pflT 
two dioK branelMS^ to the right and lefts beyond which, on a tight 
Bse with the aveove. Is a reeees, not very different in um from 
these kteral branehee, pr cells. Tkna, the plan of this eobtcr- 
raDeoas stroctare is in the form of a cross, the shaft, or st^v, of 
which is long and taper* 

• Dissimilar neasurements of the different parts have been given 
by Molynenx, in his dSsconrse on Danish Moonts, and by Dr. 
Ledwich, in tAie ADtiqnikies of Ireland. The latter, which we 
believe to be the most correct, are as follow. '^ At the entrance 
the gallery is three feet wjde and two feet high. At thirteen feet 
from the entrance it is but two feet two inches wide. The length 
of the gallery, from its month to tiie begi&niDg of the dome, i^ 
sixty-two feet 3 from thence to the npper part of the dome eleven 
feet six inches. The whole length seventy-one feet six inches* 
The length, between the arms of the cross, is twenty feet. Thm 
dome forms an octagon^ twenty feet high, with an area of about 
seventeen.'* 

The sides, or walls, of the gallery are composed of lai|pe 
stones, placed upright and close to each other. The whole are 
dissimilar in ske, and we nnhewn. The roof is formed of flat 
stones, some of which are not less than ifiaeteen feet in length; 
the whole being supported by the stones of the side walls. This 
roof increases progressively in height, as it advances towards the 
centre of the moont, where a greater altitude was allowed to the 
design, from the conical form of the snperincnmbent earthwork. 
The dome, to which the gallery leads, is composed of long and flat 
stones, each projecting a little over that immediately beneath^ 
with one ki^e and flat stone placed on Ab top. No morti#^ or 
oilier cement, appears to have 'been used in any part of the sisiio- 
tnre. 

Althongli the stones are not squared, or shaped, several beav 
marks of the tool, in carved devices, or ornamental pi^cnlars^ 
apparently placed wlthput any attention to order; amongst which 
i^iral Uq^, mi %^e drouifix and a^g-zag forms^ are prevailing 
W.^- features. Some emeilners bnv/B alfto b^ev^ that they discovereii 



¥■ 



^ "»• 



[lbinstkk,] ootmrT of msats. t07 



traces of Idttors | tmA a supposed lAScriptktt is engmted n 
Ledwich's Aiiti«[Bitie8 of Ireiand. Bat it reqaires a nwm imsgw 
nation to ^soever chaFftcters of wridng, in any of these rada 
cartings. Sir Ridiard Hoara^ irbose eBferience ki t)ie inrestiga* 
lion of the most antient aeptAAnk remaiiis of (ke Britisli isles^ 
fkr exceeds tlint of any other person, speaking of tins monnment^ 
in his '' IVmr,'* observes *' tUat those warib which he noticed on 
nwnyof the stones, bore very lit^ resemblance to letters, and 
a great siodlarity to the onrnments ite has Irand on the anttent 
British nms, discovered onder tosnnli in Wiltshire.*' 

In one of the Hbne recesses whidi lorm the head and branches 
of the cross, is a stone basin, or vase$ and a similar basin was 
origiaaliy placed in each of the other recesses. Tins vessel is 
abeiit Auree leet six inches in length, and thiiee feet two inches in 
depth, it was first noticed by fior R. Hoare, tiutf^ within its ex- 
aavatod part, are two cffcular cavities, placed by the side of eadi 
other, and abont the size of a child's head. 

We are told by Dr. Mdyaenx that, '* when Ae cave was first 
opened, two entire skeletons, not bnmed, wees fonnd on the 
ioor." FVom some MS* addldons made by Mr. Wri^t to the 
^ Lonthiana,*' we learn Aat these remains of mortality were fonnd 
near apHlar, at no great distance bom the centre of the dnme^ 
and that Deers' horns, and other bones were also discovered. 
These animal vestiges, like those of the human fortt, did not qK 
pear to have nndergone cremation. 

Dr. Molynenx, and many succeeding arrkers, rascribed ihie 
very onrioos moanment to the Danes . tMh aonjectnn was well 
salted to the opinions of Dr. lisdwich, who appears aasdone to 
attribate to that people all sabjeots of antiquity which : balie teady 
Tutf/bj. Thb latter wriler, hoamar, finds eome diftwlties in 
ascribing to the Danes the mode of sepnlture here adapted, which 
he endeavours to solve by supposing that the buQders of this fabric 
iMro bat " anai-aiftotaiis {"as, exospithe cruciform |dan of the 
tomb, every tirenmstaiica eisioiUly displays pagan praetiaes. 
The period* to whith he assigns the monaaant is the aniy part of 
the n^nth deatary) at ^MA tlnw ''piratical mveDl" f rem Oe 



206 BUUTICS OF IKILAHD. 

north greatly iafeBted Ireland. " lliey generally debarked," 
writes this antiquary, " in the Boyne, where, Becoring their 
ships, ttiey spread devastation around, to a considerable eitent," — 
and then, in conformity to their hidiits as pimtical rovers, returned 
to their ships, and departed with their booly.^^aa any person, 
not predetermined to overlooli the grossest improbabilities, sgren 
with this writer in believing that a band of freebooters, hi the 
bast^nd tnrmoil of a piratical expedition, foond leisnre to con- 
struct a tomb reqairing so much labonr, beneath a vast moaud of 
earth, surrounded by pouderoas stones } 

Whilst we decline to acqniesce in the opinions of Dr. Iiedwich, 
wesrecompelledtodtate that there appean to beconsiderable diffi- 
culty in appropriating, by rational conclusions, this singular 
tomb to its dne nation and date. The form of the cross, adopted 
in the plan of the interior, alooe prevents the inquirer from ascrib- 
ing it, withont besitadoo, to a remote period in the Celtic and 
Belgic occupancy of the island. 

On this subject the reader maybe reminded that the figure of 
the cross wasnsedby the antient Egyptians, as asymboloffntare 
Ufe. It is also worthy of remark, that, in Borlase's Antiquities 
of Cornwall, may be seen an engraving of a temple, in the island 
of Lewes, consisting of npright and onhewn stones, disposed moat 
distinctly in a crncifbrm manner, having a drcnlar area in the 
npper part, from which the cross branches direige. 

If this difficulty be surmounted, there exist* no obatacle to 
onr ascribing the monomeut at New Grange to the native Irish, of 
a very distant date. Several barrows, or tumuli, in England, 
tbe nndonbted works of Celtic or Belgic tribes, have been found 
to contain a gallery, or pasauge, formed of large stones, and 
leading to one or more Kistvaena, or small roofed places of aepnl- 
ture. 

Odckbk, a decayed town, of much former consequence, is 
ited near the nortbera extremity of the connty, on the bor- 
of the Nannay water. Tbe earliest historical circumstances 
ing to this place, are connected with its religions foandations. 



Cl'BINfTSB.] eOUKTY OF UEATU. S09 

with the firoBperity and dedine of which, the fortunes of Daleek, 
isideed, rose and fell. It is said that an abbey was built here by 
St. Patrick, who placed over the new institution St. Kienan, or 
Cienan, a holy personage baptized by him in the year 450. 
Within the walla of this building were deposited, for a short time, 
the remains of the renowned monarch of Ireland, Brien Boirhoimh, 
together with those of his son and grandson, who fell at the 
battle of Clontaff, A. D. 1014. These sacred ashes were removed 
hence, for sepulture at Armagh. 

This abbey was repeatedly plundered by the Danes, and was 
thrice destroyed by Are, the last conflagration taking place ii^ 
1 169. The building then condemned to the flames is recorded, 
in the annals of the four Masters, to have been composed of stone 3 
and, if we may rely on the testimony adduced by Ware, the fabric 
raised by St. Kienan was formed of the same material.* It 
appears that, in the year 1182, Hugh de l^acy refounded this 
abbey, as a cell to the priory of Lanthony, near Gloucester, for 
canons regular foUowiog the rule of St. Augustin. The foundation 
was richly endowed, and, after the suppression of religious houses, 
nearly the whole of its extensive possessions were granted to Sii 
Gerald, or Garrett, Moore, afterwards created Baron Moore of 
Mellefont, and Viscount Drogheda, from whom they have partly 
descended to the present Marquess of Drogheda. Considerable 
remains of the abbey-church, or cathedral, still exist, including 
a tower through which is worked a gate of entrance. 

A Priory, dedicated to the Virgin Mary, was founded here 
for regular canons, by the family of O'Kelly, before the arrival 
of the Anglo-Normans. The greater part of the lands, and 
other possessions, of this monastery were also granted, after the 

• '' It ig said in die ' Office of St. Kenan', wbicb is extant in MS. 
in the public library at Cambridge, that St. Kenan built a chorch of stone 

ID this place, and that from thence it took the name of Damleagh; Vaimh^ ,j^jfi^ 

in the old Irish, signifying a house, and Hag a stone." Ware's Bishops, '^■ 

p. 1S7 and note. On the authority of this passage in Ware, it is popularly IH^ 

■aid that the antient chnrch of Duleefc was the ftrst church in Ireland ^' 

knilt of stone. 

VOL. II. p 



i 



mo aUBTm AT TRBLAND. 

dinolutioQ, to Sir GeraM Hoore, at the nnniia] rent of £9: 11:7*. 
and on condition of " his maiataining an archer on the laid 
huids, for ever." Hiere wm, likewise, an hospital ia this town, 
concerning which few historical traces hare been discovered . 

Dnleek was constituted an episcopal see hy St. Kieoan, him- 
self sitting as the first bisbop ; which see was anited, in an early 
age, to the bisliopriclc of Meath. After the entry of the Anglo- 
Normans this manor became part of the estate of the family of 
Verdon, or de Verdon, who held here conrts leet and baron. 
From the msnoscript collections of Sir W. Betham weleam that the 
town of Dnleek had a Proeott, so lately as the reign of Edward 11. 

SoMBBTiLLE, the mansion of Sir Marcus Somcrville, Bart, 
a representative of the connty of Meath in the Imperial Parlia- 
ment, is finely aitnated on the hanks of the Nannay water. Hie 
house, a spacioas and very respectable stmctnre, occopies an 
elevated and commanding site, and is snrronnded hy an extensive 
and beautifnl demesne. The river Nannay here widens into th« 
resemblance of a lake, and the grounds, which abound with 
inequalities of surface favourable to the picturesque, are enriched 
by uioch venerable wood. 

ArncARME Castle, on the borders of the Nannay water, 
corocs under the description of a fortiAed house, but is of no 
great extent or hcanty. On one of the walls are the remains of 
a coat of arms, and the following initials and date : W, B. I. D. 
1590. This stractore was a residence of the De Bathe family, 
long respectably seated in the county of Meath. 

Plattbn, a seat two miles from Duleek, towards the north- 
east, occupies the site of a large and fine castle, erected by the 
family of D'Arcy, the first of which family that attained dia- 
tinctioD in Ireland was Sir John D'Arcy, several times chief 
governor in there^^nof Edwardll. and his successor ; from which 
Si>J<Ji»w«'edesoeBdedtheD'Arcie8 settled at Flatten. SirWil- 
liBnO'Arcy,vice-treuureroffreIaDdin)S93, and author of a work 



/ 



[leinstsr.] county oy hbatk. til 

termed " Tbe Decay of Ireland^ asd the causes of it/* was borii 
In f be castle of Pkttea^ and died here, at a very adyanced age> 
in tlie year 1540. 

GoaMANSToi^, a vMiage to the south-east of Daleek> on the 
road to Drogheda, and in the vicinity of the sea-coast, giires the 
title of vtscoont to the family of Preston, who have a large and 
baadsome seat at this place. The manor of Gormanston, ex- 
tending into the eonnties of Meath and Dublin, was first acquired 
by this family in the reign of £dward III. Sir Robert Presteiiy 
deputy to Richard, Duke of York, Lord Dqraty of Ireland, wins 
creatM Viscount Gbrdmnston in 147S. 

SsBTKE, also written Sirvrnff, and Sobss^, which imparts 
its name to a barony in this county, is now a place of little 6on» 
sideratioo, but was formerly the chief seat of the De Fdpo family. 
Adasa de Feipo, on whom Hugh de Lacy beaftowed large pos- 
sessions in this part of Meath, built a castle here, of which the 
mins still remain. The fafmily of Marward were palatinate barons 
of Skryne in the fifteenth century, and remained so until the 
time of Queen Elizabeth, in Whose rdgtt Jeuet, the daughter and 
h^ir of the l^t baron, carried this estate, by marriage, to William 
Nugent, Esq. An abbey of regular canons bad existed in this 
town from an early period, which Sank to decay in the twelfth 
century, or was merged in a friary of Augustinian Eremites, 
founded by the De Feipo family ; sotae ruinous traces of which are 
iftill to be seen. A new church huti bcfeii recently erected at this 
place, with the aid of ^500 given, and the same sum lent, by the 
Board of First Fruits. The country in this part of Meath abounds in 
natural charms, and is highly cultivated* 

TiRAOff, a^ut iliaeteen niiles from Ddblin, and five milea 
ilrom Dunshaglin, towards the totth v^est, is of greit antiquarian 
interest, from its connexion with important national solemnities 
in the early periods of Irish history. I'he Hill or Tabaobj or 
Tk4m oa^ firom Tesgh^mor, the great hoose^ or 7W^il-mor-f «yi, 

p9 



319 BBAUTISS OF IRBLANft. 

the great bouse of the * king^ is celebrated as the place of the 
triennial assembly of the states^ for many early ages> down to the 
middle of the sixth century. This periodical parliament^ or con- 
veution, was called the Fes of Teamor, and is said to have con- 
sisted of the Monarch,' the Kings of Leinster^ Munster^ Ulster, 
and Connanght 3 together with the nobility^ priests, historians, 
antiquaries^ and '^ men of learning, distinguished by their abiiitiea 
in all. arts and professions." We are told that affairs of state were 
here regulated } laws made or repealed ; and the national records 
exammed. It is added, by the writers who.state the above parti- 
culars, that an abstract of all the provincial records was, during 
the sittings of these assemblies, entered into the work called the 
Ptalter ofTaragh, or, as it is sometimes denominated, Senachas^ 
More, or great antiquity ; a performance which has not descended 
to posterity. 

Not only were assemblies of the states held on this celebrated 
hill, but it is said that the Kings of Ireland had here their prin- 
cipal palace, contiguous to wluch was an University, supported by 
their munificence. Very florid descriptions of the splendour of 
this royal palace, and of the state with which the monarchs h^ld 
thdr court, have been given by some writers. For minute par- 
tienlars we refer to the pages of Keating, OTlaherty, and 0*Hal* 
loran, or to jthe compendious view of those writings presented in the 
History of Ireland lately commenced by Mr. M'Dermot.* 

• » 

** The following extract from the last-named aaliier will coDvey tome 
idea of-tke mafoificence attributed to the monarchs of Ireland, in the 
third century of the Christian aera :-— ^< The splendour of this monarch*' 
(Cormoc) ** is highly celebrated in our annals. One hundred and fifty 
massy cups of gold and silyer decorated his sideboard, on festival days ; 
one hundred and fifty of the Clana M omi, or Connaught knights, attended 
on his person, and his palace was guarded by one thousand soldiers. He 
enlarged and decorated the palace of Tara, and kept an open table for 
fifteen hundred persons. The officers of the court were, a prince of the blood 
royal, as companion ; a chief judge, to consult as privy counielior ; a 
chief druid, to direct him in spiritual affairs ; a chief physician ; an anti- 
quarian s a poet lanreat $ a masieian, and three stewards to superintend the 
contrlbotions of the provinces, and the ceconamy pthh hpntehoid. He 



[leinbteh.] county of meats. 915 

Tlie real character of this palatial structure has excited some' 
discnssioD, and there certainly is reason to conclude that the build* 
ings.were fragile, temporary, and not composed of stone, as no traces 
of ruins are discernible on the hill, which is a lofty but gently-rising 
eminence, in the midst of a very extensive plain. Considerable 
remains of circular earth-works denote the former places of 
assembly, and probably of residence } but of the palace and the 
colleges, possibly protected by those intrenchments, no vestige 
exists, or is recorded ever to have been seen. Equally devoid of 
palatial ruins are, indeed, those hill-fortresses of the sister island, 
in which the Celtic Kings of Britain held their respective courts. 

After the English obtained supremacy in Ireland, the Hill of 
Taragh was used as the place for the general hosttngs, or musters 
of men under arms, which were held for the service of the state.* 

added three colleges to the University at Tara i a military and historic 
academy ; and a colleg^e for the study of the law. A poem of Doyegan, 
coDtainiog 183 verses, commencing with the words *' Tcamhair na Riogb, 
Rath Cormoc," i. e. Tara, seat of kings, and palace of Cormoc, record* 
all these domestic arrangements, and the splendid profusion of the palace 
of Tara." Hist, of Ireland by M*Dermot, vol. I. pp. 3B\'2» 

* The various rules and regulations respecting Hosting, may be seea 
in the work termed ** A Breviate of the getting of Ireland, and of tho 
Decaie of the same, written by Patrick Finglass, first chief baron, and 
afterwards chief justice, of Ireland, in the reign of Henrff VIII.'*' Many 
of these regulations are also printed in ** Hibernica," or some pieces re- 
lating to Ireland, e^ted by Walter Harris Esq. We present some ex- 
cerpts, calculated to eibibit the extent and character of these military 
musters. 

" All lordes and gentilmen and widows of the foure shires shall send 
an able man, well appointed for warr, for everie twenty pounds that he 
may dispend yerely, to goe wythe the deputy to an hosting, with jacks and 
skulls, bowes and arrowes i and whoe cannot dispend twenty pounds, Xo^ 
gither to be cessed after that rate. 

*' liemy that no Englishman dwellinge within Maghregron doe take no 
spear with him to the field, except heliath a bowe or pavice, (pa vice is a 
piece of defensive armour worn by tbe ancients, being the largest sort of 
bucklers, whose side bent inwards, and formed a light portable teatudo f 
in which sense it differedfrom a target) upon paine of forfeiting six shillings 
and eight pence, and loosing of his spear totiet quotiet. 



S14 BBAUTISt or IllSUUfP. 

The most rceent faUtorical event connected with ihia hiil^ rektec 
to die year 1798. On the evening of the twentj-sixth of May, 
in that year, a large body of rebels, that had assembled here, wan 
routed, with thelossof not less than 350 men, by a partyof the royal 
forces, in unison with Lord Pingali's troop of yeoman cavalry, 
and some other bands of yeomanry. 

In the vicinity of the hill of Taragh were several religiooe 
CiNindations, indicative of the former celebrity of the place, and 
the attractions it at once held forth to the pious, the affloeat, and 
the powerful. 

At LisM ULLKN, abont two miles to the north of Taragh, a 
priory was founded, in the year 1240, by Alicia, sister to Richard 
de la Comer, bishop of Meath. The nuns of this house followed 
the rule of St. Augastin. Maria Cusack was the last prioress, 
and surrendered the priory and its possessions in the thirty-first 
of Henry VIII. The buildings, and part of the estates, were 
granted by Edward VI, to Thomas Cusack. 

LismuUen has been, for some time, the seat of a branch of 
the noble family of Dillon, and constitutes, in ecclesiastical 
arrangement, a part of the union of Skryne. John Dillon, of 
Lismullen Esq. who had represented in parliament the borough 
of Ratpath, in this county, received from his Imperial Majesty^ 
Joseph II. in the year 1782, the dignity of a free baroo of tho 
sacred Roman ^appire, with Uniitations to his issue, malei and 
female. This honour was conferred in consequeuce of the active 
part taken by Mr. Dillon, in the Irish House of Commons, in 
the discussion of several measures adopted by the legislature 
for the relief of the Roman Catholics of Ireland ; and he waa 
permitted to accept of this diptiiiction by his late Majeatyj 
George III. 

** When tbe hotUaf ii concladatf a Gaptaaa b to be eUctady who !• to 
be their baroa at that hottingy if tahea pritoaer, to be raniomed, Tho 
rantome to bo cosiod on every twenty poandt of land* 

" No yeoman was to ride in the field. Bowmen were alio to go oo 
foot, except the great capUin." Hiberatea, d(c. Edit* 1747. pp* 44-4ev 



ii* 



[LBllftTBR.] COUNTY OF JfSATJI. f 11 

Oi>o«ii> two asUei to the aoath of T«ragh> it ih» riU of t 
Nanpery> founded in hoaoor of St.Brigid> by the fkmily •f 
Bamewall, for regular caoonessos of the order of St. Aaguitiii. 
Several oeUi of nnns^ in the county of Meath, were annexed to 
thia hon»e. Margaret iUlke^ the last abbes^j surrendered tba 
nunnery and iU appurtenances in the thirty-first of Henry VIII. 

At Bo0«e and TVevet, near Taraghj w^re also religions in- 
atitutions, of which little is now known. 

KiLLREN Castlb^ the noble mansion of the Earl of FingalU 
is situated near the small town of DumkagUm, This cantle was 
originally built by De Lacy^ about the year 1180^ andwast^ for 
many ages« tjbe seat of the Cosack famiiy> from whom it passed 
to that of Plonkett^ by the marriage of Joan^ daughter and aole 
h^ir to 6ir Lmcas Cnsack Knt, Lord of Killeen, Dunsany> and 
Gwd8ton> with Sir Christopher Plunkettj who^ in 1439> was 
deputy to Sir Thomas Stanley, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland* In 
this family* who were through nine descents styled Barons of 
KiUaen, the estate has siace remained, and has, with few io*- 
terrnptions, constituted their priucipal residence. Lucas, the 
tenth lord baron of KUleen, termed Lucas More (the gneat) waa 
created Earl of Fiagall by King James I, in 1628. Arthur James 
Plnnkett, the present nobleman, is eighth Earl of Fingall and 
seventeenth lard of KiUeen. The castle of Killeen^ in its 
esisting state, has few visible tracer of high antiquity, bat the 
a»tient>or '^ gothic,"« atyle of ardiitectoral anangemeat^ has bea» 
aedulonsly, and with a very pleasing effect, cultivated in t^ 
extensive alterations made under the direction of the present Earl. 
Large and tasteful additions, comprising several fine apartments, 
have been recently carried into execution, after the designs of 
the able architect Mr. Francis Johnston. His lordship has also 
improved the demesne by plantations to a great extent, which 
are in a thriving condition. 

At a short distance from the castle is a venerable and inter- 
esting church, built under the auspices of Sir Christopher Plnnkett, 
in the early part of the reign of the fourth Edward. In this church 



dl6 BBAUTIBS OF IREIiAND. 

are namerous monuments of the Plnnkett family, among wbicb 
IS that of the foonder, who died in 1445, and Joan Gnsack, his 
wife, who died in 1441 . Sir Christopher and his lady founded^ 
in the church of their erection, a chantry of four priests, to pray 
for their sonls. ' There was also founded, in the same structure, 
a Gtttl^, or Fraternity, consisting of brethren and sisters, termed 
the Guild of i^ Blessed Firgin Maty of Killeen.— It is belieTed 
that an abbey was founded at this place, by St. Endens, in the 
sixth century ; and also a Nunnery, in which was interred St. 
Fanchea, sister of the founder. 

At the distance of one mile from Killeen is Dunsany Ca8Tlb> 
the seat of Edi^ard-Wadding Plunket, Lord Dunsany. The 
estate of Dunsany was long vested in the Cusack famiiy, and 
passed, with that of Killeen, to the family of Plunket, or Plankett> 
on the marriage of Joan, daughter and heir of Sir Lucas Cusack^ 
with Shr Christopher Plnnkett, as before mentioned. The barony 
and lands of Dunsany descended to Sir Christopher, second son 
of the above named Sir Christopher Plunkett, and have ever since 
remained with hb posterity. The present nobleman is the four^ 
teenth baron. The castle of Dunsany was originally erected in 
the twelfth century, and probably by Adam de Feipo, but has 
been re-edified in a style allnsive to the '' Gothic,** but adapted 
to modem taste and habits. The park is well suiteu to the man* 
sion, in extent and beauty, and contains an anttent church, in 
which are interred many of the former barons, and various mem- 
bers of their family. On this demesne is also a lofty rath; 
or Dun,' from which the estate evidently derives the first part of 
its appellation. 

/ 

END or THE COUNTY OF MEATB. 



1^ 



Ll£INSTBR.] COVKTT of WX8TMBATH. 817 



WESTMEATH. 

This inland county is bonnded throngfaont the whole of its 
eastern limits by Meatbj sometimes termed Eastmeathj with 
which district it was united until the reign of Henry VIII.* On 
the south it meets the King's. County. On the west it is separated 
from Roscommon and the province of.Connaught by the river 
Shannon. On the north*west lies the small county of Longford -, 
and its extreme northern part approaches the county of Cayan, 
Westmeath> according to Dr. Beaufort, is divided into the twelve 
bannues of C/onianan ; MojfCMtkel; Fartullagh ; Farbill} Moy^^ 
athel and . Megherodernon } Delvm ; HoLfFowtei Moygoi$h$ 
Carberry ; Ratheonrath ; KilJketmp^wett, and the territory, as it 
16 called, of Brawny. But this statement differs widely in point 
of orthography from that presented in the *' Account of attempts 
made to ascertain, the population of Ireland;*' a circumstance 
whkh we are induced to notice, as it exhibits the uncertainty 
which, in many respects, inevitably attends cUorographical^ or 
other local investigations in this country. The twelve baron^ 
are subdivided into 62 parishes; 59 of which are in the diocese of 
Meath, and the remainder in the bishopric of Ardagh. 

This county is not of a mountainous character, but is finely 
unequal in many parts, and is rendered greatly attractive by 
inland sheets of water and rich sprinklings of wood. The numerons 
latkn^, indeed, abound in varieties of the picturesque, which may 
be examined without effort or toil, and render this county parti- 
cularly agreeable to the traveller. The wood, with the exception 
of ornamental plantations^ is chiefly confined to the steep uplands^ 
and is often sprea4 in deep shade over the bosom of hills which 
rise on the margin of the lakes. The soil is in general good, 

* In our general remarks on the district kt present termed Meath, or 
East Meath, we present some historical particulars, which eq[iia]ly apply 
to the tract now under consideration. 



SIS •lA^VTUH OF |g9l«4Mp. 

with a ttDbstratam of lime-stone ; and the rich verdure fattens 
great nnmbers of excellent cattle and sheep. In different parts 
of the county are found copper^ lead, coal, and yellow and do?e* 
coloured marbles. But these do not occur in a profitable 
abundance, and the great dependance of the inhabitants is on 
agriculture and pasturage. A considerable quantity of bog, both 
of the rtd and black kind, is scattered o?er every part of thm 
county. 

No part of Ireland, or perhaps of any other country, is better 
watered than this district. Independent of its loughs, or lakes, 
and of the noble river Shannon, which has been already noticed 
as forming its western boundary, it is skirted, or intersected, by 
the /nny, the Deie^ the Brosna, and several minor Btreain8.<*<- 
llie principal lakes are named Lough Iron ; Lough Dormarsgk; 
Lough HoU i Lough Snnel ; and Lough Lens ; to which may be 
added a fine expanse of water formed by the Shannon in the 
north-western part of the county, dotted with iskads lovely in 
mantles of wood, and termed Lough Ree. The scenery of these 
lakes is, in general, marked by a soothing air of trasquillity, 
rather than by the majestic graces which dignify the banks of 
some inland waters ; and numerous are the spots which miglit 
Inspire a wish similar to that of Colonel Reynolds, as noticed by 
fiir Henry Piers, in his description of Westmeath, inserted in tke 
Collectanea. That officer, whilst marching across the conntry, 
in the unhappy wars of the seventeenth century, halted on the 
banks of Lough Derivaragfa, and '* was so taken with the amenity of 
the prospect, and the beauty of the landscape, and ihe most ravish- 
ing echoes that redoubled to him the noise of his trumpets, that 
he exclaimed he never came to the like place, and is said to have 
wished he could, even then, with leisure and safety, sit down 
and take up his rest here." 

For the following historical particulars, relating to the sntient 
fomilies of this county, we are indebted to the Chev. De Montmo- 
rency; and for much important information concerning the 
hiatory of estates, and their occspants, in the same district, this 
work is also under obligations to the MSS. of that gentleman .-— 



^ 
^ 



[lsinitir.] covvty 9W wi0arMK4T& 819 

W«ctaMtli afforded 4»9 9f the ^furliest mUleitevts t» Ihe Ad^^* 
NoraiMs> in the twelfth century^ end coMtitated a portion of tkt 
piJutinate of Hogh de iMCf, to whom n patent of proprietonUp 
wae granted by King Heary II. The O'MelaghUns went anUent 
a«i¥/ifeign9 of the Ungdoaa pf Meath, wbich territory oonpriaed 
the daatricts terined^ in modern times. East and West Meatk, 
witk parti of the adjacent King's County and Coanty of DabUn. 
Among other antient Irish proprietors may be aamed the Mae 
Creoghegans^ dynasts of Moyoadkell; the 0*Moelbrenana« or&ren* 
niinfi O'Coffysj O'Mnlladys; OMaionesi ODalysi OHiggins} 
Magawleys^ ofCoIryj Magans, of Donigan; O'Sbannagb, or Fox i 
O'Finikin, of Delvb ; and O'Coithaii. Many of the descendanur* 
of these oldpri^rietors enjoyed considerable estates in the conaCy, 
before the great esras of forfeitore in the setenteenth centor^ and 
some traces of them may still be disooyened* 

The Anglo-Norman aettlere imifonnly derivtad nnder Hngb de 
Lacy» I^ord and £arl of Maalb* who partitioned hia eonqnered 
proyince amongst his relations and followers, many of whoee de- 
scendants remain in high consideration at the present time. Of 
these may be noticed, as the principal, the Petits ; the Toitea, or 
Ab Taitep ; tba Hosaeya, or De Hose (a family of Britanny); the 
D'Altons; De la Marsj Dillont $ De Nngentsi Hopes f and 
Wares j^the families of De Nangle, or D'Angelo *, De Ledewich}* 
De Oeneyille 5 Dardis ; Gaynor j and De Conatantia. 

In ages snbseqnent to the first Anglo-Norman setdemetit, baft 
preyioDs to the Reformation, the following were the chief families 
who fixed themselves in this county. The D'Arcys ; Jones^ or Fits* 
Johns; Tyrrells* Fitzgeralds; the Owens 3 Shanes 5 and Piers, 

Subsequent to the Reformation, the Lambert family obtained 
grants of church land? ; and, sinca the year 1641, grants were 
made of forfeited estates to the families of Pakanbami Wood; 
Cooke; Stoyte; Reynell; Winter; Lerioge; Wilson; Judge; 
Rochford; Handcock; Bonynge; Gay; Handy; Ogle; Middle- 
ton ; Swift ; Bnrtle ; and St. George. 

The latest settlers in this connty are the families of Smith ; 
Featherstoo; Chapman; Cliboroe; Arabia; Browne; O'Reilly 



>■ 



9S0 lUUTIH OF nxUND. 

(of BdyDlongh); Longworth; Pardon; N^le (of Jun«sb)W&)f 
De Blaqniere ; and North. Many othf r families, constitotiitg m 
reapectable class of gentry, have acqaired estates in this county 
by porchaie, or by that truly honoarablc tnedinm the exo'dae of 
iodaetrioDs parsuits, in the course of the last century, Among 
recent settlers, the femily of Nagle alone claim from an antieot 
proprietor } they ba?ing inherited, in the female line, from Mac 
Oeoghegan, and removed hither from Cork, where the ancestors 
of Sir Richard Nagle have been long seated. 

There are no tofma in this county, of great extent or commercial 
importance ;* but the most fertile districts are very thickly spread 
with the seats of nobility and gentry. Mr. Wakefield notieest 
anoog the principal landholders, the Duke of Bnckingharo ; the 
Earlof Lon^ord; Sir Richard Levingej Sir Thomas Chapman; 
nnd the families of PoUard, Rochford, and Daese. This list might 
be easily extended ; bat it is snfficient for our purpose to obierre 
that there are no rery large estates in this county, whilst there 
prevails a very estimable mediocrity of property, constitutii^ ■ 
numerous class of resident gentry. 

It would a[^)ear that the peasantry of this district are scarcely 
in BDch abject circumstances as those of the adjoining coonty ot 
Meatfa, although the cabins are too frequently of a wretched 
deacription ; tbe walls composed of mud, the smoke escaping 
through a bole in the roof, and the cold earth constitntiog tbe 
Aoor.f The women are part icniarly hardy and laborioos. "nidr 

■ Tbs town of ATSLoiia i« partly in Weitmealh and partly in Rm- 
cammoa. In fbii work it ia Doticed ander tbe head of (be Uller coanty. 

t Tbe iaierior of ■ cabiQ in Weitmealh ii thug charade riitically de- 

scrlbed by a recent writer : "a hsy-band, lo neatly twilled •■ to be aliDMt 

«qaal tir a tow rope, i« iireicbed acrou the cabin, nearly over the flra 

place, for hanging tbe linan to dry I but as the place It (eiurally involved 

ia thick HDoke, It may be readily cnnceived that it will acquire little 

tnt in coloar. A cat and two or three dogi, are commoDly lyinf 

Ire. An ima pot, two or three (tools of the rudeif workman- 

I deal table, a dreuer with a few platei, and dairy veiielB, are 

iiiUand fmniltire of tbe Ikmily. Their itock of prodaion con- 

tck of meal, which ia placed in a ronier. Many of the tenanta 



Qlkimitir.] coontv of waaTUiUTS. 991 

drcM (a jadcet mad petticoat) is of linsey, manufactured by them- 
advea ; and nearly all tbe peastntry abatain from tlie nge of ahoea 
and Btockiogs, as mach front habit aa thronglk poverty. Tlielong 
Inutj/ is niDcb in nae amongst the men. 

This county affords to the antiqQary many earthworks, both of 
native and Danish constructioiij together with vestiges of ecdesi- 
aatical and castellated architecture. . Westmcath gives the title of 
Marquess and Earl to tbe family of Nugent. 

We are sorry to observe that this district was reprehensibly 
deficient, in maldog replies to inquiries under the act for ascer- 
taining the population, in l£ri9. Admissible returns were then 
made by no more than three baronies; and two of those retnrns 
were considered to be not altogether nnobjectionable . Aocording 
to the returns obtained in the year 1831, thenomber of Aoawc in 
the connty of Westmeath was 38,478, and the number of mkaii- 
tmU 138,043. 

Mdllinoab, or Mounoah, 

The assize town of this county, consists of one main street, 
idmre a mile in length, with many narrow streets and lanes, 
branching from the great line of thorooghfore. The honses are of 
stone, covered with slate, and the population appears, very 
generally, to enjoy a considerable degree of comfort, the natural 
conseqaence of a perseverance in induBtriond habits. The wool 
and horse fairs rank among the most considerable in Ireland. 
Independent of its direct commerdsl pursuits, tbe town derives 
important benefit from many respectable private families, who 
have here a permanent residence. 

Allemand, though not often correct in his etymological deri- 
vations, appears to deduce, with propriety, the name of this place 
from St. Moling. In regard to the latter sylbble of the name by 
which the town has been long disUngoished, it is observed, by the 
Chevalier De Montmorency, that the true orthography is probably 
^'orj i.e. the west: snch a term of designation being applied to 

bus are bound by their lease* to carry their aaia to their lindjard'i mill." 
yr»liieat>ld, V. S. p. IS!. 



i'Mnga.iti ttrit Uwn from St. MtAin'o, ntnated to the CMltfird, 
in the eoaoty of Csrlow. — If W« «dnrit the probable owrcCtMM 
•f tbe above etynology, wa nay ufdy coDclade thst a moDasterj 
milted here, coeval with tW abbey in Cartow (fMnrfed Ib A« 
Mreath cenCary) attfaoogh >Dch a rdi^ioas inatitation is net noticed 
in Ifae Moaaatieoa Hibaraioam. 

A Priory of CaneiiB regalar, of tlie wAex of St. Aognstln, 
termed the " House of God, of Miillingar," was fooaded at Mb 
plaee by Hdph le Petit, bishop of Meatb, A. D. 193?; *liicb 
hovae, with its pesteBsionB, was granted b3r Qneen Elizabetb to 
the Taite family. 

A Dominican Priary, whioh becanieone of the moat celebrated 
hMbea of that order in all Ireland, was foanded by the family of 
Nugent, in thti year 1937. General chapters of the order woe, 
at four different times, held in (bis convent. At the suppreasioa, 
the Friary and its estates were granted to Walter Hope, Esq.* 

The families of Tnite and Hope having forfeited their possea- 
sions in 1S41, a grant of the above two hoases, with their appor- 
tMances, and divers castJes, meadmra, gardeas, and other property 
in and aboat Um town of MoUivgar, was made by the cr^wa, in 
IStfl, to SirArtharForbes, firstEarlof Granard. This gradt watf 
confirmed by the acts of settlement; and the town rf Mallingar, 
iritk contigaons places, was, in 1674, constitnted a maaot', with 
■Miry aanexed privil^s. 

* The DamiDlCBQ fiimn irero nffered to occnpj tketr caanat, froa< 

Iha dale of geaeraliappreiuDO antil tbe year l690,wben,on (fas arrival of 

King Willlani'i annj, commaDded by General Doajlai, the frian qoitled 

tbeir itBtiOD, aad, to dm the wordi of Mr. Slory, " made a ptlsrimafe ialn 

CoDDiughl," Whea thii place wa* vUited by Hr. Archdall, there remaiaed 

only part of the bell lower, aod uime otber o aim portaot mint. Tbe pre- 

lent Earl of OraiMrd, a nobleaao highly valued for hia liberal fceliagiaaf 

tenant prioclple*, cnmled ■ l«ua of the abbey rite to Aa Rev. Lawkvaev 

kid, a friar of Ihs DoDiioicui order. The chnrch ha> been rebailt 

izpenw of Dr. Fitigerald, and Appropriated by bin, as parish 

o the nee of U« pariihianen. Id the immediate vicinity of the 

le hai alfo erected neat coaveataal bnlldlafi, for tba reiidence mt 

and the accomBodation of a few eccletlattici, protn^ag (be ralM 

omlnick. 



[LBINtTBX.] COUNTY OP WBSTIIKATH. 993 

In regard to historicsi erenU, Unconnected with eceloBiattical 
fomidations, it may be observed that, in the year 13S9> Mac 
Geoghegan, dynast of Kynaliagh> or Moycashdl, defeated near 
thtt town an Englieli force^ nnder Lord Thomas le BotiUer, who 
fell in the action. In the last internal war of the seventeentb 
oentnry, Mnllingar was a principal rendesrona of thearmy of King 
William . General de Ginkle fortified And made this place tenable. 
Colonel Brewer being named governor of thie town. Upon the 
condnsion of peace, in Norember, 1691> the fortifications were 
demolished. 

The antieot fomily of De Petite or Le Petit, formerly bore tiio 
thle of Baron of Mnllingar, in the palatinate of Meath. Thia 
fomily continued in great repntation Antil the tronbles of the 
seventeenth century; — a time so generally snbvenive of the dig- 
nity of antieot names in Ireland. Connt Mainhard de Sdwmberg, 
or De Schonberg, was created by King WiUiam III. Dnke of 
Leinster and Baroa of Mnllingar.*^ 

* We mast not conclude our notice of this town, without offering some 
remarks on the old and well-known saying, ** When the King comes to 
MulUngar ;*' — a circnmstance believed, according to the meaning of iMw 
saying, to be so very improbable, that any bvoa may le nfoly pramisedf 
the perfonnance of which depends on the actual •cearreaca of a royal Tiiit. 
By degrees, this modeof expressing a thing. Improbable beyond all rational 
calculation, has grown into very general use in the town and nelghburhood ; 
and has even been adopted, in some instances, as a legal method of stating a 
contingency. Thus, several leases of lands and houses are granted in suppo* 
ted actual perpetuity, i. e until the king ehall come to MuUingar. Persons 
holding under this whimsical tenure were naturally much alarmed on the visit 
made to Ireland by King George IV.— The origin of the saying is not 
decidedly known, and we leave it for the reader to determine which of the 
two following traditions is the more worthy of acceptance. — By some 
persons it b said that, previous to the battle at the Boyne, the Catholic 
inhabitants of Mullingar boasted that, if James succeeded, he would, on 
arriving at this town, withdraw the corporation franchises from the protest- 
anu, and vest the same in catholic freemen. When William III. pre- 
vailed, the protestants retaliated on their disappointed neighbonrs, and 
tauntingly rebuked any extravagant expectation, by nmarklng that pro- 
bably such an anticipated event might take place—*' when the king should 
come to MuUingar I**— Other oral and traditionary historians assert that % 



9^ BBAUTIBS OF IRELAND. 

On the 18th of Angost^ 1788, a very briUiant meteor Was 
yiaible in the neighboarhood of this town. It appeared abont 
half-past nine in the evening, and was visible dnring ten or fifteen 
seconds. Mr. Edgeworth, who witnessed this singular natural 
phenomenon, describes it to have been abont one third of the 
moon's diamrter^ and observes that it moved from the north, with 
an equable velocity, at an elevation of abont ten or twelve degrees, 
in a line parallel to the horizon. It exhibited the most yvnd 
coloors 5 the foremost part being of the brightest bine, followed 
by different shades of red. Twice, during its flight, it was 
edipsed, or extinguished ; not gradually, but at once, immerging 
and emerging with undiminished lustre. For further particulars 
the reader is referred to the 74th volume of the Transactions of 
the Royal Society. 

A second natural phenomenon likewise requires notice in this 
place. 

In 1779, during a peal of thunder, a stone descended from the 
atmosphere into a meadow at Petiitswood, near Mullingar. At 
the instant of its fall the village became enveloped with sulphureous 
fames, which continued for about six minutes. This aerolite was 
of a flat, cake-like figure, and weighed rather more than fonr 
ounces and a half. It was warm when it fell, was covered with a 
whitish-brown coat, and in other respects, as far as can be judged 
from the only description of it extant, resembled the stones which 
have so often fallen from the atmosphere, both in ancient and in 

person having a disputed accompt to settle with one of the aDceeton of 
Lord Westmeath, and a claim on his estate, which the latter could not be 
induced to settle amicably, the complainant appealed to the king (but to 
what king is not told) who answered that he should shortly visit Ireland, 
and that, on his arrival at Mullingar, he would compel the refractory lord 
to do justice to the plaintiff. This declaration of the sovereign being made 
public, his arrival was anxiously expected. But much time elapsing 
without his migesty's appearance, the man renewed his applications to 
the baron, who, as often as a settlement was demanded, uniformly replied, 
" Yes, my friend! you shall have satisfaction — JVhen the king shall come 
to Mullingar.*** This reiterated answer, say our informants, soon grew 
into a proverb. 



1 



[LKlSrSTKR.] COUNTY OF WSSTkSATH. 985 

Modern tiines. An acoount of this cnrioos drcnmstance is pre- 
MBvod la Ibo Gant« Mag. for S^. 1796. 

The ecencry in the Deighboorfaood of Mollingar acquires a high 
degree of beauty from the well- wooded lakes- of this district $ and 
we hate pleasure in observing that a ooonfry so attradife is 
fiitther eariebed by mineroiis handsome seals. 

CooKSBOBovoH, the fine mansion of the G>oke.fsiB]ly» it 
situated near the village of Clogban. The house is approached 
ibroQgfa a long avenae of venerable trees^ and the demesne has 
hoBB greally improved, and abnndaatly planted, by the present 
«wner. Among some pictures which ornament thb seat is a 
curious portrait of Oliver Cromwell, suj^Kwed to be or^^al. 

KvooxDBiN Cautlx, the raagnifioent seat of Sir Richard 
Levinge, Bart, has been greatly improved by the present pro- 
prietor. The demesne is very extensively planted, and partakes 
.of some beaatifhl lake scenery. 

Bai*tnagall, until a recent period termed CmtU'tegnell, was 
ftrmerly the property of the Reynell family, of whom it was pur* 
iebaaed by the present proprietor, James Gibbons, Esq. By this 
gentleman a splendid mansion has been erected, after the designa 
«f Mr. Franeis Johnston, at the expense, as we bdUeve, of more 
ihan SO/KX)/. The demesne constitutes one of the finest, and 
moat extensively planted estates, in this county. 

Clonlost is an antient seat of the family of Nugent< The 

* — _ 

present owner, James Nugent, Esq. colonel of the Westmeath- 
- militia, derives his descent from Andrew Nugent, of Donouer 
^smd Frewgin, Esq. fourth son of James, third Baron of Ddvin, 
-ancestor of the Marquess of Westmeath. 

KiLLVCAN is a neat village, distant from Mullingar nearly six 

* miles, towards the east. According to Archdallan abbey was 

founded here by St. Luican, at a very early period. The site of 

VOL. If. o 



n6 BEAUTISt OF IRILAND*. 

that religioDB boose is now occopied by the parish duiMh^ a re* 
spectable modern buiiding^ surmounted by a handsome spisB* 
The glebe boose, situated near the church, is a neat building, 
agreeably adorned with shrubberies and plantations. Is ibis 
church is the sepulchral vault of the Pakenham femily.*— The ina 
of this village has obteined ceunderable notoriety, as the mdec- 
vous of the KUiucan club, one of the oldest hunting associations 
in Ireland, 

JoaiSTOWN, near Killncan, is the seat of Peter Purdonj Esq. 
and several other members of this respectable family possess man* 
sions in the neighbourhood. On the well-planted demesne 
attached to this house is the kUl of KnochsUban (Fairy^ioeen- 
hill) a celebrated landmark, from the summit of which is obtained 
an extensive and luxuriant prospect over a varied tract of country. 

Rbynxlla, the superb residence of Richard Molesworth 
Reynell, Esq. is situated on a fine demesne, adorned with a iake> 
and extensive plantations. The family of Reynell first settled in 
this county iii the latter part of the seventeenth century, under 
the auspices of Sir Richard Reynell, chief justice of the courts 
king's bench. The eldest braneh of tiie family, now settled isi 
North America, enjoys the title of baronet, conferred in 1^8. 
We must not omit to notice that the father of the present possessor 
of Reynella, had the merit of introducing into this county many 
improvements in agricultural pursuits. 

Dasdistown, the seat of Theobald Featherstonhaugh, Esq. 
formerly belonged to a branch (now extinct) of the Nngent family. 
Cothbert Featherstonhaugh, Esq. of the county of Durham, ancestor 
of the present proprietor of this demesne; intermarried with the 
Magans of Emoe, in the reign of William and Mary ; and pur- 

* For an account of tboold chttrch of J^Ulucan, wlikh was a fcttfidiiii^ 
of considerable antiquity, and the Ur|;est parochial dHirch io this coaof j, 
tee Collect, Hib, vol. 1. pp. 60-6U 



(^LSINSTER.J COUNTY OJ WSSTMEATH. ^27 

chasing estates in thb eonnty^ became progenitor of a very respec- 
table line of his antient family^ ever since seated in Westmeath. 

Bracklyn Castlb, one of the finest seats in this county^ is 
the property of Thomas- James Featherston^ Esq. This noble resi- 
dence and demesne are entirely indebted for their improvements ' 
and attractions^ to the family at present possessing the estate. ' 
Bracklyn Castle was originally the seat of a branch of the Nugent 
family, styled of Moyrath,^ which sprung from William, first 
baron o( Delvin, by William Oge, second son of that baron. 
From the Nugents this estate passed^ by sale, to the family of 
Pakenham, by whom it was again sold to the present proprietors. 
Contiguous to the above named seat is Rockview, a handsome 
residence lately erected by James Featherston, Esq. father of Mr. 
Featherston, of Bracklyn Castle, and eldest son and heir of Thomas i % 

Featberstonhaugh, Esq. 

• 

Castijktown Pelvin, although nominally the chief town in 
the barony of Delvin, is of small extent and importance. The 
castle, which assists in forming the name of this place, was 
erected in 1181, by Sir Hugh de Lacy, Lord of Meath. — Here 
is Clonan, or Clontn, the fine seat of the Marquess of West- 
meath, chief of the noble family of Nugent, or de Nugent, antient 
lords of Delvin. This family is lineally descended from Gilbert 
de Nugent, who came over to Ireland in the train of Sir Hugh 
de Lacy, in the year 1172. On the latter knightly personage 
obtmning from king Henry II. a gift of the entire lordship, or 
kingdom, of Meath, the patrimony of many Irish septs, he 
granted to de Nugent and his kindred th^ barony of Delvin, the 
same to be held of him by certain baronial services. The present 
nobleman, George Thomas John Nugent, seventeenth baron of 
Delvin, eighth Earl and first Marquess of Westmeath, was born 
on the 17th of July, 1785; and married, in 1812, Lady Emily 
Cecil, second daughter of James, Marquess of Salisbury, K. G. 

* See article Moyrath, County of Mcatk, - 



9^ BSAUTIES OF IBELAND. 

Baltn LOUGH, a well- wooded seat in this netghboorliDod, hu 
been Tested, throogh foar genentione, in the fiunily of Roily, 
or 0*ReiUy. Hogh O'Reilly, of Balynlongh, Esq- waa created a 
baronet in 1795 ; bat, on sooceeding to the maternal portion of 
the estates of the Nngents of Dysert and Tollaghan, Sir Hogh 
relinquished the name of O'Reilly^ and assumed, by royal licence, 
that of Nugent. He married Catharine-Mary- Anne, sole daughter 
and heir of Charles Mathew, of Annefield, county of Tipperary, 
Esq. by Anne, eldest daughter and co-heir of James Morres, of 
Rosetown and Two-mile-Borris Castle, county of Upperary, 
Esq. youngest son of Sir John Morres, of Knocha^ Castle, in the 
same county, Bart. Sir Hugh deceasing lately, was succeeded 
in his title and estates by his eldest son. Sir James Nugent, Bart, 
the present proprietor of Balynlough. 

St. Luct, near Balynlough, is the spacious seat of Sir Thomas 
Chapman^ Bart, late lieutenant- colonel of the sixth regiment of 
dragoon guards 3 which regiment he commanded at the erentfbl 
time that the French expedition, nnder Humbert, effected a landing 
in the west of Ireland. Thomas Chapman, of St. Lucy, Esq. 
the first baronet of this fsmily, recdyed his title in 1783. The 
castle and demesne have recently experienced consideraUe im- 
proTements. 



On the Athboy road, in the vidnity of Castletown Delyin, is 
MiTCHBLLSTowN, the plcasiug demesne of Robert Sterne Tighe, 
Esq. 3 and in the same neighbourhood is South-hill, the seat of 
Robert Tighe, Esq. 

At Dbumcbeb, formerly existed a monastic institadon, of 
which we believe no trace has been discovered relating to a date 
less remote than the ninth century* Here is, now, a neat parish 
church. This place is ornamented with the handsome residence 
and demesne of Ralph Smyth, Esq. late M. P. for the county of 
Westmeath. 

FoBB, or FowBB, is a district forming two half baronies ; one 



[lsinitbb.] county or wxstmbath. 899 

in this coonty, the other in Meath. In the former is situated the 
village of Fors^* which, previous to the Union, was deemed a 
borough town, and sent two members to parliament. The chief 
celebrity of this place has proceeded from its monastic foundation ; 
and nearly all that is interesting, in the view of the topographer, 
concerning the town of Fore, is involved in an examination of the 
annals of that distinguished religions house. 

The Priofy of Fore ws founded, for regular canons, by St. 
Fechin, in the year 630. The founder died A. D. 666, after 
having presided (as we are told in the annals of the four masters) 
over a community of three thousaod monks ! His festival is still 
observed, with great devotion, on the 20th of January. Giraldua 
Cambrensis informs us that no female was suffered to enter this 
abbey, or its contiguous mill. 

The priory frequently suffered by fire, and by the ravages of 
savage tribes and freebooters. Donat O'Cearbhuill (0*Carroll) 
of Oirgeal, plundered the town of Fore, in 1149. In the year 
1153, Teig, son of Dermoid 0*Brien, and Turloch 0*Conor, 
marched an army to Ath-Maine (Mayne) in this district, and 
met, at Foer-droma, the united forces of Murtogh Mac Laoghlin 
O'Neill, king of Tyrone -, Donogh O'Carroll, of Uriel ; Tnrlogh, 
son of Dermoid O'Brien ; and the strength of Tyrconnell, Breifne 
and Ulster. A desperate engagement ensued, which proved 
disastrous to the former power : Turlogh 0*Brien, in whose quarrel 
the allies combated, remaining master of the field. The unfortunate 
Teig was made prisoner, and his eyes were put out by his own 
brother ! — In this battle, which has obtained considerable noto- 
riety in Irish annals, there fell several chieftains, destined, how- 
ever, to " live in song.** 

The buildings of Fore abbey were consumed by (ire in 1 169 ; 
and the house was refounded in 1209, by Walter de Lacy } who, 
notwithstanding the several grants made by his father to Anglo- 
Norman followers, still exercised supreme jurisdiction within the 
palatinate of Meath. The re- foundation was made, under the invo- 

* The word Fore^ orFowre, it derived from the Irish For, enlighteniog, 
or UlamiiMitloD ; and does not tignlfyy at Sir Henry Piert aad tome otfa^r 
writers attert, " the town of boolu.*'— Montmorency MSB. 



230 BBAUTIES OF IRELAND. 

catioA of St, Taurin and St. Fechin^ for monks of the order of fit, 
Benedict, brought from the abbey of St. Taarin, at Everenx in 
Normandy ; to which abbey the priory of Fore now became a cell.* 

In the year 1436, a tax was laid, by order of Henry VI. on 
all things brought to market in this town, or in the towns of 
Mnllingar and Maltifernam ; and,"* likewise, on all goods going 
oat of the said towns ; for the purpose of raising a sum of money, 
sufficient to defray the expense of paving the town of Pore, and 
of constructing a ditch, or stone-wall, for the security of ther 
English inhabitants against their Irish enemies. 

In the year 1448, William Crosse, the king*^8 farmer of the 
lands belonging to this priory, was appointed, by act of parlia- 
ment. Prior of St. Fechin's. The reason given for this extraor- 
dinary appointment, is the good conduct of the said farmer in his* 
office, particularly in the circumstance of having erected, at his 
own cost, many strong castles upon the priory lands. — From the 
record of this transaction we acquire information concerning the 

« 

powerful influence of the crown, in regard to the internal regula- 
tion of monastic institutions. Nor will it be overlooked by the 
topographer, that, from the same source, we derive intelligence as 
to the date and builder of numerous castles in this neighbourhood, 
now in ruins. 

The last prior was William Nugent, who surrendered in the 
thirty-^first year of Henry VITI. A final grant of the priory and 
manor of Fore was obtained by Richard, first Earl of Westmeath^ 
in 161SS.-^The monastic buildings stood on a firm plot of ground, 
(which they entirely occupied) situated in the centre of a bog. 
The ruins are extensive, but present no indications of former 
architectural beauty. 

* The aetuatitrg motive of de Lacy la this Instance, was a sentiment 
of gratitade towards the abbot and monks of St. Taurin | who, after him- 
•elf and his brother Hogh were banished by King John, received the fugl- 
,tlves, and afforded them the moam of su p port. The brothers were admitted 
to the abbey of St. Taurin In the diaguite of gardeners ; and, In their as- 
sumed capacity, their true rank not being known, they worked for 
subsistence nnlil the period of their pardo'ii • and reeal.— Montmorency 
MS8. 



|LEINfTBB.] COmffTT OF WB9TVBATB. ^1 

Here is a clufiel> reboilt " for the bnryinge-place, and pious 
«tte of himselfe and bis snocessors/* by Richard, second Earl of 
Nugent, in 1680. Several members of the noble Cunily of Nugent 
are here interred. Connected with the same spot was the cell of 
an anacfaorite, which appears to ha?e retained a wretched inmate 
so lately as the date at which Mn Harris published his edition of 
the works of Sir James Ware, namely, 1764. A recluse of this 
order (poor representative of the kermt of the poets !) was cev* 
tainly existing in this cell when Sir Henvy Piera wrote his ** De-' 
scription of the County of Westmeatb," in the latter part of the 
seventeenth century. The account afforded by the latter writer 
is too curious to be entirely omitted, and we accordingly present 
an extract in the margin . *' It may not be superflnoos to observe, 

• The town of Fore, obterves Sir Henry Pterti contaias '^a dnirchor 
cell, of an anchorite, the sole of this religious hind** (at the time at which 
Sir Henry wrote) ** in Ireland. This religious person at his entry 
maketh a vow never to go out of his doors all his life after { and, acpord- 
ingly, here he remains pent-up all his days. Every day he saith mass in 
kis chapel, which also is part of, nay almost all his dwelling house, for 
there Is no more house, but a very small castle, wherein a tall man can- 
liardly stretch himself at length, if he laid down on the floor) nor is there 
any passage into the castle but through the chapel. He hath servants tba^ 
attend him at his call in an out-house, but none lyeth within the church 
but himself. He is said by the natives, who hold him in great veneration 
for his sanctity, every day to dig, or rather scrape^ for he useth no other 
tools but his nails, a portion of his grave i being esteemed of so great holi 
ness, as if purity and sanctity were Intailedon his cell, he Is constantly 
visited by those of the Romish religion, who aim at being esteemed more 
devout than the ordinary amongst them* Every visitant at his departure 
leaveth his offering, or (as they phrase it) devotion on his altar { but be 
relieth not on this only for a maintenance, but hath those to bring him in 
their devotions, whose devotions are not so fervent as to invite them to do the 
office in person. These are called his proctors, who range all the countries 
in Ireland to beg for him, whom they call the holy man in the stone {xont,^ 
^SS*t geese, tnrkies, hens, sheep, money, and what not ;. nothing comes amiss,, 
and nowhere do they fail all together, but something is had, insomuch that if 
his proctors deal honestly, nay if they return him but the tenth partof what la 
given him, he may doubtless fare as well as any priest of them all. The 
oniy recreation this poor prisoner is capable of^ is to walk on his terras. 



393 bbaoths ot ibblamp* 

tluifc the lamed eUtaf of Ware k deniow of llrihwtiog to Hm 
woof tlieeenndioritee, tko tell ud lugUy-fiiiiihed piUer-toirerv 
of Irdead ; • ooBJecCore BOfO ebeud than we hkve witaeaeod 
In tke epfcvblioBe of eoy antiqwiry, woally eo well entitled t» 
•tteatioB as Bfr. Harris. Tbe cell of ibe Jiennit^ in all parts of 
the chriatiaB world, bears nearly tbe same ooaliiied propoctiona ; 
and is. In all districts, as formerly in Irdand, a low, nanow, and 
isolated cabin, calcnhted for tbe recqrtion of a single penon, 
resigned to sednsion and devotion. For some further ranaiks 
en tbe entire dissimilarity between tbe celim of the ordinary ana* 
diorite, and the pillar of tbe fanatical Stylite of Antioch, we refer 
to the work by the Chevalier De Mootmorency, on the Pillar- 
towers of Ireland. 

The most corions of tbe three mined chorches of Fore is that 
dedicated to St. Fechin, which is entered at the west end by a 
door, three feet in width, and six feet in height. The wall in 
about three feet thick, and is composed of nuhewn stones. The 
lintel, or head of tbe door, is one entire stone, nearly of the same 
thickness as the wall, aboot six feet in length, and two feet in 
height. It is hewn, or squared, only on tbe lower part connected 
with the entrance. On tbe outer side is a earring of the cross, 
placed within a circle. The rude character of the whole of these 
ruins, evinces a very considerable aotiquity. Sir Henry Piers 
relates a long traditional story, current among the country people, 
aocording to the tenour of which, tbe ponderous stone which acts 
as a lintel to ^this door-way, was placed in its pres^it position, 
without any other aid than the efficacy of St. Fechin's prayers. 
Fantastical traditions, nearly of a similar character, prevail in the 
neighbourhood of every old building that displays any peculiar 
exercise of mechanical powers; and the tale in question was 
scarcely worth the labour of chronicling, even as an instance of 
popnlar credulity. 

In the immediate neighbourhood of this town is Louor Lbns, 



bailt OTer the call wharein ha lies, if lie may be laid to walk» wbo caaaat 
ia one line itretch forth hli left fovr tioMi/' Collect. Hiheni. vol. I. 
pp. 63-4. 






[lbinstib.] covxty or WBnwuars. 933 

A tioall but fimmmtUlm, doHad wtA three woe4ed lakadb. Tke 
•Hie eboeid probably be written Xetijf A Lmmti, the lake in the 
flMadow or morasa. Near the baoka of thia water ia a tnmvlaaj 
or earthen^work, locally called the " Fort of Targealaa. * 

KiLTooM^ an antieot aeat of a branch of the Nngentaj and 
afUrwardaofthefanily of Smyth^ianowtheeatnleof theBari of 
Longford. A anonaalery waa founded here, at a very eariy period, 
by St Nennid. Mr. Archdall atylea the place at which the abovo 
mligiona honae was fonnded KUtama, and adda, that ** Kiltoma 
ia now onknown.'* 

Packenham Hall (formerly termed Tkiiynoii^) thehandaojne 
aeat of the Earl of Longford, is situated in the northern part of the 
county, near the small town of Casiie-Poliard. This estate, with 
other lands in Westmeath, was granted to the Pakenham family 
shortly subsequent to the rebeliion of 1641. The mansion baa 
been recently much enlai|;ed and improved, under the direction of 
Mr. Francis Johnston, architect.t 

« 

* This celebrated chieftain among the barbarooB hordes which inyaded 
Ireland, and obtained a settlement on its coasts, in the ninth centnry, it 
said bj Giraldns to hate constructed many of the earthen forti still re- 
maining in Ireland i in making which assertion, however, Giraldus merely 
echoed the tradition preTailing in Ireland at the time of his tisit. The 
violent death of Torgesiut is believed to have taken place within tiie limits 
of antient Meath. The spot is not pointed ont, bat the story of his destruc- 
tion is thus told. — The barbarian had conceived a passion for the daughter 
of the King of Meath, who did not dare to refuse the gratification of his 
withes. He therefore promised to send the lady, attended by fifteen 
damtelt, at an appointed time, to a *' certain island in tlie province of 
If tath.'* Instead of damsels, the king selected fifteen fliir hat stout young 
men, habited like females, and each secretly provided with a sword. Tatge-' 
tiusrepaired to the island, in full security , with several revelling companioat* 
The ittue of the popular tale may be readily imagined* The Norwegians 
broke the bounds of decorum, and the disguised youthftil warriors drew 
their swords from beneath their female habits, and put to death the ene- 
mies af their country. 

-t* It may not prove anintetasting to observe that Packenham Hall is 






BetiMM Castk-Pollatd and Fime are tSbe nuns of Cari.aw 
wmn, fonnerly the biumioii of a disttegoished branch of tke 
Nugent family. The woods of thia demesne were> a 4ew years 
back^ the finest and most venerable oi any in Westmeath : bare 
walls J and naked fields^ alone, now meet the eye of the traveller.* 

FiNAS^ a small bat neat vfflage, is sltnated on a stream that 
nnites the lakes Sbollen and finnil^ and separates the conntieB of 
Westmeath and Cavan. Over'the stream is thrown a stone bridge. 
This village^ however humble-^ is connected with several historical 
transactions. In the year ISSl, Sir Anthony Lucy, lord jnatioe, 
defeated the Irish in a severe battle near nnae. In July, 1644, 

frequently noticed in Miss Edgeworth's Memoirs of her father, as the seat 
of hospitality, and the resort of refined society. At " hospitable Packen- 
ham han'' Mr. Edgeworth passed much time, In the early part of his life, 
with eqoal gratification and improvement. In more advanced life, a 
friendly teteroonrse also sobslsted between Ihefamlfieaof Edgeworth-towa 
and the hall* The character of the coantry^ however, prohibited v^y 
frequent visits. The two seats are twelve miles distant from each other, 
and between them, writes Miss £• ** was a vast Serbonian bog, with a 
bad road, an awkward ferryi and a couitry so frightful, and so over- 
rmi with yellow weeds, that it was aptly called by Mrs. Oreville ' the 
* yellow dwarf's oonntry^'' Edgewerth Mema. voL ii. p. 11. 

* Sir Thomas Nogent^ founder of this distu^^nished line of his familjr^ 
and tiie first of the Nugents seated at Carlanstown, was second and 
youngest son of Richard, seventh baron of Delvin, and brother of Chris- 
topher, eighth baron of Delvin, progenitor of the Marquess of WestmeaHu 
Sir Thomas married Elizabeth, daughter and har of George Fleming of 
Carlanstown, second son of James Lord Slane, of Slane castle; with 
which lady he obtidned tfds manor. From tUs Sir Thomas was descended 
Robert, created, in 1707, Baron Nugent, of CarUautowUf and Viscoont 
Clare; and also created, in 1776, Earl Nugent, with remainder, in default 
of male issue, to his lordship's son-in-law, George«Orenviile-Nugent Tem- 
ple, late Marquess of Buckingham. Lady Mary«-£lixabeth Nugent^ 
married to the Marquess of Buckingham, was created, in 180e, Baroness 
Nugent, with remainder to her second son, Lord Oeorge-QrenvlUe Nugent 
Temple ; who succeeded to the baromp tmd mawr ^ C^|«iisldapii on ber 
ladyship's decease, in 181S, and is the present baron*— Montmoieacjp 
MSS. 






J 

I 



\ 



[lSINSTKE.] COtTNTT 01^ WfiSTUBATa. 835 

General Manroe^ the Scottisb puritan^ overthrew^ before tbi« vil- 
lage, a detachment of Lord Casttehaven's army. The repnbKcaft 
colonels Hewson and Jones, in 1651, rooted here the royaTist 
forces, commtoded by Pbeagh Mac Hugh O'Byrne. Daring this 
transaction, the republicans took the tillage by storm. 

LouoH Dbrivakaoh, in this part of the cowkty, is a lake of 
considerable extent and of dlstingnished charms. Its winding 
sumI demas form prodoces continnal Tarieties of pictnresqae 
beanty. Lofty hiUs range along its margin, in some places pre- 
senting a barrier so steep as to be nearly precipitous, and finely 
ckthed with wood.--^n that p*rt of the steepest of these hills 
which overhangs the water (here fearfully deep) is a place of 
pilgrimage, elaborately described by Sir Henry Piers^ in his work 
respecting this county, inserted in the Collectanea. 

At MvLTirsBKAN (M6ns Femandi) seven miles from Mullin* 
gar, towards the north, a monastery was founded, in liS6, by 
William Delamar, lord of Delamar*s country,* for Franciscan 
friars. This religious house attained so much importance, that a 
provincial chapter of the order was held here in 1529. Although 
dissolved in the view of the state,, and divested of their posses- 
sions, the friars were permitted to re*assemble in the buildings 
of this monastery ; and, if we give credit to Cox, had not the 
temperance and wisdom to remain in the tranquil exercise el 
local religious duties. It is said by this writer that the rebellion 
of 1641, was contrived in the monastery of Multifeman. Accord- 
ing to Sir Henry Piers, *' this plaoe, being conveniently seated % 
almost in the centre of the kingdom, and also of great receipt, in 
that year (1641) and some years before, great and frequent were 
the meetings here of the popsh clergy, of all kinds, from all 

* The late Peter Delamar, Esq. chief of the antient Anglo-Norman family ^ 
of Delamar, lords of the exteoBiTe tract in this county termed D*lamar^9 
cDwifry, which was granted to that fiamily hy 8b Hugh de Lacy, resided 
at Lacking or Leckiitf in this part of Vl^estmeath. This gentleman dying 
without issue, his antient family is, we believe, extinct in the male line. 
The family of Roche succeeded to the Delamar estate.— Montmoreocy 
MSS. 



i 



836 BBAUTIBS OF MBLAND. 

ptftf of the kingdom.*' little, however^ is to bo trusted to tbe 
•totemeiit of pseado-historians, writing from party feelings, whilst 
subject to the factions exasperation that prevailed in the seven- 
teenth century. We may more readily receive as correct, the 
information of Hers, when he informs us, that " at and before 
1641, the church not only remained in good repair, but was 
ad<Hrned with images, pictures, and reliques, whilst the friars 
had, in their choir and chancel, their organs and choristers." 
The same writer describes the buildings, which, although '' out 
of repair,** were not ruinous in his time, as being '' of a frame 
or £Eibric, rather neat and compact thaa sumptuous or towering; 
having in the midst, between the body of the church and the 
chancel, an handsome straight, but very narrow steeple.*' It is 
said by Archdall that '^ the building, according to a tradition of 
the place, was committed to the flames by the Rochforts^ a 
powerful family in this country ; but some ruins, which remain, 
evince its extent and extraordinary workmanship, the whole being 
built of a blackish stone; the east window, totally devoid- of 
ornament, is still enUre." — A convent of Franciscans, humble in 
character, still exists at this place. 

At Lent, distant from Mullingar about six miles, was for- 
merly a castle of the Gaynor family. The church has been latdy 
rebuilt, with the aid of a loan of d^60, from the board of first 
fruits. Here, seated on a healthy eminence, is a charter school, 
designed for sixty children. 

At the distance of one mile and a half from the above village, 
and finely situated between Lough Ouil and Lough Derivaragh, is 
fFUmm'4 Hoepitai, founded in the last century, by the Rev. Mr. 
Wilson, of Shinglasshouse, for the support, according to the first 
intention, of sixteen old men, and the maintenance and education 
of the same number of boys, protestant natives of this county. 
The revenues are ample and the buildings spacious. — Here, on 
the 6th of September, 1798, a sanguinary engagement occurred, 
between a detachment of the army of Lord Gomwallis, and a 
body of insurgents, who took post at the hospital. The building 



r 



[lkinitbr.] counvy or westmbath. fS7 

was destroyed during the conttkt, bot has since been conplelely 
restored.* 

The part of Westmeath to which we bave now eondncted the 
reader^ ranks amongst tbe most picturesque and attractive districts 
in this quarter of Ireland. We are here in the region of the 

* We are enabled to present, on original aothority, tome corloat par* 
ticnlan relative to the tamultoom consregation of peavantry opposed to tiM 
klof *s troops upon this occasion. The originality of tbe intellif ence, and 
ibe clear ideas it conveys of tbe character and qualifications of tlie bands *^ 

whicb ventnred upon open rebellion in tbis district, must plead our apology 
§or tbe length of this aote.^-<Tbe body of insurgeats which figured on tbis 
oceasioa was composed of ignorant and headstrong men, of tbe lowest 
order, who had withdrawn, on tbe foregoing nigbt, from a considerable 
assembly of resident farmers and peasantry, wbich bad collected from tbe 
adjacent baronies, tbrougb tbe various motives of terror, self-defence, or 
diiloyalty, on tbe bill of Skey, near Moyvore, in tbe barony ofRatbcon* 
rath. Tbe greater number of tbose assembled at tbe bill were armed witb 
pitcbforks, spades, and cudgels* Some appeared witb pikes,, and otbeis 
(but not many) carried guns and pistols. Tbns equipped for war, these 
deluded people abandoned tbeir bomes and families, and flocked joyously 
to tbe place of rendezvous, as if to a fair. Parties of tbe most efficient 
among their numbers were dispatched, to arrest and conduct to tbe mala 
body,sucb of tbe resident gentry and respectable inhabitants as tbey could 
lay their hands upon. Among tbe persons tbus arrested, was a gentlenuui i 

belonging to a distant county, formerly an officer in a foreign service, 
who was at tbat time on a visit to a relative in tbe neigbbourbood. This 
gentleman tbey conducted to wbat tbey termed tbeir cmmp ; namely, tbe | 

bleak summit of tbe bill of Skey, where was neither tent nor sbed, nor 
enclosure of any kind. A pitiable apathy, or stupid insensibility of 
danger, appeared to prevail) mixed witb a restless, anxious, curiosity. A { 

thirst of news ; hope; suspicion ; expectation i agitated tbe minds, and j 

visibly influenced tbe manners and motions, of tbe multitude. Tbe name ! 

and rank of the gentleman in question caused a great sensation in tbe 4 

throng I and bis compulsory arrival was greeted witb a shout of welcome, 
from end to end of tbe massy but irregular line. When silence was obtained, 
be summoned around bim tbe principal of tbeir insignificant leaders, rea- 
soned witb them on the impracticable character of tbeir schemes, and 
forcibly exhibited to them, on the credit of his military experience, the 
certainty of destruction that hung over their beads, If tbey persisted In 
resistance. Fortunately the address of — was' received witb con* 
viction by tbe migority of bis auditors. Tbey prepared to disperse. 



I 



^8 BBAtnriBS Of irbland. 

lakes ; and thote JoTely valors unite their charms inth hilk rary^ 
ing between the bold and the soft; fields richly verdnrova; 
BUBierona spkndid seats ; far-spread plantations ; and mins 
of eodesiastical and castdilated edifices. 

LouoH Iron, although inferior in extent and attraction to 
other inland waters of this county^ claims priority of notice, on 
account of local circumstances. This lough may be termed an 
exi^nsion of the river Inny, and is said by Sir Henry Piers to 
be ^' a full mile in length, but in breadth not half so much.** 
The same writer notices a tradition '' that, of old, here was bo 
lisJce at all ; but wood, meadow, and woody pastures, the low 
grounds being watered by a small rivulet." In support of such 
an opinion, he observes that the water is here not so deep as in 
most lakes of Westmeath, '' for it is no where above sixteen feet 
in depth, whereas the shallowest of our other lakes are so many 
lathom, and more. Again, towards the banks, or margin of it 
(strand it hath none, except where the Inny falleth into it, and 
near it) are seen, under water, trunks, and stumps, of trees." 
Sir Henry adds, that '' he has, himself, found, and taken up, in 
shallow water, near the banks,, ataga' horns, mnch decayed and 
rotten." 

On the western banks of this lough stood, formerly, the j^dbey 
ofDrUtemagh, founded by Geoffrey de Coutance, or Constantia, 
either in the reign of Henry II., or at a date very briefly subse- 
quent. — Sir Henry Fiers, to whose chorographical account of 
Westmeath we have just adverted, was lord of the manor, and 
proprietor of the remains of Tristeniagh Abbey. In that work 
he presents a description of the church, which was cruciform ; 
and, '^ although it had remained without roof time out of mind,'* 
was still ** firm and substantial." We regret to say that a 

whilst he clapped spars to his horse, aod quickly disappeared. The most 
anruly of the insargeots, a small part only of the assembly, parsaed their 
dangerous coarse, in contempt of this good advice, and directed their 
march to WiUon*i ffospitalj where they were attacked by the king's 
troops OS the following day, and mostly cut to pieces. 



^- 



J 



[lEINSTBR.] COtFHTY OF lVBtTIIB4«fl. 239 

deaoeadiiit and ropretentatiTe of tke anticpMrian and worthy 
tafonely namely. Sir Pigott WiUian Piers, eaneed this Tenerable 
pile to be utterly denoUshed, in the year 1783.* A stable aad 
cow^hoine now occupy its site ! 

The adjacent hoose and demesne of Tristemagfa baTe been, 
for soTeral ages, the residence of the baronet family of Piers $ 
bnt are more indd)ted to beaaty of situation than to the band 
of arty for any charms they may possess in the esteem of the tra- 
veller. This fiuttily Altered Ireland in the person of Ci|>tain 
l^^Diam Piers, an officer in Queen. Elisabeth's army} who is 
noted in history as the oiioer to whom the fiaaons Shaae O'NeUl 
was betrayed, and deliTcred up, by his So^h auxiliary forces. 
It will be recollected that 0*Neiil was decapitated ; and Piers sent 
the head of the chieftain to London, for which nngracions, bnt 
in^rtant, service, he was rewarded by Eiissbeth with laine 
grants of land, indudtng the estate of Tristernagh, which still 
remain the property of his descendants. Sir Henry Pien, son of 
Ci^tain William Piers, and grandfadier of the historian of Westr 
meatli, was a man of letters, and author of a book of travels. 
James, son of Sir Henry, embraced the Roman Catholic religion, 
and became D. D. in that church. He was royal pipfesspr of 
the Aquitanic college at Bordeaux, and published several literary 
works. Sir Henry Piers, Bart, the member of this family in 
which the topographer is most interested, wrote, in 1632«3» a 
** Chorographical Description of the County of Westmeath,*' 
which is printed in the first v<dume of the Collectanea de Rebus 
Hilismicis.t Sir John Piers, the present baronet, has resided .for 
some time in the hie of Man. 

* This tasteless and nafeeling re^reseDtatWe of a topographical writer, 
who was aoxloas to preserve every vestige calculated to adorn his coun- 
try, or to llUstrate Its history, was earnestly solicited by bis nelgbbonrs 
to abstain from so wanton an outrage. We are assured that Lord Sanderlln 
oflered to parehase the ruins, at a high price, solely with a view to their 
preservation} but in vain. The name of Tristemagfa should never be 
mentioned, without an expression of cenfemp^ (as regards this transaction) 
towards that of Sir Pig9U WiUiam Pierf. 

f The work of Sir Henry Piers is respectable^ as being an early at- 



i 



940 »BAUTIB» av IBBLAND. 

N«ur the entruce to the demesna of Tristemagh, ttuids tbe 
Chapel ofTemndectom^ now in nuns. This boiUiag^ in the 
of the histoiiaa of Wsstmeatb^ was in good repair^ and dii 
sendee was then performed within its walls. In this«hnpel Is the 
sepolchrai yanlt of the Piers family. An ahar monament, bearing 
the fiunily arms, commemorates the. first Sir Henry Piers, notieed 
in the preceding page as author of a book of tra? els* 

BAftoNSTowN, on the banks of Longh-Iron, is the splendid 
-seat of Riohard Malone, Esq. inherited by this gentleman from 
his relati?e, the late Right Hon. Richard Malone, Lord Snaderii»» 
who died withonk issue. The name of this place is derived finssa 
its antient proprietors, the fiunily of Nangle, Palatine-6«rMi# of 
Navan. The estate was porchased of that family by Rkihard 
Malone, Esq. father of the cdebrated forensic orator, AnthoAy 
Malone, and of Edmond, the finther of Lord Snnderlin. — ^Bsuwm- 
town honse is a capacioas edifice of stone, chiefly boilt by the late 
'Lord Snnderlin, nnder whose tastefnl direction the demesne was 
enbiged, and enriched with extensive plantations. 

• 

At Kii«nizT, on the Boronstown estate, and in view of Mr. 
Malone's mansion, is a small but beantifol chnrch, erected nnder 
the aaspiees of the late Lord Snnderlin. This strnctnre is n very 
estimable example of the snccessfal imitation, in modern times, of 
the florid style of pointed architecture; and will, we trnst, 
remain, to a very late posterity, a prdof of the exquisite taste and 
■unificeoee of its noble founder.-^Kilbixy (locally pronoonced 

tempt to delineate some part of a coontry, too backward Id a taste for 

topouaphical inquiry. Viewed as a prodoction entirely dependant on 

its intrinsic meritst its chief valno will, prol^^ly, be found to consial in 

cherofnphifial outllnn, and in tba account it presort ea of certain |wc^ 

;liarities of mannors, prevailing in tbe time of tito writer. Sir Henry mm 

far from being a well informed historian, or a sound antiquary. He 

•was a rigid protestant; but, while he holds up to derision the credulity of 

. vulgar classes of Romanists, he believes, and gravely repeatB> the smim 

fSsntastical tales, not marked with a popniar superBtition against whtdi he 

was habitually guarded. 



w 



of ivbick lait bvildiog sraie remaiiif mn itiQ viaibb. Tbes^ 
ftraatiir«ft wMra erected by $ir Haftb 4e Liuqr^ aboot tho year 
1199. ttarf Sir Geofirey de Conte^ca^ wbo waf a foUowar ef 
4^ Lacy, held his baronial coai^.. Sir Oeoffirey graoted borpiigli 
piivil^gea to the adjacent town, of which privileged place not a 
^tmp remaina at the present day ! 

J^uo^ U01L9 or OuiLj ia a lovely sheet of water, more thaf 
t|«ao miles ia length, and aboat one mile ia width. Its bosom is 
diversified by five small islands, well planted with trees and 
sbnibs. From this lake issoe two rivers, formeriy known, as it 
wsfW nppoar from Sir H. Viejm, by the nan^s of the golden and 
lUlver hands. Loogh Hoil now acts as a reservoir to thp Royal 
Clf^jud. Ia the contiguity 0/ thi^ lake are several handsome 
manmps, among which we notice the following. 

PonxuuioN, the seat of hw4 de Blaqniere. This estate for- 
Sterly belonged to a branch of the Nugent family, and was 
parchaaed by the lather of tbc present peer. Sir John Blaqniere, 
K. A« wJio w|ui advaiKcd to the peecagp at the time of the Union. 
Tfha hoaae ol Porttemon waa ei^ected by that noblem^. This 
qpii^sjon is well placed, and the demesne is finely planted. 

L&yiKOTOii Pajik, otherwise Famanftici, a seat of the 
Jl^^ge fitipily, sitnated on rising ground in this delightful tract 
of^eoontry, ^t the distance of t^o mile^ from Mollingar. 

9^WA, or S^vACji, vl^di in the ]^riab langnage implies «i 
Ailtfr i^Mmh iB sitnated in thif neighb^ofiheod, on the borders 
e(»fi»aU biM^ ct^vmifig lake. This plfco Iw <;9n9titated the 
sem el the Tnite^ ^ De Tuyte^ fim^^7» tor more than ux hundred 
lawre. Sir Hng^ de I^y, Iprd of Ji^eath, granted the manor of 
«b Stmngk, witb <H^ estates^ to Jlichard de Toyte> 9>^« ^^ ^>* 
principal followers, about the year 1180 y and it must be noti^ed^ 
as a rare circumitanoe of good fortune, in this country of political 
troubles, that the manor has ever since remained vested in the 

VOL. n. K 



{ 



949 BBAVTI«» OF lEKLANO. 

descendants of the said Richard, withoat any intemiption what- 
ever. In a more extensive work, it might not prove nninterestiog 
to trace the annals of a family, thus riding secvrely, amidst all 
the " storms of state,*' for so many centuries. Sir OliverTnite, 
*' of the Sonagh/* was created a baronet in 169,2, and was proge- 
nitor of the preseot baronet. Sir Greorge ; and, likewise, of Hogh 
Morgan Tuite, of Sanna, Esq. who served the office of fa%k 
sheriff of Westmeath, in the year 1823.— -The present mansion of 
this antient family is a light and elegant bailding, which has 
sacceeded to '* the castle of stone,*' and is surrounded by a well- 
planted demesne.* 

Lough Ennbl, the most southward of the Westmeath lakes, 
is, also, one of the most extensive and beautiful of those fine 
sheets of water. Its eastern margin is enriched by several man* 
sions, and spacious, diversified, and well- wooded demesnes. 

The attractive seat termed BELVBDEas, lately gave the title 
of carl, in the peerage of Ireland, to the Rochfort family. "Hie 
earldom became extinguished in the person of the late peer, who 
died a short time back, without issue. This seat is novr the 
property of his lordship's sister, the Countess of Lanesborongfa. 
Mr. Young describes this place in the following animated terms, 
" The house is perched on the crown of a very beantifiil little 
hill, half surrounded with others, variegated and melting into 
one another. It is one of the most singular places any where to 
be seen, and spreading to the eye a beautifirl lawn of endolm^g 
ground, margined with wood. Lake Ennel flows beneath die 
M'indows. It is spotted with islets ; a promontory of rock, fringed 
with trees, shoots into it, and the whole is boanded bydktaat 
hills." We are sorry to observe that the artificial rains of a castle 
(which incumber the earth, as the too»durable memerial of a 
former family dissension) purposely obstruct the reciproeal advm* 
tages of view, between this and the contignons demesne of Roeh- 
fort housfe. 

* For^many particulars reUtiDg to the Tuite family, tee Baropetagt 
»f Irelanir'i and Archdairs Peefafe, vol, iii. p. «5, ucii. 



[lUBINtTRB.] COUNTY Of WB«TlfBATB. 943 

RoofiPOAT HovsBj one of $ihe fioest nuuittoos in tbi« dUtikl, 
iro» the seat of the late GostoFiu-Haiiie Rochfort^ Esq. a xepre- 
MBUtive in the imperial parliament for the county of W^|^ni^at||« 
The grouQcIf are w^lUwooded, and extremely t>eai|tifal, 

Gavlstown Pakk^ to the east of Longh-EoneU is the seat 
and wridmceof James-CaQlfeild Browne^ Lord Kilmam of tim 
Neale* Hia lordship is of the antient family of *' Browne of thg 
Neak,*' in the county of Mayo. Sir John Browne of the Neale, 
fcther of the present baron^ was raised to the peerage in I789» 
and purchased this estate from the late Earl of Bely^ere* The 
«xistii^ mansion wes boilt by the first L<»d Kilmain, upon th^ 
iute of an antient structure belonging tp the chiftf barpn Rochfort^ 
wlii<;h ia noticed by 0.eai| 3wi{(, 

NiBar the above seat is the Tillage of KilbbidBi called the 
Pas< ^fKUbride. Here stood a castle of the Tyrrels^ which, ia 
1651, after B9 obstinate resistance on the part of the proprietor^ 
Walter Tyrrel> Esq^ a zealous royalist, was surrendered to tho 
fftrUameot fovces under Colonel Huson. In the n^hboiirhood 
lire seen some cburieh nuns,, and a moat, or dnn. 

In the yiUage ol JBiaK>B, or Impbb, is a castle, of email 
idimen«ion«9 which oommands fine views of the windings of th^ 
rii^r Inny, and over a wide extent of the counties of Westmeatk 
«Bd JLongford. This pastle was bnilt by the Daltona, hot passed, 
jBBiiy ages back> into the possessbn of the Tuite family, <lf 
Sonof^, yrha are the preeent ownern. 

Mbabsoovbt, once called lUlmditown, was formerlyj together 
with many neighboBring manors, indnded in DaliofCiJCtmnirif, The 
Ihmily of D* Alton had here ja castle ; but that family forfeitbg 
their possessions in 1641, this manor was granted by Cromwell 
to Lieutenant Lewis Meares, one of his English officers. The 
present mansion of Mearscourt was erected, on the site of the 
old castle of Rolandstown, by the late John Meares, 6si). und^ 

#9 



IM4 % fiilMMnt^ &F\fL &L%i(ff. 

«»lvose ^ktAKm ^ ^lAl^ft W«f ^ UJtt ool, ^kh t«ry M|^teior 
tilfift Ud 9(k«igtfehl. 4hi Ihh MM Kb %ftliiittsd tte tW <St SMf* 

for a body tX 'tw&rgoA^, ^ th^^th of Se^temb^, 1^. 

llii'tf<$oNk^««, 'tLUMLU \tth^, ^MaA^t itH^ frott Mol- 
Itog^, ItepM^H itii niBtaie^o ii rery lettetitite Mtrdtay.* Tldd lpUM», 
Mtfiff^ttt t^'odk, ^v«i tbb litte dPbatoir-pf^tititi^^o^tie fnuMm 
^ 0*AMm kbi Ov^eA. 6r tlits lail^i'ai!^ of bMUttH ^ mate fine 
•l^aiuii ^HMt, t<^iMd \be Ud»6 of Qveett ra{M>dl%*8 tteilti, i* 
%lie pei«ob ^8t^ JHctam^ OWefii, i^iifeWettitfr 6f HftgliOTf^i^^ 
»rl 6f Tyh^hife j 1i jy^ndn liteply hotlcfedliy «ife ^toWittr t>f J«MM 
^AiO^Hilfr. Tbe ^thtet cfaitf^, wMch is ih rkAin, V^teibblk Ite^ 
clura] vault of tbe D'Altons. A ii«# ehtifth -hi» lyMH lately ^l>»- 
pleted> with the aid of a sam of money from the board of first 
Vrtiit^. Yh thfe 'Dei^b«tti%bo& a^^atoMres IttMAl, <Ar Mflheo 
illev1iri6ift,«Ml^aIl^«e^d{b^'tilidfr1lhe of i^Ab^r HUNKS. 

'Hi^^nh^bcAti^fHMIiibfe, <Ar^!lifaili; K#d doe, #lliMi 'liaa %eA 
^Ibi-^a/ebtitaitiiB ttrbrtltMAi el- M^iea. 

•kt a QhiMitt 6f Italf k ttSle from fbb khan/t i^Ohgb, MMMlW 
an acclivity, near'tht; isiMb M h&^9h, to itMHdMm,n^ MR 
of the D*Alton family, counts of the Holy Roman Empire, biiili> 
4mh \!he yei^ \no, bt%^t flichiM ii^OUtat^ % difllagiilBfaed 
lAc^ b Ijim A^^Mkn^elTfite. ^I^m Wtt^geuAttnall, mA Iftl 
%ytMi^r, ^lebMd luu^s 4)*Alf^, #M ^f'isetM'll^Hs a ^piyMMfM 
<MbMi^i, fifty f^ itk hi^t, ih IfolMiW^f 'the EfUpHStHi ^AMb 
¥h«t(Aie, th^ Bttp^^ J^^tejpli il. «M fals^laCe'fltajMjr. IHi^'GCtt^ 
III. This moDoment is ad6tlvM<bli Wf^ ^§ %i0i the ^fMUa^, 
in white marble, of the above-named soverdgns > the fonrth dde 
li'i^MlrgM Wftli'lhe VMt»h «Mk, ttid n WiVshlb taMrtfMlMi.— 
«(MinttMlm B*A1C0D, theMi lasIelM^ ^ fUs lltAMft -Mrilr' 
«jteg WittiMit sMie, '«he ftAtiHy ^KWt^ ghvtfM hteMlMli 4* 

^hf^ 'iiSMrs. 

< 

. • In this ba^omr IMtnaled the A<U<f i»iM«*, or C/mmcA, selebn;ttd 
as a plaeex^f dniidleal oer^monles ; and as the seene of varioqs 
Wud public ul»einl>1i«t. 



[lbinsterJ cqumty fir v&Kfti'M«4M- Vit 

• ' liutYNAcoA ifl the vUioot U9jt af » branob <tf ^hft. NvgVBl 
family. Edwftrd Nugtot, qI Jp«iynacor, G«q. w«$ ^Mtefl ^ w^% 
•I the Hply fU>iteii fimpirb, with liceBMi of ffiog Qw«a Ut» 
Count Bdward Nug^Dt^ grandion of thni geiitknmn« ift tte fie? 
lent propriotof of IhU 09Me. 

LitMV^ a village near th^ lown of Ballymahoa^ 19 situated in a 
pictoraaqiie tract of cimiitry, This plaae deinaada the notiee. of the 
topographer^ from thecbneumataDce of its having lofoierly affo94e4 
« reaidenca f the Rev. Henry Gold«mithj brother of th^ pofil> to 
^Aqui waa dedioated, by that pleaalag writer, the poem of the 
*^ Travaller." Here, duly aeasible, aa we wiU hope, of '^ the 
iriadott of Ida hvmble choice,** the '^ village preacher ran hit godly 
eaoe.*' It hap been aoppoaed that many oi th^ objecta furaishlog 
poetical allasions ia the *' Deserted Village/' are ttillto be ditco^ 
vered Sa Lissoy and tta vicinity. The ftev. Henry Goftdemith 
performed tbe dpties of cnrato i(i the neigfabopriag cbaroh of Mil- 
kenny frest. Borne fnrthen pafticolara oonoerning tho poet BoH* 
imith, an4 this interettiBg neighbeforhood, are pneeented in e«r 
aeeonnt of PaUice, county 0/ L^ngfhrd. 

KiLnkNinr-wseT, diatant aboi|t one mile hom LIssoy, it a 
small Fair town, bearing laay-ks ^f some importance ip aemoto 
ages. This place gives name to a barony; and an abbey was 
fbnnded here, at a very early period. On ^ decay of that in- 
It&tation, a priory, er hospital, for Caondted Friars, was erected 
by the liamily of Dillon, in the thirteenth century. Kilkenny- 
west gives the title of baron, in the Irisli peerage, to Dillon, Earl 
of Roscoipmon. An obelisk, fifty feet in height, was erected here^ 
fiome years bac]c, by Mr. I^owe^ of Lpwyille. TM? st^iict^rfi 
eecnpies a comoajediog sitnationj aad we regret that iu eneciion 
isae net designed to commemoFate the poet who has rendered ita 
ttrigbbonrhood classic ground. 

Louon-BEE, on the north-easterp bordpf of thi9 countv^ i^ ^ 
^o\f\e spr^ of w^Jer, fpr0e4 ky ^n ^P^f^m qf tjm smr ^km- 
Qon. This fine lough is, in its widest part, njne milea in hreadtlH 



^ 



i4tf' AiaCtim or ntBLANO. 

and la adorned with seyeral well-woodad islands. Among the 
largest of these is Hare Island, the property of Lord Castlemaine^ 
which contains more than 100 acres of good land. An abbey was 
founded on this island by the Dillon family, of which building 
some ruins still remain ; and the precincts form a place of barial 
for the Anglo-Norman sept of Dillon, extremely numerous in the 
adjoining district, which was formerly called Dillons CowUry* 

On another island of Loogh-ree, termed 'Saint* s Island, car 
Nuns* Island, a convent of nuns, of the order of St. Clare, called «f 
Bethlem, was founded, at an unknowa date ; of which the walla 
still remain. This nunnery flourished until the year 1641, at 
which time a party of British soldiers, under the command of 
Captain Bertie, brother to the Earl of Lindsay^ in garrison ait 
Balynaclofiy castle, near Longfa-ree, made an irruption into tbe 
island, and, after committing outrages on the nuns, destroyed 
the conventual' buildings by fire. Returning to Balynaclofiy, this 
licentious band completed the exploits of the day, by drinking to 
an excess that rendered them incapable of efforts at self-preaer« 
ration ; in which state they were attacked by an aveng^g partj^ 
under the conduct of one of the Dillon family, and (as we will 
venture to anticipate) much to the satisfaction of the reader, were 
nearly all cut to pieces. Two persons alone escaped, to confeaa 
• the outrage, and to narrate its just punishment. 

MoiDRuu HovsiA, or Castlb, the seat of Lord Castlemainej 
b situated near the border of Lough-ree, at the distance of abont 

* Tlie reader may here be reminded that formerly in Ireland, as b 

dcotlanci, all the followers of a chieftain, althoogh not in the most distant 

degree related to him in blood, assomed his family name. Hence, the 

Bumenms Fitzgeralds, Batlers, Sec. It may afford a cartons Ulastration 

of the former state of morals and manners in Ireland, to observe diat we 

find, in this district^ a tract of land caUed aochmr-andeiahf the wietched, 

or sinful, tribe or congregation; to which place the heads of the Dlllsn 

family sent their illegitimate ofispring, who were distingolshed by the 

appellation of Sliochd'elochur^andetak^ttindearf literally meaning the un- 

lawfol progeny of the onmarried women, or marriageable women. Many 

of the descendants of these nnfbrtmiate outcasts are in ezistencei and 

Well known in the ndghboarlioodi 



[lkimstbb.] codnty or wsstmrath. 947 

two milet from the town of Athlone. The aotient bouse on thie 
demesne hi^ no pretensions to architectursl beauty, and was not, 
in any respect, calcolated for the residence of a distinguished 
lasily. The present mansion has been lately oompletcd, after 
the designs of Mr. Morrison, in the style denominated " modern 
Gothic/' Th<d demesne is extremely beantiful^ abonnding with 
ineqnaltties of sorfece, and richly adorned with wood and water. 
The uMe proprietor chiefly resides on this estate; and schools, 
for the gratuitous education of peasant-children, hare been 
httmnnely instituted in the neighbourhood by Lady Castlemaiue. 

Balymobb is a market and fair town, near the northern borders 
of the county. This is a long, but irregular and ill-tmilt town, 
chiefly noted, in a trading point of view, for its horse and cattle 
fairs. The parish church has been lately repaired and enlarged. 
In. the church-yard is a decayed chapel, forming the antient place 
of eepnitmre for the Magan family, of Emoe and Togher*s town, 
in this county. By that family the church-yard has been sur- 
rounded with a stone wall, and with a double, and very ornamental, 
line of elm trees, at present of considerable bulk and height. 

Balymore, with a vast adjoining territory, after the settle- 
ment of the Ai^lo-Normans, fell to the share of Sir Theobald de 
Verdun, in right of his wife, Margaret, eldest daughter of Walter 
de Lacy, lord of Meath. The male line of Sir Theobald*s progeny 
failing, his estates in this county devolved to the husbands of his 
daughters, who were Englishmen, and resided in tiieir native 
island. In consequence of the absence of these proprietors, 
writes Fingiass, their lands in Ireland were usurped by the Anglo- 
Norman, and *' Milesian*' septs of D'Alton, Dillon, O'Melaghlin, 
and Mac Geoghegan. In the year 1600, the town and mano^ of 
Balymore belonged to Sir Franeis Shaen, who^ sometimes made 
this place his residence. By virtue of Lord Strafford's commis- 
sion for remedy of defective titles, a grant of the castle, manor, 
and lake, of Bafymore-lougk-widtf, was obtained, in 1636', by 
Nicholas, first Viscount N^terville* The present Viscount Net- 
terville is now the principal proprietor. 

This town was garrisoned by the royalists, under Sir James 



► 



9tS BB-AUTIKS Ot riHibAHV. ^ 

Bilioii, in 1649; bttt^ en tHe at^roach «f Mitf ptflitli^it «Mliijr> 
Sir James bornt the town, and §€d. Baljmore wm IMHil 
anevr for James II. atid made a stoitt rerislanoe, oa expeHettCing 
a siege from General de Ginkle; iNit the garrison attoHgdi 
surrendered at discretioii, Jnne tbe 8tli» 1691 . On tiie eondosioii 
of a peace, which tools place soon after this w&nt, the fortiie«- 
tWms were demolisfaed. 

Contigoous to the town of Balymore is tbe small but fatmillM 
Lake dfLoughsuidy, or Longh Snnderiki, from which the ftfalo«e 
fiuhily derived the title of baron, in the Irish peerage. AttlMl 
foot of the hUl of Clare, or Mullaghcloe, may still be seen tbe 
rains of a Gilbertine Abbey, fonnded in 1^18, on the site of a 
monastery, which stood here before the year 700. On tbe anoi- 
Init of tbe hill are the ruia^ of Cian Coitle. la 16^1, tbe Britisib 
mid Dntcfa army, onder Generals de Ginkle «nd Dovgias, ea* 
Icamped on this hill, while preparing for tbe sisge of Bai^mert. 

Towards the middle of tbe last centary, some laboatiai^ neb, 
while plonghing at CAnNB, then the estate of Keedab Geogbegta, 
Bsq. tamed np a €ag stone, aboat fonr feet long and tbiee broads 
On examining the aperture, it w«s found to contaia the bobea 4»f 
a human body, <' of gigantic diasensions.*' Itie bottom » iidea 
and ends, were composed each of a single slab of stone* Of tUs> 
and several other antietft toaibs discovered in tbe ifiUisdiuls 
neighbourhood of the above plaee, en account whs afionNSrdi 
pnbBsbed by Dr. Ricbard Pooocke, Bisfaop iA MeMb, from vbicb 
we extract the following partioolars. 

''There was sometbii^ singularly cnrionsbi tho«ttiite> br 
ornament, of tbe head ; for it was coi<ered with^anbitaftiihiW tef 
chy^ «> ^tb « cap 3 the border whereof, neody wvsiigbt Kbe 
point, or Brusseh lace, extended bsftf way 4own ibe'fM^ciad. 
Upon handling, it mouldered into dust, eo that no drawi«)g mm 
made of it. Entombed witJh the bones was an um of yellow ckiy. 
Its contents, if thdre were any, are not aientaelied j it » |irobnble, 
therefore, there were'noife ; for the inside of tbegravels <n|n<m»ly 
said to have been free from dirt or dust ; nadtbe om, wpon Imn^ 
ling, foil to pieces, 
' ^'Bfiidelhr urn lay a ring, of 00 inconsiderable Vakie^ nor 



i..: 



[lsinstbr.] uwntf «r vm»nnuam, Mt 

iMil^|{lnll^Avta> O0tifti(|6nii|f IImi tf^ iislii|iiilC!]f teflM iMdotiBMl^ 
MlHrfgA H. U eeMklg of IwMtPjr-five tabk dhnvadi, vegttkriy 
aid «rtU disp0Bed> sel in gM. The twnet wte«. all iirUie^ m il 
blaDched^ bat there was no sign of lire lutving ftmed npcm Mieni* 
'' This discovery leading to a farther search^ five other graves, 
4l t ftiAikr coii9trMllott> \mt of noialler di»eniioiit> having only 
h«nan bones in t^Mtt> were also found* Theso w«re dkyosed la 
il ftgnUr iotm, ^o as neiirly fto environ tlie larger aepokbre j tiro 
b^ttg plaeed on escli eide, and ob^ at tihe leet. it tomi i iped 
ako^ within a «hort time after, that 6^ othsr gmves, of the 
Smdlet soM, Were disoovered within half a «iik of f Us flmd^, 
tfpoh the lands of Adaaistswn ; but tliese, like the lorlner, tma^ 
Meed ^tHj heman bones/*^ 

KitLAiti, ftow a stnall village. Is snppoted hf Camden to Ite 
tflie I^cifterarof Ptolemy. Bfr. Henrls, on the other hand, kt^am^m 
eMtt Sells ^ Tsragh to harrebeea the sntieal L afc e m e, and de^ 
daces the Otymology of the word KfUair fpon A'j/^ nohureh, md 
tiidr, the Bsivol or isfiddle; tUs fiuBt hMkkg ben aipposed bf 
Mno topognq[>hers to Miwl la the^aoMft oeiitral point «f the 
Mand^^-^n the M0S. coteMmfeotid to this work by the Cher* 
6e Montnoreney, Itleiobserved thMtuthe place m ipestsonta 
iHeMed neer the «slebrsited Mi o/* Vif$moek, on whtdi weie 
formerly held provincial assemblies, not less freqneiAly than at 
ThH^h, We wry raHiMnUy believe thet, m the days i»f Ptelemy, 
aAd4own to o mnoh kMr dste, d» tewmnair odkd Killair wan 
thisrseoit, la4t only >ef ^ sW s li g ens -wuA iiisiwhsma, bat was also 
dhO'trOidsWMia of the Irish Mhility> Aontgthe genenl Meeting 
ef )(Im siMes at Usenark AdtntUng the 4)orrectnes8 of tUi 
ffffUk(m, the ObenOkw mggm^ thst the tme etymolagy ef the 
««rd KMr «ay beisnad hi the klA £tf, n ehwoh ar ynish, 
and LiUkar (fMMMiieed LMt) mphro nif sealing. 

A monastery, dedicated to St. Aid and St. Brigid, appears 
to %nfn %eeli fonnded «t Killalr, in >lhetsinth <»ntniy. In the 
fsaf IM, iSHt Hngh Oe Laoy «rBctoi a etvong eaatla at this 

* Archaeologiuy vol. ii, p. SS. 



9M BSAVTftM or IftBMdffV.^ 

phce» whkii^ » after>4ig0t» WW {M)ttes8«d by tiM Mac G 
dynaata of BfojcaakeUL The ShM» iSRmily ancceeded in the pes* 
aeaaion-of Ihb fertreaa, which remaiiiad in that fomily antil tbe 
recent extinction of the male line* 

At DmvuuAXY, about six mUea from Athkme^ towmrda dar 
north eaat> ia.the aeat of Mr. Lennon. — ^Dromraay may be tenMd 
thecradle of theDilloaa^ aa^ from the parent atock at thia place, are 
apmng the numerous branches of that distinguished Anglo-Normatt 
liMaily. Sir Henry De Lion, secretary to John, Earl of Morton^ 
afterwards King of England, obtained, about the year 1185, » 
laige grant of landa in this quarter, being part of the antient domain 
of the powerful septs of 0*Melaghlin, Mac Geoghegan^ and. othera ^ 
to which newly-acquired territory Sir Henry gare the name of 
DUhn's Cauntrjf, by which appellation it was long known. Sir 
Henry held Us lands m eapUe, by the service of sixty knight'a 
fees ; a drcumstance amply illuatratiTe of the extent and impor- 
tance of the grant with which be was faroured. He built tbe 
castle of Drnimrath, or Dnmuimyi in which Ins posterity flourished 
for many ages. Sir Henry De Lion, otherwise Diilom, died in tbe 
year 1944. From Sir Thomaa Dillon, styled Baron of Drnnuniay, 
by Lady Maud, hia wife, daughter oi Edmond le Botitter, Eari 
of Carrick, are descended the funiliea of Dillon now existing in 
Ireland and England. 

The caatlea of Kilkmm^ and Ardmagrmih, both <A whieb are 
in this neighbourhood, and now in ruins, were built by the Dilkwa. 
The handaome demeane attached to the latter stnicture haa been, 
aince ita forfeiture by the DiUons, successively the property and 
rendence of the families of Hurtles and Hatfield. From Henry, 
aecond son of Sir Lucas Dillon, and brother to James, first Earl 
of Roacommon^ who resided here in tbe reign of Elisabeth, ajmuig 
the fomily of Di&on> seated at Kentatown, in Meath. 

Watsbsvown, or ^alieniown, the seat of the Handcock- 
Temple fiunily, is one of the finest demesofes in Westmeath. Th« 
mansion is of ample proportions^ and the estate richly ornamented 



\^v 



tritli a Itixuriaiice of \rood and water.* Here eteod^ formedy, a 
castle, fbanded by John, fourth son of Sir R6bert, and brother off 
Sir Lucas Dillon, before-mentioned. 

MoMTowN, distant two miles from Balymore, is the handsome 
aeat of Theobald Fetherston-himghj Esq. senior, represealatiye of 
that £amily. 

Balyntobber, near the aboye demesne, is the seat of Cothbert 
Fetherston, Esq. A Dominican Friary (often called the Fiiiry of 
Tobber) was foanded here» in the year 14SB, with the permissioa 
of Pope Innocent VIII. 

EicoB> the seat of Francis Magan^ Esq. chief of his antient 
family, is distant from Balymore about two miles and a half. The 
aept of Mac Gean, mr Mac Gean, latterly written Mac Gan and 
MagaB> is a collateral branch of the hoose of Mac Dermott. Six 
enccessive generations of the Magan family have resided at Emoe, 
The hoose is an antient mansion^ approached through a long avenue 
of trees. In this neighbourhood are many vestiges of very femote 
antiquity^ consisting of supposed druidical remains ; artificial 
caves; and numerous earthen elevations, locally termed raths^ ^ 

dans, or moats^ 

At the distance of one mile from Emoe is Rosbmount, a well* 
hnproved demesne. The mansion was bnUt by the late Owen 
Geoghegan^ Esq* whose only daughter and heir married the lata 
Sir Richard Naglcj of Jamestown^ father of the present baronet. 

Sburock, distant one mile and a half from the town <tf Mtmi^ 

* A poem was written about tliirty years back, by the late George 
Hynde, M. D. descriptive of the beauties of this fine demesne. It may be 
Observed that the two branches of Handcock of WUlbrooke, Baron of 
Castlemaine, and Handcock-Temple of Waterttown, derive from one 
stock ; the former from Thomas the eldest son, the latter from StepheOy 
Dean of Clonmacnds^ fourth and youngest son of William Handcock, of 
Twyford, knight itf diesldre for the county of Westmeatb^in the first par- 
liament after the restoration of Charles II. This family (which derives 
from the Handcocks of Bolton, in Lancashire) is of long standing in Ire« 
land, M may be seen in the dvic registries of Dublin. 



ii A ftB6 te^t btihe biffMiet fimly of H<iin«ii' Ihmigimjt ptJOim* 
^'gtm, coatigQoiKi to Sh«fock> 19 Uke^i^o the «b|«l^ of thU ^4^rf 
respectable family. Here 9tood n ciMtle of the Magqwlya^ for-f 
merly chieftains of Colry. 

At Castlk-Lost^ distant Irom Kinnegad seven miles^ we 
find the roins of a castle^ of a mansion-house^ and a church. The 
OMflo itiil ediibits tr$ce9 of strong ootvrorks^ aad was protocted 
liy a ttoat. This caatle^ aad tk^e adjoining maasion^ )ong affordec| 
« resideiico to the Tyirel family. Tb^ anti^iyt aqd nuQod cbnrdp 
contains numerous disregarded and mntila|e4 monumeats of tiiin 
family^ amongst which is conspicuous an altar-tomb> bearing 
the representation^ in alio relievo, of a knight, in complete 
armour. This monument has suffered so much from the neglect 
or contumely of successive ages, that the name it was Intended 
to commemorate cannot now be ascertained. From the embel- 
lishments it would appear to be of the sixteenth century, and 
was, probably, erected for Srr John Tyrrel, of Castle-Lost, 
Hather of James of the same place, whose son, Gerald, or 'Garret, 
Tyrrel, of Castle-Lost, Esq. died April 6th, 1637, and was' 
here interred. The Castle-Lost estates were forfeited by the 
Tyrrel Aimily, in the troubles of the seventeenth Century. 

The small town of Kilbeggan is seated on the Hver Brosna, 
which rises in Lough Foyle, and constitutes, ' fOr some distance, 
the line of division between Westmeath and King's County. 'n€ 
lime olihk place ia usually aaid lo be deri?^ 4rom St« 3of:an, 
who is thought to have founded an abbey here, in the days of St. 
Colomb^cill. A moFO probable etymology is, however, suggested 
^ Jtbe Chevaliar do MonftnoKweacy ^ namely, KU-heg-ttun, the 
diarek on tbe amaH atraaia. 

On the stte, as h aeppoaad, of the rdigioas heme /ooadad 
by St. Becan, a monastery for Clstertian morfM was erected, vk 
the year 1200, by the Anglo-Korman chieftain D*Alton, Lord xA 
Pupgorman. Some unimportant remuns of this building are stfll 
to be seen. The ^iM^' Uads wore un th^ possession of Oliver 



[LBiNtTBR.] iMvnryr vmmsuiuam. 

JairA UuBbMt, Bmmol OtLwrn, id; ih^ iaini «l tfati aoUeonli^ 
JHnmM, iA tltfi fMr 161% ^rd imMmt, fiMi Emi of OilrsB, 
Imi^»<M|| ttft liial* uflM> Lwly Oertmd^ lib ao^isk^'s iraBhtv 
Md k6k> ittfattvited Ite KUbiggn and Evoe^Kg faMei> Ike 
f^bflige pfiMteg to tlM wii ooUatnld aade hflir. Htr ladyship 
m l d o q iK ii liy ttiinriod MitiiiMl Oiomw, ftq. (siMe adiranead to 
«lMb«NNMlEig6)to wli»mthe«teV6<8tato8araiioif visto^ Tha 
Mfrii Ud ttattor of iEiUtoggMi, mtk tlw eaeepeiott of tteiMiBf 
JilMi8> Mmif to ibft fi«fawlt»» Aiiiily.**»Iii tlie monft of Jttm^ 
UtOB, a %ody of iMiirgeti«8 'Was defeated d«K4o(lilitanmi,aftir 
« ttliarfi eiigilgoiti«at, hjeokmd BlalM aid kk nfpmant of Ifaii* 
AMkilM4aii4 «tflHlia. MaoMMo, <llie veM loadar, araa ^lmm 

)M4flMor «ad kMfei|^ 

Vbomfilgbtioiiykoodiif iQibegfiiii OKhitdte awiefoiiB mttuaa 

If ftirtleMl ^iwatbah Ifoimoiljr 'MoagBg totiho MaeOeogiiogaBi^ 

4)MMto of MofoaalioH, «d to tiM rontoDdiikte topaMbi Oho 

WMmlhteaumy and O'CMfips or (KOoiys. 

> . f ■ ' 

ABDNoacBEa, or AxDNuactfiui^ ri80-oidloijHMo*^«i9^«di»- 
taut about three miles from Kilboggan, reqaires notice on acconnt 
flf:Oke«iiiaiii of i^n wftioat tMie, tended b^r Hogh'do liacy. 
AooDodia||te ooafto oatfaM^ tho Lord ffeklioo ido laof met his 
death whilst saperintendiDg the castellated boildings at this place. 
('^ThesmdAirHvi," iriafcm Kts, ^(b^^» .qwrtPtnoJHy frwdmy 
Wo -iMiiwOA <m fcad Ma^ '^ "rIib- 4wre<«ia«ioatti%'SlMa :ti)ri>#ono 
sriNail^ ^a/coiratob idboorir «ad ^afMHaOk As lio «fa8^te«fiof 
4toim lo gim aono dbeoliono to.tho qrofkoiea^'tbe 'vliWw^ lUiiH 
i#mitageflf Ilia poritato, kMdi^ ODi Wo biri 
m^MftOe. Wkm gentkliulBiia oaid lof atottreond 'limbo to hMr# 
iMiidMO loM aafl laudU adihoicfto, AyinMn mrtao^ >to>bat>a4io»i 
tottidH Fofite.'* 

. 11m:feinalao«£ iJm tmUmg <oatoM)hf otte of Aoiliaiy oi» 
now few> and entirely minons. The castle was fonnded« with 
Very accurate jo^pnentj on one of the ekvations termed moata. 
The site of the otmiTtoro^ and itrdecayiiig roDca^ are described, 
^bf « oarefal ei^miner^ in words to the followiog effect. — Pro- 



#S4 BSAVTlSt or UIKLAV»« 



btUy de iMtf A>ind this, like other of the eorioas ftatie&t noolf, 
an high truncated cone, though not qnite dmlar or insnlatod. 
as it IB part of a long .and narrow ridgo. It it aorroanded 
with a tmiich and an outer moond of earth* haYiog very mde 
caves down tbroogh its centre, which were open lately.—Oa the 
western part of the high mount are the remains of a small and 
roond tower, bnilt of lime and stone. A stone wall, whoso frag* 
meats are still visible, sarronnded the remainder of the platform 
of this high mount. The next lower area, on the sooth-east side, 
was defended by a sweeping wall, in which was the great gato 
of entranoe, accessible only by a dffaw-J>ridge over a deep fosse, 
aaKN>rted by two piers of atone^workj one communicating with 
the gate of the fort, and the other joined to the Ugh land on the 
south side of the losse. All the walls that surrounded the upper 
works are now disparted, and scattered in laige fragments over 
the lower area. Traces of their foandati<m, however, are TisiblA. 
The principal stone work that has escaped the ravifeaof time and 
war, is found in the two piers of the drawbridge and lower gate, 
vulgarly called the Horse-leap.* 

Bbacca Castlb, otherwise GooiiULOiroB, is the handsomo 
modem seat of the Handy family. Contiguous are casHs mias. 

Castlbtom*Q«ogbboan is a small and poor town. Tfaia 
antient manor was for many sges the pr<^wrty of tiie MacGeeg*^ 
hegans, and constituted a principal seat of timt Ismily, which is a 
hranch of the bouse of O'Neill, Princes of Tyrone and Ulster. 
The estate was sold to the hite Lord Sunderlin by Ignatius Geog* 
hi|;an, of London, Esq. The church is a pleasing buiUingy 
erected under the auspices of the late Dr. 0*Bainie» bidiep of 
Meath. Not far distant from that structure are the mms of ike 
family aumsion of Map-Geogh^gan, and of ananticBtchBrdi or 

* Abridged from the TrantactioBS of th^ R. I. Academyf ▼ol.lL p. 4^ 
St seq.^The name of Hor$eleap, by which this place is generally known 
in the neighboarhood. Is derived from a fatile tradition of Sir Hngh de 
Lacy having leaped his horse over the space between the pfers of flia 
draw-hrldge. 



N 



[LXINtTBE.] MVHTY Or.WBSTM»A». iii 

aoBwHc biMdiiig, In Hm conetery an seTml mMuvmits u 
memberi of the fiuailios ^ G^oogli^gaa^ BoayDge; Wyer; «id 

SiMk. 

Iq tius part «f thooomity ara to be aeea nniDeroiis earth-werka 
and vaaligea o£ Ptigan antk|]i]ty« bighly worthy of mTaatigatioiij 
and ol deecri|pttTe.iioCioe> inaworkof a more extended character. 

jAiffB8TowM*BO08B« thoaeatof Sv Richard NaglCj Bart, aita-* 
aled IB the antient territory of Mac Geoghegaa^ ia a spadona aad 
iHuidaome manaion^ partly built by Kedagh Ge^^hegao, Eaq. 
natemal grandfather of the late Sir Richard Nagle^ but enlarged 
with winga by the latter gentleman, who waa father of the preaent 
proprietor. At thia aeat ia preaenred an interesting collection of 
portraita, many of whieh are heir-looma in the fiunUy, The follow* 
ing are entiitled to partionlar notice. 

The Cauniets of Richuumd, mother to King Henry Vil. date 
1505. Her ladyahip is repreaented in a blade dress^ and in an 
attitude expreaaiTc of grief $ bar handa clasped, and nepoaiBg 
noumfiilly on her knees. ^ 

Queen Atme Bolept, in a yellow bodice : lings en her thanbs 
and fingers. 

Nu§i &Neili, the last and turbolent Garl of Tyrone. In this 
fine half-length the earl ia portrayed as a man of a martial aapect « 
the laatares strong ; the /compleidon dark 3 the beard and whiskers 
bushy. He wears a rich suit of armoar, atadded with gold. The 
left hand and arm are ^aeed a^Mmio, and. rest on his hip. io 
the right hand he beara a tmncheon, pointed downwards. Th^ 
thumb of tiie same hand is ornamented with a ring. The whole 
espreaaion d this .portrait indicalea the impetnons and aaruly * 
character of the far-rlamed O'Neill, the Irish scourge of Eliaa«^ 
beth*8 government. 

A head of the mempiable oU Cmmiea efDeemand, 

Bwrbara, Dnckeen .of Cleoekmd. A small half length by Sir 
Peter Ldy. 

Sir Rkhard Nagle, of Monammff, attorney general to King 
/ames II. whom he accompanied into exile. 

The Hon. Anne HamUion, eldest daughter to George, fourth 




\ 



fM muOTtct ep fBBr«A«»4 



VIsMMt a^mhmm. Thb lacfy onrnid John BtmrmB, mi Ite 
MmIa^ eoanty of Mifo, Eiq. an aaoistir of Sir Rinhard Naglo« 
In thif excellent portrait of a loyely female^ Mrs. Broime is mpnk 
tenled in a wUte oonrt dien. A gddaa neeUaee, stncUod witk 
fteeiona geme^ ie placed (a aoporflooae onMunen1 1) on the beM« 
tHU nedc. A raff oovers 4lie back ef tlie lieai and f|ioMera> and 
on the left arm is a bine 8carf . It will be recollected that acarree 
of this description were worn by the iadies of die court, at Iho date 
of the pietwe under noCiee (IMS) b honoar of the Intetik CadHb» 
Hne of ffortagal^ aiteiwnrds Qaeen of Cbades II. the prins— i 
haying diosen thnt costsme as tile nark by whidi the king sight 
recognise her^ when thdr first aiestiag abonid take place. • 

The An. Mmiy HmtMum, sister of the lady mentioned niisnr^ 
and wife «f Gerrid DlUon, Esq. of the hoaaeof Fsitiick, raeoi^hr 
of Dablin, and prime Serjeant to Janes f I, whom he loHs^wnd 
Into Prance. 

■Seipsra) ipealigea of frish antiqnity are lifcnirisn reposiled 
In this msMbn. We 'prteent an aceomt of' the most vsmnifaUf 
of these, nearly in the wmrds of a MS. cessmnnioUion of the 
Ghnr. do MentflipaBncy, Irom which we Jbnve gresdy pnifilad in 
onr aoconnt of this district. 

W JaiMStownwhonee is pneerfnd a cnrione rdie^ whidi 
etMbUs the naqnestionable marks of n iremete antiqnitf . Thia in 
ealtod the Bme^Omm, or srwew, ef Ar. fkkunMM, the paftsnn 
of Mac G aog h egan's iterritory. It is eompoaed of nak, ovedoid 
v^th-^Mes of copper, rndely naUei and tetennd. Abnnt fiwr 
feet of -Ihe «h«ft, uMiieh fiprmoiiy sras longer, otill Bemsip ; the 
Test has been broken off nid'toft Hie nslnsn,.or top» of 4he 
croi4eris, 'in4lhemnnnar, separated inm tihesfaaftt nmdnumi 
«(f It is no linger in eilisleoce. This fofatesa of bronne, »kikid 
with gold and sil?er lines, representing Tarieaa%aret< k li* 
also set with preaooe stone s and geam } mfd coness, Ike tiie 
{jktes of 4lie shaft, a piece of «ak. Donbtleea, thi» anoaed an- 
tique bad been committed to the safe-keeping of the Dynast lOf 
Moycarihell, by the moaks 4t Kilbeggan, <who heM in peenliar 
Yoneration the sainted Cebmb'^Gill,) nt the period ef thednaisKr 
^station, and diss^ltttion ef ^e H gt o n t hoi 



"> .^ 



[lbinstbb.] c«wtt or wsmriAra* 9S7 

Besides a bronze celip and other rade instriimeDts of verj 
early times, 8ir Richard Nagle possesses a cnrious and formidable 
weapon, used by the antient Irish in close combat, which is 
perhi^ of an nniqne desoriptioD* It :is likewise of bronse, 
and has somewhat the shape of an axe, without a handle. 
It was designed to be wielded with the hand alone, no socket 
or spike appearing by which a handle could be attached 
to the blade. This weapon is eight and a half inches long, 
where it is grasped with the hand) fonr and a half inches 
broad on one side, and two and a half in the opposite direction : 
both sides, or edges, being eqaally sharp. In close fight the 
execution this deadly instrnment is calculated to effect, may easily 
be conceived. It is ornamented with rudely engraved figured. 

In the country bordering on Jamestown-house is seen, among 
several vestiges of the ages usually called Droidical, the place of 
inauguration for the antient dynasts of Moycashell, locally termed 
Mmc Geo^hegan*9 Chair. 



BND OP THB COUNTY OB WESTNBATtf; 



VOL. II. 



t&S •■Arnriit or iiismkv. 



COUNTY OP LONOFORD. 

This small oonnty is situated near the centre of the islancf/ 
and is separated on the west from Roscommon, in the province 
of Connanght, by the river Shannon. On the north-weat lies 
Ldtrim^ and on the north*east Cavan. In other directions it 
meets the oonnty of Westmeath. Its extreme length, as stated 
by Dr. Beaufort, is twenty miles ; and its greatest breadth nine* 
t^n miles.* It is divided into the six baronies of Longford i 
OroMordi Ardagh; Moydoej RaiMme } and Skrowle, The 
parishes are twen|^-tbree in number, twenty<two of which are. 
in the diooess of Ardagh, and one is in the diocc9S of Meath. 

In general aspect this country is flat; but towards its nmthem 
extremity, where it projects into the counties of Leitrim and 
Cavan, its character varies, and the surface becomes rugged and 
uneven. Too laige a proportion is still engrossed by bogs : the 
remainder is chiefly under tillage. This county is abnndantiy 
watered, and is, indeed, liable in many parts to injurious floods. 
Besides the Shannon, which forms its western boundary, the 
principal rivers are the /fMjf, the CarnVm, and the Fallen. The 
chief natural productions found beneath the surfiice are iron-ore, 
lead, and ochres j to which may be added marbles in great variety, 
and fine slate. The principal towns are Longford and Gnmard, 
neither of which possesses much commercial importance, or extent 

* Memoir of a Map, ftc. p. 65.— A ttattotical siirTey of this county 
was written by the late R. L. Edfeworth, Esq. bot the work has not been 
printed. We are told by Miss Edgeworlh, in the *' Memoirs*' of her 
father, th^t '* it waited so long for the finlshinf of a coanty»nwp, that It 
will now be necessary, before it can be given to the public, to add to 
what he wrote a view of the changes that have taken place in the county 
since 1806, when his survey was written. How much the whole county 
has been improved by large plantations, by buildings, and by better modes 
of agriculture, will then appear, and a judgment may thence be formed of 
the rate of general improvement." B^molrs, ftc. v. II. p. 367. 



IJLBINaTBS.] 



COtNTY or LONGFORD. 



959 



of population, lif nch linen is made in this county, and considera- 
ble quantities of yarn are sent to di£ferent parts of the island. 

This district was formerly termed Annaly^ and was the prin- 
cipality of the O'Ferralls, whose descendants were in possession 
of the western parts in the early years of the seventeenth century^ 
next to whom the ftunilies of Tuite and Delamere were then the 
chief proprietors of land. Annaly was formed into a county, un- 
der its present name, by Sir Henry Sidney, lord deputy, in 
the reign of Elisabeth. 

The population is thus stated in the returns made under the 
act of 1819. 



f 
I. 



Baronicft 
Half Baronies, or Barlthes. 



Ardagh, . 

Grauard, 

Longford, 

Rathiine, 

Shrowle,. , 

Moydoe, 



Total. . . . 



Number of 


Oroaa 


HovMca. 


Population 


2^17 


17,787 


4,589 


98,171 


3,615 


90,389 


9,090 


11,464 


1,431 


8,967 


1,713 


9,839 


16,348 


95,917 



, According to the returns made in the year 1891, the number 
of houses was 17,390, and the number of inhabitants 107,709 « 
Thus, according tO those returns, the increase of inhabitants, 
between the years 1813 and 1891, would appear to have amounted 
to 11,785. 

LONGFORD. 

the capital of this county, is seated on the river Camlin, at 
tlve distance of fifty-nine miles firom Dublin. This is a small 
but respectable town, and returned two members to the Irish 
parliament unfil the period of the union. Longford, under the 
name of Athfadha, as we are informed in the Monasticon, obtained 
some notoriety in an early age of history, on account of an 
abbey, of which St. Idas, one of the disciples of St. Patrick, 
was abbot. A monastery also was founded here, in the year 

s9 



1400, byO'Fcfnll, prince of Anna];, for frian or the order sf 

St. Dominick, under (be invocation of the Mrgin Mary. The 
baildinga of this religions boose were destroyed by fire in 1429, 
but were restored with the aid of contribotion!. eoconraged by 
iodnlgaices granted by the popes Nfartin V. and Eogene IV. The 
last grant of the nooastic building was made by Kisg James f . 
in faToor of Frauds VIscooDt Valentia, and the chnrcb of ibe 
friary was givra as a parocbia] chorch. 

The castle of Longford has been the scene of sereral conflicU, 
the principal of which occnrred in the year I64I, at which line 
the Irish besi^ed and captared the boildiog for the OTecralls, 
the antient lords of this town and district. At that sangninary 
period destrvctioo geDcrally followed sarrendcr, and the garrison 
were put to the sword, althongh, as is said, they had beeo 
promised quarter. Jn regard to ecclesiastical amogement, Long- 
ford is ntoated in the parish trf Temple-Hichael ; aad the anm of 
3490/. haa been receired from the board of first frnils. towards 
the erection of a sp>rioiis and handsome chnrcb, acting as a place 
of protcstant worship for the uiou at Urge. Near Ae town is a 
dkarter school for sixty boys. The town was incorporated in the 
year 1 668, botthegrautofaweeklymarkethadbeen obtained in 
1005, by Richard, the tenth l>aron of Delvia. Independent of 
tboac akeady noticed, the principd bniUings, of a pabKc cjunw- 
ter, are a coatt-boase, gaol, and barracfca. — Longford gives the 
titk of carl to the family of Pakenham, whose prindpal seat ia 
Irdasd we hate noticed in onr description of the connty of 
Westmeath. 

CAnnicKCLASs, the seat of Thomas Gleadowe Neweomew, 
Viaconnt N e wc o m en , aad Baron Kewcomen, of A/ossfmn, im 
this connty (at which place the baronet family of Newconeii was 
seated (or many ages) is sitnated in the vicinity of the tofrs of 
Lo^ord, towards the north-east. This is a rery fine residence, 
aad the demesne, which is seated on the borders of the river 
Caialin, displays moch more diveruty aad real beaatj than ia. 
usual with the moat highly caltivated esUtes of tlus coantv. 



[leINSTKR.] county op LONGFORD. 261 

* * 

Cast'le-Forbes^ distant from Longford about three milet^ 
towfttrds the north-west, is the handsome seat of George Forbes, 
Earl of Granard. An estate, consisting of 600 acres of arable 
and' pasfnre land, and 66B acres of wood and bog, afterwards 
^ected, with other adjacent lands, into the manor of Castle- 
Forbes, with the privileges of a weekly market and an annual 
fair, was granted by King James I. to Sir Arthur Forbes, ancestor 
of the present noble proprietor of this demesne, in 1619i By that 
gentleman was constructed a mansion at this place, which sustained 
a severe siege in the year 1641. Lady Forbes, then widow of 
the above-mentioned Sir Arthur, garrisoned this residence with 
the whole of her British tenants in the county of Longford. The 
assailants were about 500 in number, but were repulsed at four 
difierent times, after obstinate struggles ; nor did the gallant 
Ikdy consent to surrender, until the garrison was reduced to the 
last stage of misery through the want of provisions. Power to 
empark 800 acres at Castle-Forbes, for deer, was granted to Sir 
Arthur ForbeH, afterwards first Earl of Granard, by Charles II. 
in 1661.* 

Nieaf Longford is also Mount Jessop, the pleasing residence 
of the Rev. DanieUessop. 

Granard,! distant from I>nblin fifty-two miles, is situated 

* Them'aiisiott of Casde-Forb^i i% honourably noticed, in the Edge worth 
Memeirsf a« the seat of poliBhed* intertourBe, in yearft not long since 
pasted, htftween persontof moch'taste'; and of conAidbrhble distinction for 
literary attainments, as well as th^ fortuitous advantages of rank and 
affluence. The late Lady Moira, mother of Lady Granard, will long be 
recollected by all who duly Tenerate mental accomplishments, and the 
still more potent attractions of a benevolent heart. Here that amiable 
lady drew round her many persons conspttiuoutt, like herself, for conver- 
sational talents, among whom not the least interesting were the principal 
members of the family of Bdgeworth-town, WhoberMldenceis distant about 
nine miles from Castle-Forbes. 

+ The following ingenious remarks of l)r. 0*Conor apply to the ety- 
mology of the name by which this town is known. — Amongst some ** very 
ancient religious aames, in which the Irish and Phoenicians agree," tUa' 



MS ftSAOTtIS or tULANO. 

in the sorth-east part of tbeooonty. This is a neat and respeetabl« 
town, consistiog chiefly of one good street, aboot half a mile in 
length. Near one extremity of the street is an artificial monnty 
of considerable elevation, nsnally called the moat of Grapard. 
The antient national instrument of Ireland has, in recent yeara^ 
experienced a pleasing degree of patronage in this town, prizea 
having been annaally given to the best performers on the harp. 
Concerning the origin of this local custom in modem times, in- 
formation to the foIlowiDg eflfect is afforded by Mr. Walker, in hia 
Memoirs of the Irish Bards. Mr. Dangan, a native of Granard^ 
who had settled in Denmark, and realized a handsome fortune^ 
' determined on employing a part of his wealth ifi benefactions to 
the coantry which had given him a place of birth. The encou- 
ragement of practitioners on the harp formed one object of his 
liberality, and he authorized a fiiend in Ireland to propose prizes^ 
apportioned to different degrees of merit. The first trial of skill 
took place on August Ist, 17B4, and judges were appointed by 
the company then assembled, which was numerous and respect-: 
able. The prizes were pecuniary, and on the following scale. 
Seven guineas to the best performer 5 five to the second } three 
to the third 3 and two to the fourth. Granard gives the title of 
Earl, in the Irish peerage, to the family of Forbes, of Scottish 
origin. 

writer meBtioDB *^ Orian^ the Sun, from which all the Grian'Oraif GtLA" 
wAKDt, and Granges oi Ireland appear to derive their ortgiju."^ Jl^fHer 
addQcing several instancesy in which tliisteraiis distiaguishaMe ia.<h» 
names of places in Ireland at the present day. Dr. O'poaor oli^^vnt ** tl^ 
in remote ages the San was adored by the same name in Pbcenicia.— TIm 
epithet Orjfnmut Apollo occurs twice in YirgUy in ten inscriptions dis- 
covered by Grater, and in one by MuratorL— Facciolati says that Apolla 
was called Chrjfncem by the Phrygians, and Karneioi by the DocianSji — ^Thn 
Dea Carnea is mentioned in Ovid's Fasti, as a goddess, whose rellgloa la . 
antiquated and unknown. He adds that the ancients called tier gratify 
* Granen dixere priores.' Now these religions n^es, continnes Or. 
O* Conor, are familiar in Ireland. Came is the sacred heap oC st^eaji 
Carneach is a pagaR priest ; and OrUn is tlie sun. — The Irish CrotnUmcM^ 
vulgarly called Ganie*8 beds, retain the name of Griai^ to this day.'* 
Bib. MS. Stowcnsis, vol. i. pp^46-7. 



_.__ J 



« iA ae ¥Mi^ of GMuterd is C^tm^, tine i^t ot VhfUam 
TlMiAipidft^ Eif. In tbi same n^KmriidM h also llie rMdence 
^Edward O^Patt^ll^ Esq. ttsaistant barrister. 

In tlds lioith<*eMterii pUn of the omiity are sereral lotaghs^ 
but not of greajt ^tetat, nor strcb as are conspicoons for beknty. 
On the wefitem bordert Of L&ugk CMiu^h, stood the monastei^ of 
lierha^ wM6h wad founded by St. PhtHck^ and placed nnder the 
faiTOcation of the Wgiil Mary. This fontidatioh was renovated !n 
the year 1205> by the Tnite family^ who re-fonnded the abbey for 
atonks of the (^sterfiah order. lUdiard OTerraO^ the last abbots 
was mtde bishop of Atdagh in the year 1541 . Tbe parish-chnrch of 
Lerhli^ or Abbey-Laragh^ now occupies part of the site of Ue 
former monastie bnildings. On the borders of Loiigh iSawnagh 
is Ih* seal of John Dopping^ Esq. 

' 6ff. JonirsToWk^ distant six miles from Oranard^ towards 
the Irest^ is a small /airiowu, at present^ of Hltle consideraiion^ 
ifltlloagh it had the prifilege of retnming two members to parHa- 
mmij pretione to the Union. It is believed that a grey friai^^ 
dedicated to St. Jok^ the Baptist^ formerly stood at tliis placej,' bnt 
we are not nware that the slightest traces of sdch a building ar^' 
BOW to be dl0cov<ired. 

• Si^oswonTH-ToWN, situated near the eastdrn horded o^ iiie 
ooliitty^ at the distance of fifty-two mOes f^om Dublin, demands 
fBtfticlikf aofiee^ oil HMrant of tire distinguished litei^ary fUhily 
tt9m whieh it derives ah irppeilation. 

The family of Edgeworth is of English descent^ and enteired 
Irdand in the reign of Queen Elizabeth. Of this family the most 
eiBinem persons^ within the century subsequent to its settlement 
iii Mtmdl, Were Edward iSdgeworth^ bishop of Down and Connor, 
aad: Mn brotSher, Francis E^eworth^ clerk of the tlanaper in 
]iei9^— Riehard Lov^ll Edgeworth, Esq. w&ose Bterary effof t's, iii 
oenjuncfion with those of his daughter^ have \ri recent years im- 
IMtfted io Ihe name ti hi|^ degree of public interest^ was bohi at 
BmOi^ hi 1744. . HiBial9ierhad studied at the Temple, but retii'ed 



SM JM4CtlM or IBSUJTB. 

after hb marriage^ to tke UmSty vendeoee at Edgifiwortt-ldwflV 
where he lived to an advanced age, in the predeat maagemeat aad 
enjoyment of a good estate. Mr. R. L^ Edgeworth was '' led 
over the threshold of learning** by the Rev. Patrick Haghes> who 
was likewise the first classical instmctor of Oliver GoMsmith, and 
several other literary characters. Me was afterwards placed at 
different schools^ both in Irehnd and England; and was ako- « 
SBCcessively astadentat Trinity College, Dublin, and Corpas 
Christi, Oxford. 

Mr. Edgeworth married so early in life that he had a*6on before 
he was twenty yeara of age; and afterwards resided for Some years 
in England, where he kept terms at the Tem{de, birt devoted a 
large portioa of his time to literary and sdeatiie pnrsnits. 

On the decease of the wife to whom ho was thna nnited aft a 
more early period than was consistent with sound discretion, Mr. 
Edgeworth speedily married a lady (Miss Honora Sneyd) whose 
mental qualifications were pecnUarly adapted to his viewa of the 
refined pleasure to be derived from domestic enjoyments. Bui 
lus happiness with this lady was, also, of comparatively iNrief cbra- 
tion ; and he twice entered into a matrimonial connexion after her 
death. His last wife* who survives him, was deleter of the Rev. 
Daniel Augnstas Beaufort, L. L. D . whose name and literary worth 
w<i%otice in our remarks on Collon, in the county of Louth. 
Shortly after his third marriage, and in the year 1782, Mr. Edge- 
worth settled with his family on his paternal estate at Edgeworth- 
town; and here, in the most enviable of all stations, that of a 
country gentleman, he resided, with the interruptions only of 
occasional journeys to England, Edinburgh, and Paris, until the 
lamented termination of his life ; a period of nearly thirty-fire years. 
A mind so strong, so active and benevolent as bis, was admirably 
calculated for the arduous duties he had to encounter, as a resident 
landlord, intent at once on improving the state of bis own donasn, 
and of the humble classes of society, in a part of Irdand too much 
n^ected for many ages. An outline of intelligence respecUng 
the means he employed, and the degree of success with which his 
endeavours were attended, cannot fiiil of conveying i^reealile 



[lbinstbb.] ciMim« or Lotwtoso. MB 

iii9lnictioa$ and we pnietit it in tlMWonb of hb Mnkr bat 
candid bMigmphei^-^Uie daagbtor wlio emnlatea liia bettyirtliet.^ 
Mr. £dgewortk*8 public exMioBs to Iblfii Ida dutiea to aockty » 
were exer<»aed on an extentire aeide. At an aera of oentiderable 
political importance he obtained a seat in the Iriah parfinnent (aa 
reprenentative of the boroi^jhof St. John'a Town, intUacoonty;) 
andj while he remained in the aenate> he had the aat i afaetion and 
honour of directing the attention of the houae to a aobject of in* 
calculable intereat to Ireland, — lAe edmcaiion cf the people. In 
coneeqnence of hia effi>rt8, leave waa given *^ to bring in a bill 
for the Improvement of the.EdacaUon of the People of Ireland;'* 
nnd thence proceeded, at a future period, the appointment of a 
board, and commiaaionera of education. It it obaervaUe that all 
the peraonal amuawenta and private pntauita of Mr* Edgewovth. 

• In the tecoad Tolaiiie of the *' MMMtin'* of her ftitbor, wo are told 
by MiM Edgewortb, that ** the ezertioos he made from the time he lettlod 
mX Edge worth-town in 1782, in building comfortable dwelling! for tome 
of his tenants, and in amiiting others to build the same for themseNes;-^ 
his nerer following the vile system of making forty shilling freeholders, 
morsly for eioctloooering pnrposeo— the reasonable rent and tenare at 
which he let Us land-*tho onOMal time which he ollowod hit tenoatt to 
make their rent— his freeing them from duty^mwhr-^im vtfoWmg aa mnckaa 
possible, in his leases, oppressive or restrictiYe clauses — ^hit respecting the 
ienanft rights whereever tenants had improved — his encouraging them by 
tile certainty of justice and kindness — his disconraging all expectation of 
partial fhTor or jir0f«e#jefi, If they transgressed the laws, or if they lived In 
iadoleace and iaehrlety ^ succeeded altogether beyood his most sangvlhe 
hopes, in meliorating tiw condition of the people. £spooially witUn the 
last twenty years, his tenantry, and the whole face of his estate, strilUagly 
improved in appearance, and essentially in reality. The poorest claseof 
his tenants, who in former times lived in smoke and dirt, in too pitiable a 
condition for description, have now to most of their cabins chimneys and 
windows, eoaifortablo thatth, and good earthen floors. The dnnghills no 
loager stop np the windowt, nor is * the fint step out of the cabio into the 
diet. ' The number of slated houses and boarded floors has much increased i 
and, wliat is of more consequence, and of better promise, for tlie future 
permanence of good habits, and for the progress of improvement, much of 
vrhat has been done has been effected, not by the landlord, but by the 
Ceaantf." Vol. ii. pp.^a68-9. 



mift dto grttter iHut nf IdsUfc^ i»ltinted m tiMe fcr ttechariel. 
|b 4Ua pttHBhka tend ti aniriig emptojmaKt^ ud aeferal 
diseoveiMt^ dr imftrntfUtcata, ift 8ck»w> cflhded In tke«c Imtfi 
•f aitartAuMttty hfti^ bMi tiioeeMftilly wtxapMi i* Tttnooii 
drptrtBMito of the '' red bniinees of Ufe.'* 

It nut BoodM aqpinieBt to show that the h^q^istoss of «ii)^ 
is aorer fo pwe^ and that the uoet eethaaUe of his feelings lore 
aarer so truly gratified^ as when one lelieitiMiS anion rettaiBa- 
anhroken through all the varjiag stages of Mfe. tlie diief afllfe* 
tioas of Mr. Bdgaworih proeeeded fiotti the reiteratad sevaitjr 
arifli wUeh the fine^ and prisiarf tie of his sodal afeelions Was 
savend fay the hand of death. la aDeviatiOB^ he was fortaaata 
in fiadtnga saocession of vhrtaas hi those who repeatedly chdtned 
tiie companionship of his hearty and an anion of affections and 
interests, scareely to be expeetiBd, amongst the oflbprhig of 
sererai extinct compacts and of an existing connexion. 

Much of this latter consoling charm may be ascribed to the 
wisdom of his parental role, and to the jnst regulation of hia 
feelings. We have observed that all Mr. Edgewortk's do m ast aa 
parsaits were rendered of advaataga to thapabtis; and it aiaybe 
assorted that a v«ry peenHar benefit to society at large, proceeded 
from the drcnmstance of his having an imnsnal succesuon of 
funiles, calling forth his philosophical attention to the cnltnra d 
their opening minds, with an ardoar which w3l not be expostad^ 
or win not be aiet with> in miy bat a parent's bosom. It iv HfM 
Imowtk that lids, gendeamtt, with the sid of his ehier and oda- 
brated daaghter, Maria, performed the task of educating the 
children of his three last marriages/ and their united remarks, 
modes, and precepts have been communicated to die world ia 
" Practical Edacation," aad other works, wUch have ia air 
emineat degiee advaaoed the seiisnoe of jweaile tuition. On flNr 
exceUenee of tiiese works ft must be needless to dilate; bntit 
may be remarked that the family of Edgeworth-town, conspicu- 
ous for the solid merits which enrich, and the charms of mfli*nffT 



[LtiKSTBB.] cooim or i0ifya«a 9if 

tfhidi adorq, the world, afibid the most aptiiiMetarytciliif Aa^ 
doctriiies there iacnlcated. 

Mr. Edgewerth died^ after a long and painfnl iOneeej ea Hm 
||tb of Jane, 1817, and was aneceeded In the estate ef Bdge- 
worth-town by Ing eldest ton, LoveH Sdgewarth, Baq. the^ 
present proprietor of this demesne. So mncb pnUic inteieat i| 
taken in the wel&re and sitoation of a &wily, fnna which great 
information and amnsenent hare been derived, Aat it is bioaai* 
bent on the present writer to proit by his opportimittes, in obseiT* 
ing tliat the same harmony wldcb existed wUbt a ftither's gniding 
hand was recognized in every moyemeitt, etill prevaila amongsl 
its nnmerons members $ the whole forming a memorable example 
ot the lasting effiacts which may be e]q>ected to aeeree fimn a 
syatem of jndidons education^ pmrsned with nnremittisi^ pev* 
severance. 

The name of Mari^ the eldest daughter of Mr. Edgewesrdi, 
is so closely blended with the literary character of that gentleman ^ 
and stands individually so high in pubHe esteem, that we cannot 
condnde onr brief notice of thif polished and encelleat ismily, 
without adverting to the nature of her dams on the unuenal 
djqpree of approbation she has experieaced. 

It would be superfluous to eiqmtiaite, at any length, on 
the diaracter of writings so generally read, and so fairly 
appreciated, as. the works of this kdy. The lesding foature in 
ber UScsary productions is the sanie Mih, bright, aa4 unaflected 
good sense that is conspicnens in her private demeaaoux. Imag^ 
nation is the vein of mind least cultivated, in most of her writings. 
Utility, gracefully effected, appears, indeed, to be the object she 
steadily and snccessfiiUy holds in riew. Her knowledge of the 
human heart is rendered additionally operative, in the detail of 
literary execution, by an aeenrate aeqnaintanee witb manners | 
for which latter adiratage she was, as is stated by herself, under 
many obligations to the experience of a parent, who was at once 
her '* critic, partner, father and friend." That a fellowship in 
literary composition long existed between Mr. Edgeworth and 
his highly-gifted daughter, is wdl known) and to tins associaliesi 



4m «fBAt^i«s of iMi;Afrir. 

tbe public iisl indebted for some exquisite delineations of frisfr 
manners^ combining the broad with the delicate features of orij^-^ 
nal character.* 

Otor limits, and the nature of our* Work^ prevent us fi'om^' 
tradng the degrees of this literacy connexion^ with materials 
afforded in the Memoirs of Mr. Bdgeworth, begun by himself 
and concluded by his daughter; but we must observe^ that, from 
Miss Edgewortb's part of that biographical performance, it is 
quite evident that she is qualified to amuse and to instruct, from 
the resources of her own genius and experience; whfle wc join* 
with her in deploring the loss of an assisting friend, so valuable^ 
and revered. 

The famUy seat of EdgewortE-tbwn is a respectable and^ 
commodions structure, originally built about the middle of the* 
eighteenth century, but so greatly altered and improved as to be' 
chiefly re*edified, by its kte owner. In effecting- these improve- 
ments, we are told by the amiable continuator of his Memoirs, 
that he '' went on by slow degrees, as prudence required, year after' 
year, as his circumstances could afford, without in any one year 
exceeding his income : he made additions, or alterations, til?after 
exerting some engineering skill, not without frequent predictions' 
from the lookers on, that he would pull the whole house down^ 
he succeeded in making it such as to satisfy his own moderafer 
wishes, and a comfortable residence for a large family." 

The grounds attached to the mansion, as we are Informed in* 
tbe same work, ^ appeared to have been originally laid out in* 

* Prominent amon|f the workg of ihis description, pablished ** in^ 
partnership*' by Mr. and Miss Edgeworth, is tbe ^' Essay on Irish Bolls." 
Concemlog this amnsing publication Miss Edgeworth* observes, ** like' 
first design of this Essay was his:*— nnder the semblance of attack, ber 
wished to shew the English public the eloquence, wit, and talents of the 
lower classes of people in Ireland. Working zealously upon the ideaa 
which he suggested, sometimes, what was spoken by him, was afterwards 
written by me ; or when I wrote my first thoughts, they were corrected and 
Improved by him ; so that no book was ever written more completely ift^ 
partnership." Memoirs, &c. 



>^ 



V 

* 



[UMNSTBR.] jCOCNTY OF LONArOIID. 969 

humble imitalioD, on a small $cale, of the frontigpiece to MHler'a 
Gardener's Dictionary^ hi the original Datch taste.*' The whole 
demesne was nendy-modelled by Mr, Edgeworth^ shortly after he 
acceded to the estate. Nature has yielded few beauties to this 
part of the county j but a correct judgment has laboured, with 
all attainable success, to supply her deficiencies in tlie demesne of 
Edgeworth-town, the lawns and plantations of which are truly 
agreeable, and of a character consistent with the dwelling. 

The village of Edgeworth-town has a neat and improving aspect^ 
at once o'editable and grateful to the family in which the property 
of the ** town*' is vested. The Church, a pleasing structure, of 
moderate dimensions, is ornamented with a spire of unusual cha- 
racter, executed after a plan of the late Mr. Edgeworth.* 

In the church-yard is the burial-vault of the Edgeworth family ) 
and among the inscriptions to different members of this family, 
within the church, is that of the late Richard Lovell Edgeworth, 
Esq. which is placed upon a plain marble tablet on one side of the 
communion-table, and simply states his name, and the dates of 
bis birth and death. f 

• This ipire Is fifty feet hi^h, from the base to the star with which it is 
crowned. It was put together withinside of the tower, and when completely 
flnished, was drawn up in eighteen minutes by machinery, and placed in its 
present situation. It consists of a skeleton, of hammered English Iron, 
co?ered with strong Welsh slates, capped where they meet on the skeleton 
by copper hands and cramps i the whole beiag painted, and covered with 
sand, so as to imitate stone. Before the spire was put together in the tower, 
the parts were prefionsly fitted on the ground, not perpendicularly, but 
lying sideways, so that each bar could be easily reached by the workmen. 
The cost of this spire did not exceed one hundred and fifty guineas, while 
a spire of the same dimensions, boUt of Portland stone, would have cost at 
least six times that sum i and its erection gave such general satisfaction, 
that the board of first fruits thought proper, as a mark of their appro- 
bation, to pay the whole of the expense Incarred.— See an account of the 
construction of this spire, and of the machinery by which it was raised, in 
Kicholson*s Journal, vol. XXX. 

+ The following directions concerning his burial were left in writing 
by Mr. Edgeworth, addressed to his sons, who were his executors :— ** 1 
desire, that I may be buried in as private a manner, and at as little ezpsat» 



<70 nuAxmnti oit imuaih. 

A SckodttoT grfltnitmn ei ae a&Cfn was established in this vilfagtf 
liy Mr. Lorell Edgewortb^ ia 1810. TUs institntioiir is on a wise 
aid beaevofent phn^ tbe leading featores df which are in oonfor-« 
miCy te a scheme devised fer soch an establishment by the respected 
ilitlier of that gentleman . We have particnlar pleasure in observing 
that this school flourishes^ beyond the utmost hopes of its founder 
and his friends. The numf>er of scholars is kt present nearly two 
hundred, and the institution meets with the equal approbation of 
ppotestants and catholics. 

In the latter part of the year 17^8, this viUage and its neigh- 
bonrfaood participated in the horrors consequent on the rebellious 
disposition, which then prevailed in many parts of Ireland. To 
the honour of the county of Longford, it long remained quiet 
amidst the portents of that disastrous season, and in contempt of 
the allurements held forth by those who were equally wild in views 
and promise. But the spirit partially existed, though it was for 
some time repressed. 

When the arrival of the French- was daily expected, in the 
autumnal months of 1798, Mr. Edgeworth deemed it expedient to 
raise from his tenants a corps of infantry, into which protestanta 
and catholics were indiscriminately admitted. This corps remained 
steady to the interests of its country and its commander, throughout 
the troubles of the season ; but the arms for its equipment were^ 
by some mistake of the ordnance*office, debyod until the time of 
danger was past! Whilst subject to these distreaaing drenni«« 
slanees,— -surrounded, in a threatened home, by faithful adherents 
destitute of arms— ^the family of Edgeworth-town were alarmed by 
intelligence that the French had landed at Killala. This informa* 

at |ioMibl«< I have always endeavoured to diMeuatenaBce the desire 
wbich the people^of thb country have^ for expensive funeralB. I would 
have neither velvety nor plate* nor gUding eaployed in nafckif my C4>fin« 
which I would have carried to the grave* without a hearse, by my own 
labourers. — 1 desire, that no monument or inscription, but one precisely 
similar to that which I have erected for my father, should be erected for 
me.*^ It is almost so^erflaws to obsvve that these orders were strictly 
obeyed. 



[tBINSTBB.] COVmrr or LtfHAVMO. 

tion was ramf«l.oii Ikt drd of 8epteHb«r> attdon thelbttoaiiBf 
day tbey flqd, in haste aad tenor^ to Loagfcfd, the no ira ftl gw* 
riaon-towii. A party of fobeb soon aftwwards onteMd tke viyago 
of Sdgoirortb-towBy bat the aymsioii- waa fortunately preservod 
from pillage^ and remained, indeed^ so entirely fireefrons injury, 
that, when the family retained, after the defeat of theneneh 
and the cKspersion of the rebels, they foand every thing preeiaely 
in the state in which it had been left.* • 

Near Edgeworth-town is Dowtf HM, the seat of John Har« 
wood Jeesop, Bsq. 

AnoAon, mtnated in the central part of the ooonty, is now-a 
SBsall Tillage, f- althoogh nominally' the see of a bishop. The cUef 

• In the hurry with which the fiudly qaitted thsir msnslMi, no 
conyeyance coeld be alTorded ^MMBe of ths female leicvfBtft one of the 
eardi^a faaTing; been employed In remoying an eflcer , who was wonnded 
by the accidental exploflon of a cart-load of ammunition. Amon^ the 
domettlcB thus left was the housekeepery an Englishwoman % and the follow- 
ing particulars relating to her presertation are presented in the second 
Tolnme of the Bdgeworth Memoirs* *' Towards eyenfaig a large body of 
rebels entered the Yitlege.— She heard diem at the gate, and eiqpected thai 
they wpald ^y^ broken In the next Instant. Bet one, who seetned to be 
a leader» with a pike In his hand, set bis back against the gate, and swore, 
t^at. If he was to die for it the next minute, he would have the life of the 
first man who should open that gatei or set enemy's foot within side of 
that place. He said the housekeeper, who was left in It, was a good 
gentlewoman, and had done him a ;Mr?iee, though ah^-did n^t know Aim, 
nor he her. He had never seen her face } but she had, the year before, 
lent his wife, when In distrem, sixteen sUHIngB, the rent of iiax^gronndf 
aafd he would stand her friend now/* He • fuMlled this promise,, and pre« 
▼ailed on his associates to leave the ssaaslon anteeehed I - M emo irs , toI; lii 
pp. 99^1. 

f In the absence of leeal history, mere weighty In character, we.ar» 
Induced- to notiee- the following anecdote, which we present in dmwovM 
of the Roy. J« G«ham, at used in Ms oratiott on the celebration of Ofiver 
Goldsmith's birth day, at BaHymahen. ** The scene of G o ld s mit h's coewdy 
entitled the * Mistakes of a Night,' waa laM in the town of Ardagh, as is 
related in Otridge*s eJkilen of hit works, and as was confirmed to me by 
the late Sir Thomas Featherstoo, Bart, a short thae before bis deatbt 



973 BIUVTIIS OF IRXLANP; 

uitimit Of this place piooeedi firom its fomer inptrltafle in eccie* 
•iftstical hutory. . Here ara no traces of archhectoral aplendoar t^ 
arrest the atteatioa. Eren when Harrifl wrote hb continiMtion 
of Ware, '' all that remained of the cathedral was apart of a wall, 
boili with large stones, from which the whole appeared to have 
been a very small boilding when entire.*' The parochial chordi 
is a commodioQS stmctare, towards the completion of which the 
sum of 900/. was granted by the board of first froits. 

The bishopric of Ardagh was founded by St. Patrick, who eon- 
secreted, as first bishop, his nephew and disciple, St. Mod, about 
the year 454. An abbey was also foanded here by St. Patrick ; 
and St. Moel became at once abbot and bishop of Ardagh, as was 
the early nsage of the Irish chorch. He died in the year 487, or 
488, and was succeeded in both his ecclesiastical offices by his 
broths, St. Melcfaus, who is said by Colgan to have followed 
his uncle St. Patrick out of Britain, and to have been the «' un- 
wearied companion of his labours, and the zealous imitator of 
his virtues.'* The memorials respecting the successors of St. 
Melchus are few and uncertain, untO the commencement of the 
thirteenth century. From that date we give an enumeration of 
the prelates, terminating at the annexation of this bishopric to 
the archiepiscopal see of Tuam. Some previous removals of the 
see, however, require notice, and we present an account of these 
in the words of Mr. Erck, as contained in the Ecclesiastical 
Register of Ireland. 

" Upon the demise of Bishop Ferrall, in 1603, the three 

Ooriof a joarney between Btlljinahon and Edf6wortii*towo, at « very 
yoathfal period of Ule,GoMittith Ungerad on hie way, ontil, at the fall 
of nifht, he foond Uimelf a milo or two oat of hie direct road, in the 
middle of the street of Ardagh. Here he inqohed for the best hoaee Ui 
the place, meaning an Ian i bat being wilfully miiondentood by a wag, he 
wai directed to the large old-fashioned residence of Sir Ralfih Featherston , 
the landlord of the town, where he was shewn Into the parlonr, when he 
fonad the hospitable master of the honse sittlng^y a good fire. His mis* 
take was imoMdlately perceived by Sir lUlpb, who being a man of huAOor, 
and well acqaaiated with the poet's family, encouraged bin in the de* 
ception/'— Oration of Rev* J. Gnhun, Ac. 



f 



[LBINtTKK.] GOVHTT OF LONerOBD. 373 



ftoocaediiif bishops hdd the see of Ardegfa ODited with that of 
Kilnore. Bishop Ricbardson was then advanced to Ardagh s^m- 
rately, aod on his death in 1664, tliis see oontinned vacant till the 
Restoration, when it was. granted by King Charles, to Robert 
Maxwell, at that time Bishop of Kilmore, and was so held by his 
two soccessors, till the advancement of Ulysses Bnrgh, who was 
promoted to Ardagh alone in 1 698 3 bot he dying within the same 
year, it was re-united to Kilmore. Id 1742, it was <»ce more 
disjoined from Kilmore, on the translation of Bishop Hart to the 
archiepiscopal see of Toam, with which it has been ever since 
held m eammendam. The Archbishop of Tnam is snfiragan to 
the lord primate, as Bishop of Ardagh." 

There are in this diocess a dean; archdeacon, and four mral 
deans, bat nochapter norepiscopal residence. Its greatest length, 
accordiDg to Beaufort, is forty-two' miles, whilst the breadth 
varies from fonr to fourteen miles. The number of parishes 
within its limits is 97 } which parishes are situated in the following 
counties ; 3 in Cavan ; 7 in L^itrim ^ lin Sligo; 1 in Roscommon ; 
9i2 in Longford ; and 3 in Westmeath. 

Bishops op Aboaoh. 

Socc. 

Adam, or Anad, 0*Mnrredai, who died 

in 121 7> was followed by 

Robert 1917 

Simon Magraith 1234 

Joseph Magodaig 1230 

80$ vacmU two pear*. 

Jocelin OTormaig. . < 1233 

Brendan Magoduc 1238 

Milo of Dunstable 1266 

See vaemU o%e fear, 

Mathew O'Heothy 1290 

John Mifeoi 1331 

VOL. II. T 



She i^kcant ikree fears. 

Bvcc. 

0««B jQUPwmk lS4r 

WilHaia MM>tO»sao 1367 

Clyurks OTenal ....1973 

JohuO'Ftnc 1378 

See vacant about Itpo years, 

Gilbert Mac findy. 1396 

AdamLyBJi(dkdiBl416) 

See vacant two yeare. 

Cornelias OTerral 1418 

Bichvd QTerral (before 14^) 

Ma£B|p4uradhim,..t ^ ^1445 

Cori^ ,^. ........ 

WaiuMtt QTerr^kl ,.,,,,,,, 

Thongs OXoBigali^i , ^ 

Owen ...,,.,.,.... 1508 

Richajrd OTerral 1541 

Patrick Mac Mahon., 1553 

See vacant fiearfif 8Uf yean. 
Lisach OTerral 1583 

Bishops of Ardaoh and Kinross. 

Robert Drsper 1609 

Thomas Moygne 1619 

William BedeU ^•^^* ^^-t 1^^^ 

Bishops of Ardaqh. 
Mm Richardson ..•..•.«^..16S3 

Bishops of Ardagh and Kilmore. 
Robert Maxweli* ^^ 1660 

• Robert Maxwell was coMecratedUbditp of Umors la I64S» bat did 
aot receive • gimsi of ihe bishopric of Asdafh naUft ihtyess noticed la the 
text, 1660. 



[lvinstkb.] C09VTY or longfobd. -^^ 

« 

' Fraoqis li^arsb. 1C72 

WUliai^ Sheridan 1^81 



Bishop of Ardagh. 
Ulysses Bargli '. 1692 

BjSaOFS OJP A^DAGS AND KuMORB. 

William Smith 169S 

Edward Wetenliall 1699 

Timothy Godwin 171S 

Josiah Hort 1T27 

Ardi^h affords a seat to Sir George- Ralph Fetherston, Bart. 
M.P. 

The town of Lanbsvorouoh^ Bested on tho rifor. S^ho^Bj 
derives the first pari of its appellation from the lamily of lii^e^ 
formerly proprietors of this place, and ennobled by the. title o| 
ViBCoant Laaesboroogh. This small town coosista o£ no ipore 
than aboDt sixty honses, and affords few objects to iotensst the 
traveller. The river Shannon is here crossed by a sahstantial 
bridge, erected in the year 1706, towardsthe expense of which 
^100 was contributed by Janes Visooont Jjanesboro^h. The 
parochial church is formed from the nave of an antient structure, 
traditionally termed an abbey, having some remains of a square 
tower at the west end. No monastic fomdatian at this pbc^ if 
noticed by any historian, but somertraces oC such an inslit^tiota 
may possibly still be disGovered> on a diligent investigation otf t^ 
records. Several oF t^e noble family of Lane are hnrie^ in ifi 
vault beneath this church. 

On the failure of heirs male in the &mily of liane, ia tl^ 

early part of the eighteenth century, Brinsley Butler, baron of 

•Newtown-Butler, was (Angost 19th, 17^8,) created Vist^^n^t 

Lanesborough ^ and Humphrey, the eldest son of that nobleqaan, 

tras, in 1756, raised to the dignity of Barl of LanesbprMWh k 

which titles are still enjoyed by his desoendantSi 

t2 



Vt9 ■lAOTIU or IBXLAIfB. 

At Um diatancfl of mbont two nika from I^anboroigfc-sre the 
tviu of RatJt&u, or MUOe&u Caitie. Ilten mt^ h« 
dtmted at tli« base of the bill of fUtUine, and on tbe dm^ib of 
the rirer Shannon. Hie ritnation U extrcnelj fine, and tbomina 
are pictnruqiie and intcreatiiig. Tlua castle u nid to hava beca 
firat enct«d bj the fiunily of O'Qnin, and many aangninary eoa- 
teata tot pouesiion of iu embattled walla are sdll renenbered by 
traditionary records, althoDgh tanoticed t>y tbe r^alar histcriaM 
of Uie conatry. The fortress was dismantled by Cromwelli and 
waa afterwards reduced by fire ia the wars of James 11. It is 
observed by Seward that " a very antient iaseriptioii, cat in the 
Irish character on a marble slab, and fixed in the wall of one of 
tbe rooma, was removed, or destroyed, by a gentleman who Intdy 
resided in tbe modem house, bnilt close to the castle from its 
mins." In the vicinity of the castle are the remaina of a chnrch, 
evindng considerable antiquity, with an attached cometery, still 
vsed as a place of buial tor catholics. The town of LaneabonMgh 
is situated in the parish of Rathline. 

At the distance of one mile from Laaesboroagh is tbe ren- 
doflce of Captun Davys, agreeably sitaated on the eastern banks 
of the Shannon. 

On the sonth-wett border of this coonty the river Skanso* 
expands into that noble spread of water, which has been already 
noticed in onr account of Weetmeath, nnda- the name of LottgJ^ 
ne, Snch parts of this Lough aa are contignona to the county of 
Longford, are interspersed with varions islands, and afford aone 
of its most pleanng featores to a district little indebted to natora 
for pictrawaqne cbarmii. On sovwal of the islands in Loi^h-rca 
Bwnastic institntions were fovnded at early periods, of which the 
EoUowing are noticed in tbe MonasticMi Hibemicani.- — On /nis- 
^fi% (the Island of the White Cow) an abbey was Coanded by 
S, Rtoch, who floariflhad in the early part of the aixth centnry. 
On /nifcfatir«m, not Ear distant from tite above, St. Dhiannoit 
Nammh fonoded an abbey, aboat the year 540, wluch became 
hmoaa for its schools, and tbe namerona lesvned men who 
ita^ed within the grateAil retirement of its inanhtod walls, lite 



[UHMtTIB.] OOQIfTT ov Loit«rom9« 977 

dot of land called ike Isimd 0/ all SamU was celebratad lor a 
rich moBastery, founded by St. Kieran^ ia the year 544. It b 
befiered that this religions honse wn» re-fennded by the family 
of Dillon, ofDmmrany. At the snppreesion it was granted to 
Sir Psftridc Barnewall, 

The town of BALLriiABOKj distant from Dublin fifty-three 
arilee, ia situated on the rirer Inny^ which is here crossed by a 
bridge of five arches, and is navigable from this place to Looghree. 
The Shannon and the Royal Canal also pass near the town».in 
the line extending from Dablin to Tarmonbarry. — ^Ballymahon is 
mentioned by 0*HaUoran> and some other writers on the history 
of Ireland, as the scene of a battle, fsoght A. D. 9dO, between 
Mahon» king of Thomond, and Fergal, the son of Rnarc | in 
which the latter was defeated. In the vicinity of the present 
bridge there was formerly a castle of considerable strength, now 
destroyed, with the exception of some vaolts, over which is bnilf 
a dweUing-hoase. 

Some linen is here mannfactnred, and a thriving trade, 
akhongh on a moderate scale, is cultivated in linen yam and 
doth, flannel and other woollen goods. The town has a weekly 
market, together with quarterly fairs $ and the trade and conve^ 
nienoe of the inhabitants derive much benefit from a well-appointed 
boat, for the conveyance of passengers and goods, which passes 
daily between this place and Dublin, by means of the canal. 
The public bnilcdngs, independent of the bridge, have few claims 
on attention, and consist of the church (which acts as the plaee 
of worship, in the establishment, for the whole parish of Shmel, 
in which this town is situated) ; a well-attended Roman catholic 
ehq>el; and a market-house, more conspicuous for antiquity 
than convenience. 

The views in many parts of the surrounding country are 
extremely pleasing, although a want of wood very generally {Nre- 
vails. The banks of the Inny afford the chief picturesque 
attractions, and will be regarded with no or^nary interesr, when 
it is recollected that they form tke^scenery amidst wUch Ouvnpi 



w 



GaL&sMiTH rambled in boyliood> ftndiroin Whidk he i^eeelrM Ub 
first impre^siims of natural beauty. The olmiesfioii ^ Hut writer 
with tbe town of Ballytnabon^ to ftodeedh oeraceotttit ^ fbn 
neigliboniing Tillage^ termed PaHlce. 

Castlbcor^ tbe seat of Thomas Hossey, Esq. has been justly 
termed '^' one of the most siogiflar mansioii-iioases in the pro'fince 
hi Leintter .*' This bnllding was erected by the iate Iter. CMte 
KarmaDj dean of Watcrford, who is said to hare Mhen hs a 
nod^ the roond tower of Windsor ^castle. Theprincipet^oeii, 
ffbr which the chief part of the honse hilh keen ^aaMfieed, is cir* 
cnlar^ lifld paved With mnble. The windows cemtiiaiid Ime 
of the rirer Inny ^ and th» rery nnasnal a p a r ta ient maV be 
rated in summer^ batit will be rdaiBlyeappostifl tfaatvTbos^ihhk 
apparently dedicated to the *' chili gemns ef the norlh/' miist be 
insnpportaUe in a less fhroeraUe season, to peraons aocaatomed 
to the laxnries of modem domettle anriliigeaiieBt. Foer hmalllMft 
pleasant apartments, with floorings of board,. iiranch fiNNB^ia 
great central region- of cold and danps. The Idtchenst and ether 
subordinate apartments, are in an iDider-«gro«Ml story .-—In the 
ridnity are ibe rains of an antient fortified bnildiog, eoncendii^ 
which 'many strange txAm prevail, when the peasantry indalge in 
reciting thoie Christmas kgenda which will benotloadai )i anbee- 
lineiittpage \ and we are told that ireqneat eicaratione liaiae been 
ifaade amdng these wild rains, in the night-time^ by pcraima wbe ^ 
iac^i/r«0jiiei/ of finding hidden trsaaucea there. 

TiiiiicttKH, the residence of Mattiiew Crawford, Esq. wHa 
bttilt by the late Lord Aanaly. The antient mansioti of Tirlicken, 
whidi stood nearer to JMlynnhon, and is neW ik raiiis, was hmg 
the seat of Sir Connel OTarrel, who forfeitedlna estalea intlie 
MbUMef the:serentecnth:cent'mry»tbnt waa restored by the tu:ts 
of tettlement and ej^lanatfien'in 16^, 
-••i- .J •• 

^ALunciiBrnfv, tike reaid^ee ^ Hiemas Achwaty, Boq. ie 
Ae-ttiieiil aeat of » branch ef •tiMlMBoniBBnyyi ieneeii^aaesaed 



of the prteti)|M eirlate fn this ii^|[L1»»ar]i6od^ #btek th«y Ibk^Mted 
ia (he calamitotis ye^ l64l4 TM« lyrdpctty^ ittdddb|f lh6 tdwik 
of BAllymaboii^ afti^wlihto pRs^ tliroagh the fiimilM df AflB 
and MoljB^x, and is Bd# rested ki J. B. Shtildhakn, Esq. Th6 
Biaasioh is fihely ritiiated on th^ Mrth btdok of tho Hve^ !iliiy> 
and to ^Hehed wUh a weft-i»M^feed denkesne. 

Ia the Tioiaity of BaUytaiaLoB are als6 lAfighiriek, tUti s^t of 
John R. Robinson, Esq. ) Ci&fnteiinn, Wittiam ktt^Hliy> fisq. ; 
NwoMie, Lady Ross ) and ^oHtm, llioiiiatr WHgbti Es^. 

At PaiiLicii> on the soiitftnhii babk^ of tbfe HifM Iiiny> near 
tbe tov^a of BallylaahOBi WM bom OtAftR ^Ohvait^iki^ " fht 
CM^mitb firmily/' as we altr iaformed by Mh Grtdiami *' fia^ 
been hmg settied in Irelaad ; abd tfaongh one of ibem (Dt, Isdac 
OoUsmith) i^as d«aa of Gorit in ^^ yebr 1780, tfa^ sate td 
iiate residi^ cbidly in tba province of Contiati^ht. Fbr str^M 
generations they regularly furnished a minister for tb(5 astbbUifl^ed 
cbirdi, b^ag what i^ tertoed a clefical family. 4%e btb€r of 
tbe pbel WtA tha Rer. Chiirles Goidsntitb, ^vbo ib^ii^riad tbe 

. • O.cl' iaformatioB concerBlBi; Aefiunily af (His JUtitsiia»d wMl«^ 
and tome passages in tbe early part of bis Mfe* are chiefly collected aN>Bs 
a Tery ing enions statistical acconnt of tbe parish of Shruely by tbe Rer 
Jobn <!Wabanl, M.A. forming part of tb^ tbird toI. of Mr. Sbaw Mason's 
** Parotbbil Sortey of Ire]aad."^tn Hittfd to iHe ideality of iJha kpbi dh 
trakb GoldiAAltb i99A h&r^ seWlral totitiadictdry etaCeaientt hate MhU 
■sada by difareal edltsfs of bis wwftti In the «piia|ib trritteh by Dr. 
Jebnson, and ^aced on Goldsniith** aHHrasseBtia Wotnrfoiter abbey, 
are these words : *' Natus in Hibenua Fomioe Longfordiensis, in loco cui 
nomen Pijlas.'* . It may be reasonably concluded that Johnson received 
ihis ih&rmali6n from tbe lips of the deceased ) dad ibe ihielligehce con- 
tejrea by tbd epitaph H ^otofimNd by the testiaMPiry of ttt&ay T^fgbiii, My 
lately dead, in the neigbbovrhaad bf Fallteei iadttdiiigvaaM OflMe neartot 
relations of tbe poet. Tbe place is situated within one mile and a half of 
tbe town of Ballymaboa^ in the p&fisft of Cloatdtlk» 6Vmmonly called 
Forney. Tbe #all4 6f dib htfttth la Whleh doldstfftdl #ai bom are yet 
standing, bat tbe whole b in a rnlnoas condition, as the raof fell In a few 
years hack. The hailing al ihe lime of tloMsibKiTs birCh w4s ifl (he 6tcu^ 
patitfn Of bis Btattraal giraadiadi^t, (MtUi. Ofhr6r ^oi^. 



S80 BUimiB or lULUID. 

(Un^tcT of the Her. Olirer Jcoet, dioceua icboolmaMar at 
Elphioj in tbe ooonty of RoaconmoD. By the residence of Mr. 
Charles Goldsmith at Pallice, on the 39th of November, 17^8. 
wfani his son Oliver wsa bwrn, it it pmbabk be wm cnrate of ths 
diapel of ease in the parish of CloncsUa, or Forgeny. He wa* 
aftervards promoted to a benefice in the ooonty of RoacoM iaom . 
After the death of her hasband, Mrs. Goldsmith setj^in Bally- 
mahon, with her son Oliver, thea a child, aod lodged jn th« 
botue now occupied by Mr. John Lanigan, at the corner^ th* 
entrance from Edge worth-town road." ' 

At this place Goldsmith's mother lived, in low circams ( ta n cea 
and indifferent health, antil the year 177S> or 1773, at wbicb 
time she was nearly blind. It is tnditinnally s^ that the poet, 
when a boy, was " of reserved and distant numners, food <rf 
solitary walks, spending most of his time araosig the racka and 
vrooded islands of the river lony, which is remarkably beantibl 
at Ballymahon." 

Connected with this period of his life may be noticed an anec- 
dote, inserted in Mr. Graham's " Statistical acoonnt of Shmel,!" 
ontheuthority ofa direct descendant of the Rev. Henry OoMamith, 
of Lissoy, cnnte of Kilkenny west, the elder brother of the poet.. 
" Ooldsmitii was always plain in his appearance, but when a boy,. 
and immediately aftcx Boffering heavily with the small'pox, he was 
parUcnlarly ngly. When he was abont seven years old, a fiddler, 
whoreckonedhimself a wit, happened to beplaying tosome company 
in Mrs. GoldsnutJi's house ; during a pause between the conntry- 
daaces, little Oliver surprised the party by jamping np soddoidy, 
and dancing round the room. Struck with the grotesq^ne appearance 
of the ill-favonred hoy, the fiddler exclaimed, " 'iEsop !" and the 
company burst into laughter, when Oliver tnmed to them with & 
smile, and repeated the fbUowiog lines:— 

" Heraldi proclaim aload, all MyiilB, 

" 8«« iBup Jjni-jnj, aad Ui monkey plajlny." 

On the 1 1th of June, 1744, Goldsmith was entered of Trinity 
ColkgOi Dublin ; and in the entry on the coU^^ books, the Rer. 



[LiiMtTftB.] coiTmy or uMewom^i Ml 

Tlieakor Wilder (a yovnger son of the hmilj of Cft»tlewilder, in 
this county) i§ named as his tutor.* In 1747> he obtained '' hie 
only laorel in the University of Dablin, that of an exhiUtion on 
the fonndatioii of Brasmns Smyth, Esq. and u this year he was 
pnUicly admontehed for having been concerned in a riot» and 
pnmping a bailiff, who had in? aded the privileged preemcts of the 
college.— On the 27th of Febmary, 1749^ he was admitted a 
bachelor of arts* two years after the r^fdar time) and he then 
qoalified himself for admission to the College library/* 

In 1753> Goldsmith was at Edinburgh, as a medical stadent } 
and in the following year he cosunenced his onfriended travels. 
The leading featnres in his snbseqnent life are well known to the 
public ; and the writings on which he was employed during many 
of his mature years, cannot fail to render his biography a subject 
of interest with very remote posterity. In all his '' wanderings 
roond this world of care,** he was actuated by an ardent desire of 
revinting the scenes of bis youth. In a letter, written in December, 
17&7j to Daniel Hudson, Esq. at lissoy* near Ballymahon* (which 
gentleman had married his sister, he says that *' he wishes from 
his heart, Mr. and Mrs. Hudson, Lissoy and BiJlymahon, and all 
his friends there, would fairly make a migration into Middlesex ;** 
adding, '' that as, on second thoughts, this might be attended 
with inconvenience, Mahomet should go to the mountain ;" and 
he promised to spend some weeks of the ensuing summer between 
Ballymahon and Lissoy. He alio observes, in a sportive way, 
" that it is unaccountable a man should have an affection for a 
jilace, who never received, when in it, above common civility, and 
who never brought anything out of it but his brogue and his 
blunders.*' 

• In ibtPkiUiophical 'Survejf of the South of Ireland, Dr. Campbell 
asserts that Goldunith's tutor was ** a Dr. Radcllffe/* and mentioot a letter 
written from Enfland by the poet to his former tutor at college, reqoettinf 
a testimonial of good character, sach a credential being deemed necetaary 
livr his appointment to the homble office of osher in a country school. 
Goldsmith, however, according to Dr. Campbell's anecdote, had thought 
proper to aisume a feigned name on first going ia England, and his letter 
was therefore not answered by Dr. Radcliffe. Phil. 8arv. pp. 887-S. 



M8 tttt^imai or hklakd. 

Unfaap^the ibrmt wish h^ mttiUimiA «f agtfti fieeing tU» 
•pot, 8d tmtely bcStt^i^, tflthdugli Che toll proved ttigenial to 1u» 
Mrly Tle^s^ was nevbr gratiiled. 

It Is oerUh tkattiiesoeiery ^ iliis nirigttMvrlMMd Imd nsde 
a vivid isnprassimi Wtt Us suMpdUe mind $ and it is oonfidettlly 
tappMSd tbiit mnfj' ^ bis pMKleid -dMcrfpUoii* aris drawn 
from objMts with whifel He was kere familiar. Several of l^esia 
mhd qlijMa, mdetiedao enftlMMSag la jioeliGalddiBeataoii, are 
believed to exist 9X Liuoff, at which {dace his brother (curate of 
EXUkmaj-'weBt, fia the adjiHiiiag eonity of WBskmeath) resided, 
wfaea QoMsarith addressed to hin the poeai CDtkled the 
**Tr*v«Hw/^* 

It ivill be heard ^th pleasure by the admirers df this e»!eHettt 
poet <wbo |tfe» «Ms ar eJ iy > of the same namber as his readers) diat 
a meelu^ has ktely been hr^ldj for 1^ parpose of drawing the 
pabfie atteattoa to the sabjett ef erec^in^ a moaament ia hoaoar 
of Us nefaiory^ ofsar dieplaee of his birth. The design of thia 



• The late lt«t. lU H. Newsl, Of CMnMdfs^ Who repoMdM As 
poeuof Gald«illh4-f#wyoan bSck^ ctotedi, #iA great appeartooa 
of probabUkj, <hat many ef the objecta portrajFed in the ** Deserted 
Village,^ were to be foand in Liuoy. In Mr. Neweiriediiioo of Gold- 
smiUi*! poems are inserted Tiews of the Parsonafe-house, the Charch^ 
ated the Mill, frdt it will be Obyioas that the icene of action in that poena 
is laM la BnglbMIt Utiic^ifh, fn the descriptiYe pal^» the poet appearl to 
bate deHns a Sed olyects really extstiag In the fiaTsaraahannlsof his hoyinh 
years. It is obserred by the Rev. Mr. Grahaiiit in his '* accoiMI of 
Shrnel/' that ** the clergyman's mansion is still well known i the pariA 
charcli of Kilkenny west ** tops a neighbonrinfhill $" the lake and the mill 
lie between it and the mansion house { the hawthorn tree still exists, though 
mutilated ** laniatnm corpore toto," by the curious travellers, i^ho cat 
pieces from it as from the royal oak, or from the mulberry tree of Strar- 
ford-upon-Avon. The Tillaf e alehouse has lately been rebuilt, and or- 
namented by the sign of the *' three jolly pigeons.*'— A lady from tiia 
neighbourhood of Portglenone, in the county of Antrim, yisited Lissoy 
in the summer of ISIT* and was fortunate enough to find, in a cottage 
aiyoioiog the alehouse, the identical print of ** the tweWe good rules,'*^ 
which ornamented that rural Uvern, along with*' the royal game oC 
goose) the wooden clock, Ac.*' 



of IjiiRi¥d, n ^^yman ^ disiJifi$«Mifi^ Ii«ern*y tidedtfti ^ose 
nlAi^ ^Fill ^afo 'o6dB.T in »iir ooi^c^ oE the iHkMy 'df dii«|jriv ^ ^« 
ntertibg Cdblr ^lUie «t BaHyriiahett^ on the anrfveraarr^ CMd-^ 
miitb'^^ birth-iikv, tiod was f ery i^piBctlft)ly tMtwld€iii' 

any i^digly ttMed p6(»KeHlaes 6f n^imto ttid 4MaMM> k a 
lieig1kboil^lio6d whieh impaited Us ftrst ia^vassionSL to a poetdf 
gefaniHe 'ptltlbbn afad toatfiftig sittplicily— a tpfiter for e^ra^ ^ 
and GOftetry^^tre devote a pfiige Ifo romaita on lliOBt svl^^adtsy tke 
eotitet(ts of wMcb aret<elKer«dfroH^*the workto wiMi^ire4aTe 
diready a(ikBoVK!dj;ed oiifer ob^tioiir». 

Tti^ *peti8anftry*of this dMilct ai% '' sfaM^dv iatelHgifot, inlA 
iildii8rtrf(m8>; fond of atanly oxer ciiss and ahaantfnotfls j aiohjai 
fobt-bad, bMiag, wrtxHfthg, Hand B^ntenaiiig, in tooatof Wlii<^ they 
exed. Theyassettiblete whmwkt SoaAiy etttDings, md antase 
tbemseiyes by dancing, for ttie^rise ^itLcAe^ wbicb is exlqbf^ 
on a pole, to encourage the candidates by a yiew of the object of 
their ambition. English is aniyersally spoken, thongh the great 
body of the people onderstand Irish, and many of them prefer nsing 
it. The manners of these people are mild and prepossessing, 
tbongh they all possess what higher folks term a nice sense of 
honour; that is, they would neither give nor take an affiront; they 
Would be led, not driven.*' 

The customs of the inhabitants deviate in but few particulars^ 
from those observable in other parts of Ireland. '' The new year, 
and the first day of the month or week, are considered the pro- 
perest times for commencing any nndertaldng. No man removes 
to a new habitation on a* Friday, because it is one of the cross days 
of the year, and " a Saturday jUtimg makes a short sitting.** For 
a fortnight before Shrove Tuesday, the great day for weddings, it 
is the practice for persons in disguise to' run through the street of 
Ballymahon, from seven to nine or ten o'clock in the evenings, 
announcing intended marriages, or giving pretty broad hints for 
matchmaking.'* 



SM BSAOTISS OF WBLAHO. 

Ob the fint day of Mmj, ** greea Imslies are planted oppoeito 
every door, and the paTement is covered with flowers. Hallow- 
eveis observed, on the last day of October, with the nsnal necro- 
msntic ceremonies, and the amasement condndes with a supper of 
grmUfrees thai is, boiled wheat battered and sweetened/* At the 
jocondseasonirfChristmaB, the grown pe(^e, ''after feastlngoniheir 
best £ure, amase themselves by dandng, blindman's bnff, qnestiona 
and commands, and the reitOmg or hearmg of hg^emtmy udnJ* 
We are sorry to condade onr notice of the modes ased in cele- 
brating psrticnlar seasons, with observing, that the day dedicated 
to St. Stephen is passed in the savage sport of bnll^bttting. 

Among several well-improved seats in this county, not noticed, 
in previous pages, may be mentioned Newtown Bimd, Alexaadet 
Bond, Esq.} MostUmm, Alexander Kingston, Esq.^ LcdwUkOowm, 
John Ledwith, Esq.; C/M^oMy, William Davis, Esq.) Baaw, John. 
Ousley, Esq.; mdRkk/ari, James Richardson, Esq. At Killashee^ 
in the western part of the county, are the sests of Archdeacoa 
Digby, and William B« Montfort, Esq. 



SN1> or TBS COUNTY OF LONOPOBD, 



[l.1»1ltTB9.} COONTT OF LOtTTK. S85 



.♦ 



COUNTY OP LOIPTH. 

I 

This county is bounded on tbe east by tbe Irish sea^ and is 
/Befmrated from the county of Down, on the north-east, by a 
branch of that sea forming the bay of Carlingford. On the north 
lies Armagh, and on the north-west Monaghan. In other di- 
rections it meets the county of Meath, from which it is separated 
OB the south by the ri?er fioyne. 

This is the smallest county in Irdand, its extreme length, 
according to Dr. Beaufort, being twenty-one miles, and its 
greatest width fourteen miles. The principal inequalities of 
iuriace are found in a mountainous tract between Dundalk and 
Carlingford^ and a hilly district in the neighbourhood of Collon. 
In other parts the soil is finely amenable to the purposes of agri- 
culture, and is chiefly under tillage. Independent of the Boyne, 
which washes its southern border, four small rivers cross this 
county from west to east. On the coast the bays of Dundalk 
and Carlingford are the most distinguished features. Ix>uth is 
divided into four baronies, named Dundaik ; Louth ; Ardee ; and 
Ferrard; besides the County of the Town of Droghoda. These 
are again divided into sixty-one parishes, situated in the diocess 
of Armagh, together with part of two parishes in the diocess of 
Clogher. 

This county is defiodting, in r^;ard to the returns of population 
under the act of 181S. According to statements made from the 
Enumerators* Periodical Returns of Progress, and the Reports of 
the Magistrates, in the year 1891, the number of houses and 
inhabitants in the county, was, in the last named year, as fol- 
lows. Number of houses 17,488, number of inhabitants 101^070. 

The county of Louth formerly constituted part of the antient 
extensive territory termed Orgiei^ Oriei, or Umi, which oompre- 



286 BRAUTIKS or fa¥^L4>(D. 

headed^ likewise, the present connties of Monaghan and Annagb, 
inclndiDg many smaller territories.* 

This district abounds in those rode vestiges of very remote 
antiquity, which consist of earthworks, chiefly designed for 
sepolchral purposes, or acting as places of defensive habitation. 
Cromlechs, and other relics of ante-christian ages, although 
much lessened in number within the last century, are still fre- 
quently seen, and are, in several instances, extremely curious* 
There B;Fe, alsoj^ many remains of ecclesiastical and military 
structures, erected at various periods snbsequent to the settl^nent 
of (he English in this country. These specimens of anti^t archi- 
tecture are usually on a small scale. Most of the castles now 
remaining would amear to have been built e^irly in the thirteenth 
century. 

Th^ coonty of JUmth suffered severely ig the wars of Che 
seventeenth century* The principal families residing here, at the 
commencement of that sera, were the Taafes 3 Bellews j Dow- 
dallsj Verdons; Gernons} Flemings; Nettervilles ; D'Arcyss 
and PpiTtlances. 

In r^;ard to its modem state, Drogheda is the chief town^^ 
and is a place of considerable importance. Agriculture is the 
most beneficial pursuit ; but the manufacture of coarse linen is 

* In Googh'v adiKtioni to Gamdtn'i aotice of tbii coanty. Is the fol- 
lowinf italemest of the entieat difiiiom of Looth, which depends te 
acceptation oa iatelligence deriYod, by the late Mr^ ]p|eaoford« from the 
Book of Bally mote aad other aathoritiei.— " Looth contains the antieat 
principality of Cenal Muirthemnj or Uriel, and eon them part of the antient 
Oir Gael, beia|; the country of the antient Conra^tt} the chiefs or princes 
of which Were the Mac Mahons, or Ifoc JfacAanaa. The subordinate 
caatmds were Fem. Arda, or Fa^kf^ria, the present barony of Ferrard* 
Vy 4^«f» ar H9 ficon^Aajn, the present biM^y of Atherdee. F^ra i^f^ 
If^organ^ or Lurgint contaiped the ^itbem parts of the present barppy of 
IXnndalk. By Mac VaU the country of Mac Scanlan* contained the 
northern part of the barony of Dnndalk. LudhCj or LughOj the antient 
seat of the Lugnii^ and Uriel proper, contained the preient barony of 
Louth, the hereditary chiefs of which were the By Carhhailj or O'Canrolf, 
styled frefueaUy princes of Ur<e V*^ Canldea's Britaania^ hy Goog h» 
vol. It. p. 396, 



£l.EIN8TBR.] COUNTY OF I4>UTH« 98? 



pursoed in mttiy parte of tbe tNmiitry> wkb ione wccoaa. Tbe 
o(»ttOB trade al»o. ftoKriB.hea in oaa neighboiiBhiood. Amoaigajt Ike 
priadpal landed ptemfietora, kaviog a aeat in the ooiiBty^ auy 
be named Lord Oriel -, the Earl o{ Roden ; the Viaeaiint Cler* 
AKKnt $ and Sir Edwiird Bellenr, Bait* 

DROGHEDA. 

This popnloiiB and eoramarcial town^ distant from DnUia 
tweny-three and a half milee> is situated on the northern and 
acmthem banks of tbe Boyne^ about five miles from the month ol 
that riyer^ or place at which it enters the Irish sea. The southern 
part is nsnally said to be comprised ia the connty of Meath> and 
that on the opposite bank in Lionth ; bnt the town of Drogheda 
has, in fact^ the privilege of coastitnting a connty in itself. 
Althongh <MsfigQTed-at the ontlets by Hnes of sordid hats, thia is, 
in its principal parts, a well-bnilttowv. Oreat improtveraeats have 
been effected in reoeat years, and the chief street and the qnay 
now contUB many handaome and oommodiovs hoases; It was 
formeriy a place of considerable strength, bemg eneompassed by 
walla, having four gates j Biaay parts ^ whioh fertiiied onttines 
still remaia, bdt,witk some few exeepUoBS> in a decayed and imper« 
feet condition; The gate of St. Lawience is the best-preserved 
vestige of the antient fortifications. 

We are not aware that any partleiilarB have been preserved 
concerning the history of Drogheda, in very early periods. It is 
noticed by Camden that King Edward II. ^' granted to this place 
the privilege of a market and fiahr, in fiavonr of Hieobald Verdun ; 
and that other kings confirmed to it many great privileges, and 
amongtherest that of having a mint.** InthereignofEdwardIII.it 
was coBStitnted, in ceajanction with Dabfin, Waterford, and Cork, a 
9iapl€'i9wn; hovBk which eircnmstance we clearly ascertain ita 
commercial importance in the foBrteeath centnry. King Richard 
II. was here ia 1S94 ; and, on the 10th of March in that year, 
he receivedji in the haU of th^ Domiiiican friary, t^e ais^lwifsion 
of 0*Nial, Q^HmOoh^ Q*pp9]iel ]^ AMaii^ »^«^ 
tains of Ulster. Several parHaa^ats were held in tine town, amoag 



S88 BBAUnU OP imCLANS. 

wUch mtif be aotkod the noMnblfl mmmUj of NcrairiNr, 
14M, IB wUch wu nuide Um auctnent gtmeniUj ksowii b; the 
nmt ol PfMKf't tarn. The wwcriea of partacokr bmitiM, or 
Mpta, w«ra bIm pmbibited by the une p«r l i» i KeBt. 

la tbe rdgn of Edward IV. u imireinty wu fonnded in tUt 
towD, by utbority of a parliaBent held here, in Norember, 
1466. It wu iDtanded that thii establish men t sboald posseu dw 
UBM pririleges u the University of OsbaA j bat tbe want of i 
nffident rereoae, and tbe coofued state of pnUic a&in is 
Ireland at that tine, cabsed tbe design to prore either abortiTe, 
or, at best, short-liied.* 

Tbe moat important hiatorical transactiods rdate to tbe mn 
itt tbe serenteenth centniy. Prom its capabilities of defence, ui 
local dmmstaaces, it wu readily perceiTed, by the leaden it 
those dril coDtesIa, that tbe possesuoa of Dn^heda was essential 
to the secarity of tbe metropolis, and also to a ready coBUini- 
cation with tbe north, lite town oonseqnently became tbe Keae 
of very a{Bictive military eventa. Early in these wan it wai 
ddended for tbe king, by 8b Ueory Titchbvme and Lord Moon, 
Visconnt Drogjteda, gainst serial thoasands of th« rdMlliou 
party, raised in Ulster aadliriiMter, aadcossiaanded by Sir Phebn 
OTIial. The town now eKpericneed a loaig> bhx^ade, bat wu 
rcBered by the q^roach of the Earl of Ormonde. It wu tfit 
iBTested by a parliamentarian force under Michael Jones, ud 
WM a second time reltered by tbe adTnnce of Ormonde. 

The lime, bowcreri tpeedily arrived ^ which its walls were 
to witness the array of a more formidable enemy. In September, 
1649, Olirer Cromwell set down before this town, in considenblt 
strength. IV garrison oonristed of 9000 foot and 300 bone, 
all cboaen men, comsunded by Sir Artbar Aston, a catholic 

intry j and tbe foctttcationa hvl ben UtAf. 

direction of <kinoDde. Oreal confidence wu 
|>arations tor defenee ; bat tfae coonge ud 

■ kj Hank. vol. 0. r- <*B, Is a capj ef Aa fcu*- 
Mi*7 of Dragh*^ tofslhsrwilh abaariatiwrf 



r 



[lBINSTES.] COyNTY OF LOUTH. S89 

placed in tbesi preparationf for dafence ; bat tbe couri^ and 
vigour of Cromwell proved irresiBtible. On bis annunona being 
rqectedj he commenced the moat active and atrennons operations. 
An incessant play of cannon effected a breach, before the expi- 
ration of the second day^ and the place was then attempted by 
storm. Twice the assailants were repulsed; bat on a third effort, 
they entered, and obtained possession of the town. The scene 
which then took place struck dismay throaghoat all Ireland, and 
can never be mentioned vrithout a thrill of horror. It woald 
appear to be nnqaestionable that quarter had been promised, and 
pv#D, until the conquest became entire. But Cromwell resolved, 
by one tremendous blow, to impress on the Irish such a dread of 
his mrms, aa might tend to prevent further opposition, and he deli- 
berately gave orders for the whole of the garrison to be put to 
the aword ! The scene of carnage lasted five days. The governor, 
and all his gallant officers, fell with their men. Many eoclesiastica 
also perbhed. Thirty persons only escaped the slaughter, and 
these were transported as slaves, to one of the West India islands. 
In 1689, and the following year, this town was garrisoned by 
James II. but was given up to King 'I^Uiam, without a struggle, 
after his victory on the adjacent banks of the Boyne.* 

* The circuniBtancef atteodias the surrender of Drogheda, on the 9n4 
4>r July, 1690, are thag succinctly, yet satisfactorily stated by Mr. Harris. 
** The day after the victory at the Boyne, the King sent Brigadier la 
Melloniere^ with a thousand horse» a party of foot, and eight pieces of 
cannon, to summon Drogheda, where the Irish had a great magaiiae, and 
a garrison of thirteen hundred men, commanded by Lord Iveagh. The 
governor at first seemed resolute to defend the place, and received the 
summons with great contempt ; but the King sending word, *' That if ha 
was forced to bring the cannon before the place* he must expect no quarter i'* 
his lordship, considering that King James*s army being defeated be could 
expect no relief, accepted of the oiTered conditions, and marched out with 
only the garrison and baggage, leaving all their arms and stores. Col. 
Cuts^s regiment took possession of tbe place, which they found well stored 
with wine and provisions, and took care to preserve the town from violence/' 
Life of William III. by Harris, vol. 3. pp. 98^. 

VOL. II. V 



990 BEAUTIES OF IRELAND. 

The former importance of Drogbeda is snfficiently denoted by 
the nnmber of its monastic foundations . 

• It 18 said that a Priwy for Canons regular, following tbe rule 
of St. Augostin, was founded here, in which Cardinal Papiro beld 
a synod, A.D. 115^^ but, with the exceptionof that circumstance, 
little is known concerning its history. 

The Hospital of St. Mary was founded early in the 13tb cen- 
tury, for the aid and support of sick and infirm persons, by Ursus de 
Swemele, who, with the consent of his wife Christiana, granted, 
for that benevolent purpose, the whole of his estates in Ireland, 
among which were many honses and tenements in the town of 
Drogheda. The cross bearers, following the rule of St. Augastin, 
obtained possession of this hospital, after thedecease of tbe founder. 
At the time of the suppression, the hospital and its appurtenances 
were granted to the Mayor of Drogheda. The buildings were 
situated on the outer -side of the west gate of the town. 

The Priory of St, Laurence, situated near the gate of that 
name, is said to have been founded by the mayor and citizens of 
Drogheda, to whom it was also granted on the dissolution of reli- 
gious honses. 

■ The Dominican Friary, under the invocation of St. Mary 
Magdalen, was founded by Lucas de Netterville, archbishop of 
Armagh, who commenced the buildings in the year 1224. This 
was a foundation of great celebrity, and general chapters of the 
order were held within its walls in the years 1290 j 1303 3 and 
1347. Among persons of distinction buried here may be noticed 
the founder; Patrick O^Scanlain, archbishop of Armagh ; and 
Thomas, Earl of Desmond, who was beheaded at Drogheda, in 
the year 1467. This priory was situated in the north part of the 
town. The buildings were extensive, but are stated by King to 
have fallen to decay in the 15th century, in consequence of the 
'^ extreme poverty of the country, occasioned by incessant depre- 
dations, both of English rebels and Irish enemies.*' The Friar)^, 
and the chief part of its possessions, were granted for ever, by 
King Henry VIII. to Walter Dowdall and Edward Becke, but 



{LKINSTIBR.] fOUJ^TY OF LOtXTtt. S91 

belonged, in 1618, to Sir Ambrose Fortb, Knt. Some renuunf 
of the buildings, comprieing a tower, of lofty proportions, are 
still to be seen. 

The Gray Friary, situated on the north banks of the river 
Boyne, was founded in the 13th century, either by the family of 
Darcy, or that of Plunket. This monastery, which was the 
head of a wardenship, was reformed by the Observantine friars in 
1518. The buildings, and the whole of the possessions, were 
granted by Henry Vlll. to Gerald Aylmer. 

The Auguatmian Friary was founded in the reign ^f Edward 
I. and probably by the family of Brandon. A general chapter of 
the order was held here, in 1359. The house and its appurte- 
nances were ganted, at the dissolution, to the mayor and corpo- 
•ration of Drogheda. 

There were also two foundations, of which little is now to be 
ascertained, except that they were termed the hottses of St. James 
and St, Bennet, 

The above religious houses were all situated on the northern 
side of the Boyne. On the south side of that river, and in the 
part of Drogheda which is comprised in the county of Meath, 
were the two following monastic institutions. 

The Priory, or Hospital, of St. John, for the order of cross- 
bearers ; a cell to the priory of Kilmainham, near Dublin. Walter 
de Lacy, in the reign of King John, was a great benefactor to this 
establishment, and is usually esteemed its founder. This hospital, 
and great part of its ample possessions, were granted by Edward 
VI. to James Sedgrave. 

The Carmelite Friary, founded by the inhabitants of Drogheda 
to the honour of the blessed Virgin, before the reign of the second 
Edward. The remains of the buildings are noticed in our account 
of St. Mary*8 Church. 

The archbishops of Armagh had formerly a palace in this town, 
which is said, in the additions to Camden, to have been built by 
Archbishop Hampton, between the years 1613, and 1624. 

Drogheda is divided into the two parishes of St. Peter and 



1 



S9^ BKAVTICS OF IREUAXD. 

St. Mary; the first of wbich is on the northern, and the latter on 
the southern, side of the river Boyne.* 

The Church of St. Peter is a large and respectable structare, 
with a well-proportioned spire, erected after the designs of Mr. 
F. Johnston. It is recorded by Harris that the steeple of 
the antient chnk'ch on this site, *' supposed to be the highest then 
in the world ! was thrown down by a violent tempest, which hap- 
pened about midnight, on the 27th of January, 1 54B .** In Stuart's 
history of Armagh we are told that a provincial synod was held 
in this church, on the 9th of June, 1460, by John Bole, abbot of 
St. Mary*s monastery, at Navan . The family of Moore, Marquess 
of Drogheda, have here a place of burial, in which are interred, 
among other members of that noble house, Charles, the second 
viscount, distinguished for his gallantry in defending this town in 
the civil wars of the 17th century, who was killed at Portlester, 
in Meath, by a cannon-shot, on the 7th of August, 1643 ; and his 
wife, Alice, daughter of Adam Loftus, Vicount Ely, who died on 
the I3thof June, 1649. t 

* la the MS. colloctiont ot Sir W. Betham it li noticed that the part 
Droglieda litnated on the Meath tide of the Boyne, was formerly goyemed 
by a tenesclial and commonalty , distinct from the foveromeot of the Lonth 
part of the town. It appears that great dissensions frequently arose be- 
tween the inhabitants of the different sides of the river, which were some- 
times productive of bloodshed. From the annals of the Dominican Friary 
we learn that Philip Bennet, a friar of that house, ** did, on Corpus 
Christi day, 1413, invite the insurgents of both sides, first to a sermon in 
St. Peter's church, and afterwards io partake of a repast in the monastery 
of St. Mary Magdalen. His discourse^ which, in the strongest terms, re- 
presented to his hearers how good it is to dwell together in unity, had the 
happiest effects { they all amicably withdrew, and accepting the preacher's 
second invitation, accompanied him to his monastery, where they were sump- 
tuously and elegantly entertained, after which they agreed, jointly, to send 
•vpplicatory letters to the King (King Henry V.) who thereupon united 
the whole into one cily." Archdall, apud Burke, p. 205. 

f The death of this lady occurred in the following melancholy manner. 
Entering the town of Drogheda, on horseback, on tbe 10th of June, 1649, 
she fainted, and fell from her horse, at the first sight of St. Peter's church, 
in which her tender and gallant husband lay buried. In the fall she broke 



[lkikstek.] county or louth. 993 

The Church of Si, Mary, which had originally appertained to 
the Carmelite Friary^ sank^ long since, to a state of ntter ruin j 
fragments of walls, and a square tower, in the pointed style, con- 
stituting the sole memorials of its former extensive proportions 
and architectural character. On the decay of the church, a chapel, 
for divine service, was constructed amidst the ruins; but a new 
church has been lately erected for the use of this parish, with the 
aid of 600/. given, and 500/. lent, by the Board of First Fruits. 
The building was completed in 1810. 

Much the greater part of the population of Drogheda is of the 
Roman Catholic persuasion, and there are several Roman Catholic 
chapels, and establishments coming under the denomination of 
monaiiteries and nunneries. The chapel of St. Peter is a spacious 
and handsome structure, built after the designs of Francis John- 
ston, Esq.* 

This is a place of considerable trade. The river Boyne (here 
crossed by a bridge, communicating between the Louth and Meath 
sides of the town) is navigable up to the quay, for vessels of mode- 
rate burthen, although this is a bar-harbour. A navigable canal, 

her legf near the foot | and a mortification ensaiog, the died three days 
afterwards^ as stated in the text, and was interred by the side of her lord. 
• The ab§e^ of JDomlalcatt nuna at this place waa eaUbliabed about 
the year IIS?, in coaaequeace of an application made to the court of 
^oipe by Dr. MacMahon, R. C. Archbishop of Armagh. Catharine Plan- 
ket was appointed the first prioress. Many females, of very respectable 
families, have here received education ) and several, after a regular do« 
Titiate,have taken the veil. In Stuatt^a hiatorif of Armagh it is remarkod 
that the head of Dr. Oliver Plonket, R. C. Primate of Irelaad, ^ evea 
yet adorned with silvery- coloured hair, and the features Still relaiaiag tha 
character of the archbishop's countenance,*' is preserved in this nunnery, 
with reli|;ions care. It will be recollected that Dr. Plunket was executed- 
atTybnra, June 1st, 1681, on the accusation of being concerned in a 
plot, which does not appear, on a dispassionate, but, alas t too tardy, 
investigation, to have had any real existence. In the same nunnery are 
a few interesting portraits, including that of Dr. Burke, or De Burgh, 
tUoUr bishop of Oseory, and author of Hibernica Domimieana, which 
writer and book we have before mentioned in our account of the city of 
Kilkenny. 



f 



S94 VKAU1'1S« OF IRELAN0. 

assisted by the same river, proceeds heace to Navan ^ thus facill- 
tating the interchange between its corn, and other markets^ and 
the interior of the country. Drogheda^ which lies nearly opposite 
to Liverpool, is one of the principal marts for corn in Ireland. 
Indeed, most of the comm^erce of the fertile counties of Meath and 
Louth is carried on through the medium of this port. The exports 
chiefly consist of grain ; ilour -, dowlas and coarse linen ; spiri- 
tuous liquor 5 live cattle; and provisions of various kinds. The 
imports are principally, groceries 3 coals 3 deals; porter; iron, 
and hardware. Here are, also, licensed distilleries, worked on a 
large scale. The provision market is well supplied with fish, and 
other articles for the table. 

The corn-market is a spacious and eligible building, 
designed by F. Johnston, Esq. As other structures devoted to 
public uses, may be noticed the Tholsel, and large barracks for 
infantry. Here are almshouses, founded and endowed by Dr. 
Hugh Boulter, archbishop of Armagh, for the liberal purpose of 
maintaining the widows of poor clergymen. An annual stipend 
was, likewise, bestowed by the founder, for providing apprentice- 
fees for the children of the widowed inmates of this asylum. In 
this town is, also, one of the schools founded by Erasmus Smith* 

This borough sends one member to the imperial parliament, 
who is elected, without the interference of any predominating infla- 
ence, by freemen and freeholders, ft is internally governed by a 
mayor; recorder; two sheriffs; a town clerk; mayor of the staple; 
two justices of the peace; two coroners, and a law agent.^ Drog- 
heda gives the title of marques?, earl, and viscount, in the peerage 
of Ireland, to the family of Moore. 

* The corporation of Drogheda attained considerable military diatinc- 
tion in the reign of Edward IV. In an engagement which took place at 
Malpas bridge, the Mayor of Drogheda, at the head of 500 archers, and 
SCO men armed with pole-axes, assisted in the defeat of 0*ReiUy and his 
confederatesi who had committed great ravages in the coonty of Louth. 
In commemoration of tliis signal piece of service. King Edward gave to 
the town of Drogheda a sword, to he carried before the Mayor, and the 
»nm of 20/. a year /or itt maintenanc4. 



[lKINSTKR.] county of LOUTH. 995 

As eminent natives of Drogheda maybe mentioned the following 
two scholars^ whose works are noticed^ among those of other 
*' writers of Ireland,** in the second volume of Ware*s Antiquities, 
edited by Harris. — PFiHiam of Drogheda, a writer on civil law, 
who received his education at Oxford, and was living in the year 
1360. James Miles, who was bom in this town, became a Francis- 
can friar^ and lived for some time in the Irish college at Rome, 
whence he removed to Naples, where he died in 1639. He was 
author of two religious works, and also published u book on the 
art of music. 

The number of houses and inhabitants, according to the returns 
made in 1813^ was as follows. Houses 3,086, inhabitants 
16,1^. The number, as returned in 1821,. was, houses, 3,463, 
inhabitants, 18,118 Thus, according to these statements, the 
increase in the number of inhabitants, between the years 1813 
and 1821, has been 1,995. 

On the banks of the River Boyne, to the west of Drogheda, 
was fought the important battle between the armies of King Wil- 
liam III, and King James II, which is denominated after the river 
on whose borders it took place, and is known, throughout Europe, 
under the name of the Bat'];le of the Boyne. On the northern 
margin of the river, at the distance of rather more than two miles 
from Drogheda, is a stately obelisk, commemorative of that event. 
This fine pillar (of which, with the adjacent scenery, we present 
an engraved view) is composed of stone, and is about 150 feet in 
height. On the dies of the squ^u'e pedestal are the inscriptions 
copied beneath.* The obelisk is founded on a rock, that rises 
abruptly from the river, and presents a site peculiarly happy for" a 

* Sacred to the glorioui memory of Kin; William the Third, who, on 
the Itt of July, 16SK), passed the river, near this place, to attack James 
the Second, at the head of a popish army, advantajj^eoasly posted on the 
soutii side- of it I and did on that day, hy a successfal hattle, secure to uh 
and to our posterity, our liherty, laws and religion. 

In consequence of this action, James the Second left this kingdom, 
and fled to France. This memorial of our deliverance was erected in (he 



SM BBAUT18B or IRELAND. 

pillar of celebration^ as it affords, in itself, an embletn of soBditf 
and perpetuity. At the back of the pillar the river-banks are 
acclivitoDS, and the surrounding scenery^ pregnant with historical 
incident^ is of a picturesque and attractive character. 

The mind is subject to a crowd of reflections on viewing the 
scene of this celebrated battle, npon the issue of wbich, assuredly 
depended the temporary fortunes of a nation, and, perhaps, the 
moral and political state of a long succession of unborn ages. In 
our notice of this eventful action we refrain Arom encroaching on 
the province of the regular historian, and merely pursue the 
track of the contending parties, with a view of pointing out the 
localities of the conflict, for the satisfaction of the curious examiner. 
It will, however, be expected that we notice the decisive transac- 
tions of the day, and assemble in our pages some anecdotes of pro- 
minent interest. 

When King James received intelligence at Dublin, in the month 
of June, 1690, that King William III. was landed in Ireland, and 
was on his march against him, he quitted the metropolis, at the 
head of six thousand veteran French troops, to join the rest of his 
forces, which had drawn from Dundalk and Ardee nearer to the 
capital. Their camp was situated on the southern, or county of 
Meath, side, of the river Boyne, having the town of Drogheda, 
which was possessed by the friends of James, at a short dis- 
tance on its right. It extended in two lines upon the borders of 
the river, with a morass on the left, that was difficult of passage. 
The banks of the river were rugged throughout the chief part of 

If loth year of die reigii of -KMg George ike Second, Ihe first itone Mmg 
laid by Lionel SackvUle, Doke of Donet, Lord-Lleo tenant of tlie king- 
dom of Ireland, 1736. 

This monument was erected by he grateful contribution of levaml 
Protettants of Great Britain and Ireland^-^RBUfHAmD, Dnke of Scsoif* 
BBBo, in passing this river died, bravely fighting in defence of liberty. — 
First of Ju]y, MDCXC. 

The circnmstance of the first etone of the monameBt having tteoB laid 
by the Duke of Dorset* is also recorded in four Latin linoS| placed beneath 
the inscription of the principal compartment. 



[lkinstkb.} county or LOimi. WT 

their Iiiie> and tbe fords^ which lay direcHy befare the cinp> were 
deep and dangereae. The baaks were also prcHectcd wtth brcaaU 
works, and many hedges and hats of peasantry were favoaraUe to 
the defensive operations of infantry. On their rear were the Til- 
lage, and large but rninons, church of Dnleekj beyend whiob was 
a pass, well oalcolated for the porpeses of a retreding army. Thaa 
was their pontion highly advanti^ons, in every point of view. 

King William encamped on the opposite hanks, at the distaooe 
of about three miles to the eastward of the bridge of Slaae. Whilst 
his troops were encamping, a shot of the enemy had nearly proved 
fatal to the king. Desmnis of obtaining a near aadaocsrvtevieiv 
of his opponents, WiHiam adraiieed, with some officers, to a rising 
ground, abo0t two fanndred paces to tbe west of the ford before 
the village of Old Bridge, and nearly opposite to the western extra* 
mity of the enemy's camp. He remained seated on this devatiosi 
for the greater part of an hour. Bat his motions had not been 
nnheeded, and a party of abont forty horse appeared in a ploughed 
field on the opposite side, concealing in their centre two field- 
peices, which they placed, unobserved, at the corner of a hedge. 
At the instant of his remounting, one of the field pieces was dis- 
duirged, and the shot killed a man and two horses, very near his 
person. The second discharge almost immediately sncoeeded, aad 
the ball grazing on the bank of the river, rose, and passed across his 
right shoulder, tearing his coat and slightly injuring the fiesh. His 
attendants crowded round him, and a general shout of triumph was 
raised in the Irish camp, under a persuasion that he had fallen. 
William, however, treated his wound with indifference, and after- 
wards rode through his camp, and dined in the field. Bst it was 
not without some pain and difficulty that he at first used Ms sword, 
on the following busy day. 

At about the hour of nine at night. King William called a council 
of war, in which he declared his intention of crossing the river and 
attacking the enemy. The Dake of Schonberg, with whoa caotkm 
was a characteristic, endeavoured to dissuade his majesty from n 
measure so bold and full of hazard, considering tiie strength of the 



999 BKAUTlBft OP IRRbAN0. 

caeny and the difficttkics of the passage.* Otk finding Ids remon- 
strances oTer-rnled^ he retired in chagrin, and received in his tent 
the order of battle, observing, as he took it, '' that it was the first 
ever seni to him.'* 

The battle was fought on the 1st of Jnly^ 1690. At about six 
iathe morning, the right wing of William's army directed its march 
towards the bridge of Slane. Count Schonberg (son of the duke) 
oommanded the cavalry of that division, and Lientenant*general 
Douglas the foot. The enemy drew out several bodies of horse 
and foot to oppose them» and the chief part of this division even- 
toally passed the river at fords between the site of their camp and 
Slane bridge.f Their passage was slightly opposed by a regiment 
•f dragoons, but these insufficient opponents quickly retired, and 
the English crossed without difficulty, and advanced towards the 
main body of the enemy. 

The infantry in the centre of William's army, commanded by 

* Exaggerated accounts of the numben of the Irish and French were 
conveyed to the English camp, by deserters. Among them was an officer, 
who spoke of their great numbers, with such an imposing appearance of 
troth and sound judgment, that it is said the kiag was himself disconcerted. 
Mr. Cox (afterwards Sir Richard, and Lord Chancellor of Irelandj detected 
tlie fallacy of this officer's statement, with a very memorable degree of 
acuteness. — He led the deserter through the English camp, and then asked 
at what number he computed King William's forces ? The inexperienced 
calculator rated them at more than double their real number, and thos 
proved how entirely incapable he was of making a correct estimate, on 
so large a scale. 

i- It is surprising that the bridge of Slane, assuredly a pass of the highest 
importanca, was viewed with indiiference and neglect by both parties. 
William was advised by Dake Schonberg to dispatch thither, on the night 
previoas to the action, a strong body of troops, with the object of flanking 
the enemy, and cutting them oiT from the pass of Duleek. The king's 
inattention to this judicious advice is believed to have greatly conduced 
to the disgust, nnfortanately conceived by Schonberg. On the other hand, 
James was counselled by Hamilton (the most able general officer in bia 
army) to send eight regiments, for the purpose of securing this bridge. 
He replied that he 8ly>uld send thither Jl/ijf dragoont. 



[UKINSTBR.] COUNTY OF LOUTtf. ^99 

Doke Sohonberg, crossed tbe Boyne directly in front of the enemy'f 
camp. The Datch guards first entered the river^ at the ford of 
Old Bridge^ where a strong body was posted to oppose their land* 
ing^ with the advantage of a slated honse, which they had filled 
with soldiers. The French protestants and EDniskilleners 3 the 
levies from Brandenbnrgh, and the English 3 entered at fords to 
the left^ or eastward. Tbe bulk of so many accoutred men, by 
checking the current, caused the water to rise, at the place of their 
passage, much beyond its natural level, and it was in some places 
breast-high, the infantry, in those parts, supporting their arms 
above their heads. When they gained the opposite banks, they 
formed as quickly as was attainable, and soon drove back those 
Irish who were stationed on the banks, with the advantage of 
breast-works and hedges. Several battalions, and parties of Irish 
horse, were received firmly, and compelled to retreat. But the 
passage was not effected, by the whole of this division of the English 
army, with equal success. A squadron of Danes was attacked by 
a party of Irish cavalry, with so much fury that they retreated 
through the river, pnrsned by their temporary conquerors. Tht 
Irish, on their return, fell upon the French Huguenots, who were 
broken with considerable loss.* 

At this juncture another calamity, likewise, occurred on the 
side of the English. — Duke Schonberg, perceiving the partial 
disorder,' hastily crossed the river, to head and encourage the 
Huguenots. It is said by Harris that he hurried to the ford with 
such eager promptitude, *' that he could not be persuaded by 
M. Forebert, his aid-de-camp, to put on bis armour. *'f As soon 

* TJie ease with which these protestmnt French refimenti were brofceA» 
it attributed to their want of pikes for resiitiiif cavalry. CaiUemote^ tiielr 
fallant commander, received a fatal wound in this conflict. Bleeding and 
incapable of action, he was borne by four toldieni to the English camp. 
In Ms way thither he encouraged tbe remainder of his countrymen, who 
were crossing the river, by exclaiming, whilst lie retained strength for 
utterance, '* A la gloire, mes enfans ! a la gloire V^^'To Qhry, my boys I 
To Olory! 

-t* The moment indeed was one of peculiar exigency. It is obser? ed 
by Leiand, that ^* the rapidity of the Irish horse, the flight of the Danes, 



900 ' BBAUTIBS or IBBLAND. 

MB he gtiaed thie opposite banks he addressed to the brdcen Ha« 
gvenots these vrords^ the last he uttered : " AUons, messiears ; voila 
vos persecetenrs.*' C^meom, gentlemen i There (poiatmg to some 
r^ments of pepist French) are your persecutors. The Irish horse 
after thdr soccessfal attack of the Haguenots^ "were themselTes 
broken^ and cbi«fly cat to pieces^ in the vicinity of Old Bridge, 
by the Dutch and Enniskilieners. The small residue of this party, 
about sixteen in namb^ , escaping, with furious haste, from the 
slaoghter, were mistaken for friends by the Hngnenots, and were 
acoerdingly suffered to pass. In passing they gave the duke two 
wounds OB the head, neither of which, however, was of a serious 
natare. But his own men, detecting their error, rashly fired upon 
the Irish whilst still entangled in the skirmish, and ope of their balls 
struck the duke either m the head or neck, and caused his imme- 
diate death.* About the same time fell, in another part of ^ 
fidd. Walker, distinguished for his enthusiastic bravery in the 
defence of Londonderry. 

King WiHiam, accompanied by the Prince of Denmark, passed 
the river, with the left wing of the horse, consisting of 
English, Dutch, and Danes, at a ford little more than one 
mile to the west of Drogheda. This was a dangerous pass, 

and the disorder of the French, apread a general alarm, and the want of 
cavalry itruckthe minds even of the peatanttf who were but spectatora ef 
the battle f to forcibly, that a general cry of '^ Hone i Hone /" wat ind- 
denly raised, was mistaken for an order to '* Halt**' svprtsed and coi* 
lisaaded the centre, was conveyed to tfie right wing, and for a wUla re- 
tarded their pnrsait." Lei. Hist. y. iti. p. 566, 

* The Dake of Sclionberg, or Schomberg, was In the eighty-second year 
of his age, when he thus nnfortnnately fell^ 009 hour too soon ; for Ms 
gallant spirit would have been resigned on a genial bod, |f he had azplrad 
amidst the shouts of victory.. The greater part of his lengthenisd lib had 
^een passed In war ; and Caillemote, who fell in the same glorioas day 
had been the conetant follower of his fortunes and friend et hit persofi. 
In regard to the mistake which led to the death of thf» duke, it may not he 
saperflnons to observe that it appears to have proceeded from a neglect of 
the precautionary order of King William, who had directed his nan each 
to wsar the distinguishing badge of a green bough, or tprlg. In the hat or 
cap. The mea on >he side of Jaaiei worCf in their hats, pieces of white 
paper. 



I^LSINSTBR.] COUNTY OP LOVTH. 901 

tnd the landing bo difflcnlt that the horse on which he vode conld 
not gain a ready footing ; and, diamonnting, he received the 
assistance of his attendants. 

King James, thronghoot this eventful day, was stationed on the 
hill of Donore, distant from Drogfaeda two miles towards the sontfi- 
west. Here, snrronnded by his guards, he stood as a spectator 
rather than a general, whilst the crown of three kingdoms was the 
snbject of contest between two great armies. 

When King William had secnrety reached the hostile bank of 
the river, he rode to the head 'of his squadrons, «id presented to 
them the animating spectacle of a royal general, prepared, with 
sword in hand, to share in all their dangers. The main body of 
the Irish retreated towards Douore ; bnt ^ere (the very nume of 
king proving a '^ tower of strength") they heed abont, lor Hie 
protection of the quiescent James, then standing in peril on tiM 
hill i and charged with so much fury that the English were obliged 
to give ground. William, preserving perfect equanimity in all 
fortunes, rode up to the Ennisldlleners, and, with the brevity of a 
soldier at a moment of exigency, asked them " wkmi tk9y would do 
for Um ?** Their chief oi&cer explained to them that it was the 
king who proposed to head them ; and, advancing with alacrity, 
tbey proved themselves to be men wordiy of such a leader. After 
receiving with them the enemy's fire, V^Hiam, who was seen in 
nearly every part of the field, led up other troops, anxious to inspire 
aH with a portion of his own tliirst for glory.* 

The event of the day is well known. After many of those 
varieties of fortune that are common to every field, in which the 
numbers and courage of the conten^ng parties bear any resem- 
blance of equality, the Irish infantry were finally repulsed. Ha- 
milton, an officer of great bravery and skill, made a last and des- 

* Some idea of the tarmoil and perils of a heady fight may be conveyed 
by an anecdote, ihowing a danger to which the king was subject at thU 
period of the conflict. Whilst mingling in the thickest part of the battle, 
one of his own soldiers, ignorant of his person, presented a pistol at his 
bead. VVlHiam calmly put the weapon aside, and said, *' What! do not 
yeu know your friends ?" 



dot BEAUTieS OF IRBLANP. 

p^aite ^eifert/ At the head of some troops of hone; hot his force 
was rooted and himself taken prisoaer.* InfM'med by those aboul 
him that he was in danger of beiog surrounded^ James now quitted 
Donore, and retired to Dnleek^ at the head of $ars6eld*s regiment. 
His army followed^ and effected a retreat^ allowed by ail to be 
luimirabiy^ondocted^ through the pass of Daleek. The loss of 
the Irish was said to have been 1500^ and that of the king*s army 
not more than 500. .It is obvious that great bravery^ if not equal 
ateadtness, was displayed by the defeated power 3 and postierity 
.will long remember the subsequent speech of Sarafield, as recorded 
by Burnet -. " Change kings, and we would ^ht the battle over again 
with you,'' 

From the above brief narrative it will be apparent that the action 
•extotded from the bridge and village of Slane, on the west^ to the 
immediate vicinity of the town of Drogheda^ in an opposite direc- 
tion I a distance of about seven miles. The river has here a wind- 
ing> or tortuous^ course. Many remains of earth-works^ and other 
traces of military operations, are still to be seen, at several points 
occupied by the opposed armies. 

Within the county of Louth, and in the neighbourhood of the 
tract in which the above far-famed battle raged with its greatest 
fierceness, are now the handsome mansion and smiling demesne of 
Mr. Balfour. This seat is termed Townlsy Hall, and is distant 
from Drogheda about three miles. The house, which is cased 
with beautiful stone, and contains many spacious apartments, was 
erected about the year 1795, after the designs of Francis Johnston, 
Esq. The grounds are well planted, and in high preservation. 

Bbaulisu, sometimes written Bewly, situated near the mouth 



^f 



* When Hamilton was brought before William, as a prisoner, the king 
asked him whether the Irish woald fight any more ? '* Upon my bonoar, 
replied this faithless emissary, *' I believe they will." The king looked 
on him contemptuously, but made no other answer than the bitter com- 
raent, " Your honour ! Your honour!" It will be recollected that Hamil- 
ton had treacherously betrayed the trost reposed in him by King William, 
by whom, at his own inrestigation, he was commissioned to negotiate with 
Tyrconnel, then lord deputy in the interest of James. 



f 



[LEINSTBR.] COUNTY OF LOUTH. SOS 

of the nver Boyne^ at the distance of two miles from Droghedai 
aflbrded a seat to the distiDgnished family of Plo&ket^ or Plankett, 
at a period antecedent to the entry of the Anglo-Normans, and 
formed the constant residence, in many after ages, of the elder 
branch of that family. It has been supposed that the hoose of 
Plnnket is of Danish extraction, bnt no record exists to prore the 
time at which the family first entered Ireland. John Plunket, 
ancestor of Lord Dnnsany, was seated at Beaolieu, and died here> 
in 1089. His descendant, also named John, together with Alicia 
his wife, obtained a licence of mortmain^ in the reign of Henry 
ill . to grant a plot of ground as the site for a church to be founded 
at Beanlien, with an attached bnrial ground . That chnrch having 
sunk beneath the wear of years, a new structure has been recently 
erected^ with the aid of 600/. g^ven for that purpose by the Board 
of First Fruits. It is observed, by Mr. Lodge and his continuator, 
that *' the numerous branches of this family have extended into 
many parts of the kingdom (particularly the counties of Meath; 
Dublin, and Louth) and participated in almost every honour which 
the crown could bestow.*' In our account of Eastmeath we have 
observed that there are now seated in that district, two branches 
of this antient family, ennobled by the titles of Earl of Fingall 
and Baron of Dunsany. In this county we have also to notice a 
third branch partaking of the peerage, namely Plnnket, Bnren vf 
Lotuh, 

The village of Tjbbfeckan, or TERMON-rscKAN, distant from 
Drc^hedafonr miles, towards the.N.£. is situated on a small liver, 
which takes its rise in this part of the county, and enters the Irish 
sea at a short distance from the village. A monastery was founded 
here, as is believed^ in the year 665; but scarcely any traces of its 
history are now to be discovered. A nunnery was, likewise, 
founded at this place, by the M'Mahons, for regular canooesses, 
under the invocation of the Virgin Mftry. The prioress and nuns 
were confirmed in their possessions by a bull of Pope Celestine III. 
dated in the year 1195. This nunnery was surrendered in the 
thirty-third. of Henry VIII. The principal interest of the village 



SOi DRAUTIBa or IRBLAND. 

arisM from tbe manlderiag rniai of iU caitk, which vru tvrmtrij 
tko McaBionil rendence of tka ucAtmhopi of Armagh . The tiae 
■t which this castellated adi6co was erected, does not appear; 
bit, from the remaiaa, which comprise a large tower,.of sqiun 
proportioM, and a. circalar tnrret, formbg part of the ont-woilUt 
it wao evideatly calcnlated for defence as well as primatial dignitr. 
Swh, indeed, was the chancter of many ejuacopal palaces in the 
alddle ages of Iiish and Biiti^ history; instance! of which oocvr 
at Sworda, in this oonntry, and Dnrham, in the north of Engbad. 
The archbishops nsnally resided here for three months in the year. 
The great Usan was the last primate who hononred this palace 
with his presence ; and, since the time of that distingDishcd prB> 
late, the buildings have sank into a state of noheeded decay. In 
the neighbourhood arc Teatigea irf many odiercastellateddwemnga, 
of inferior magnitude. 

At Dnamtkallom, distant three nules from Dro^eda, towtrds 
the north, 8t. Patrick fbanded a monastery for canons regnlar. 
The parodual Chnrch was afterwards erected on part of its site. 

MsLLivoNT Abbbv, distant foor mil« and a half from Dro^ 
heda, towards the north-west, was formerly one of the moat cele- 
brated monastic foundations in this part of Irdand, and was aftv- 
waids distingnished as the principal seat, for many ages, of the 
Moore fauuly, iaroiu of Melli/onI, and earls of Drogfaeda, nnce 
exalted to a marqnisate in the Irish peerage. Altboogh few in^- 
eatioua now remain of its andent grandeur, the history of this place 
oooapics so prominwt a station in ttie topographical annals of the 
eoanty of Lontfa, that the fsllm CortaBea of its monastic tarxcta 
and baronial halls demand an ample investigation. 

The Abbey of Mellifbnt was fonnded by Donongh O'Carrol, 
Prince of Uriel, fbr Cistertian monks, in the year 1 US. The first 
inmate* were sent by St. Bernard, from his own abbey of Clair- 
Tanx. The consecration of the church, in 1167* was attended 
with very impresiive solemnities. The Archbishop of Armagh, 
then apostolic legate, and many princes and bishops were presat. 
On this occasion DtrvorgiHa, fbt faithless wife of Dermod, King 



[leinstes.] county or louth. 305 

of Leiaster^ attended personally^ to expreu nhame aod repentance 
Cor her misoondnct in the early part of Ufe. Htre, soliciting for- 
giveness of her injared co/nntlry^ she knelt at the altar^ and made 
a penitential offiurtng of sixty oonces of gold^ a golden chalice^ and 
rich paramctatS^ which were laid by her on the nine altars of the 
ohnrch. She. sobseqaeody took the veil, aad died here in 119S. 

Hugh de Lacy was an eminent benefactor to this house^ and 
the abbot and monks were coaiirmed in their large possessions by 
Henry II., and several stkcceeding kings. The abbot was a lord 
of parfiameDt, and the intrignes and disputes, for possession of 
the chair of abbacy> proceeded to snch an extremity^ in the early 
part of the I4th century, that, A. D. 1306, the temporalities were 
s^sed into the hands of the king. In 1322^ it was determined 
that no person shonld be admitted as a member of this abbey, 
before he had made oath that he was n'ot of English descent. 
Such a revulsion, however, took place in the tide of politics, before 
the expiration of the same centnry, that, in 1380, it was enacted 
by parliament that no mere Irishman shonld be allowed to make 
his pro^BSsion in this abbey. 

Among the illustrious persons here interred, were l>onough 
0*Carrol, the founder, 1166; Murchard O^Carrol, prince of 
Uriel, 1 189 5 Thomas 0*Conor, archbishop of Armagh, 1301 ; 
Locas Netterville, archbishop {A Armagh, 1227 ; and David O'Bro- 
gan, bishop of Clogher, who had been a monk of this abbey, 1267- 

Richard Center, the last abbot, surrendered the abbey in 1540, 
and retired on a pension of 40/. per annum. A lease of the dis- 
solved abbey, and its extensive possessions in this county, was 
granted by Qaeen Elizabeth, to Sir Edward Moore ; and the same 
were afterwards granted, in fee, to his son. Sir Gerald, or Gar- 
rett, the first Lord Moore. Sir Edward fixed his residence at 
Mellifont, and converted the abbey buildings, with additions, into 
a spacious and defensible mansion, in which his descendants con- 
tinned to reside until their removal to Monasterevan, in the county 
of Kildare. 

The lord deputy and council, in their estimate of the fine to 
be paid by Sir Edward, in consideration of bis lease, observes^ 

VOL. II. X 



306 BBAVTIKS OF IRELAND. 

tb»l thh houie, 9tan^Bnf up&n the Iruh eamUr^, vat ckarg^Me la 
d0/bnd. From its situatkm on tke borders of UUter, il waa, iadeed^ 
oscposed (0 frequent attacks from the natives and discontenlad 
party in that quarter. Bnt 8ir Edward Moore had entered Irelaiid^ 
in the time of EUaaheth, as a soldier of fortune. He had home 4 
oeveppcuous share in the n^ars of that era^ and was contented wttk 
rtsi^ing in a garrisoned mansion ^snrronnded by the Ufteamenls of 
wariare, so that he lived in splendid plenty^ with the flattering 
view of becoming founder of a house. Some idea may be foraed 
respecting the character of his isolated enjoyment s^ and the gloom 
of his territorial dignity^ when we observe^ in the words of lua 
&mily pedigree^ that^ in 1599, A# and Sir Francis Siajhrd were 
tke only English housekeepers in the ceuniy of Louth ; aii the lands 
being pasted by the Ulster rebels. 

Sir Gerald, or Garrett^ Moore, son of the above knight, sue* 
ceeded his fether at Mellifont, and here received^ in Mareh^ IdM 
(the junctoreof Queen Elizabeth's death) tlie submission of Tyrone, 
which was afterwards renewed to King James I. by that tnrba* 
lent commander. For this and other services, he was, in 1616, 
created Baron Moore> of Mel^ont. in 1621, he was further 
advanced in the Irish. peerage, by the title of Viscount Moore, of 
Drogfaeda. 

We have already noticed the gallantry with which Charles, 
the second viscount, assisted in the defence of Drogheda, in the 
wars under King Charles I., and the unfortunate death of that 
nobleman, from a cannon shot. On Sunday, the 94th of November, 
1641, whilst his lordship was absent from home, on the military 
bj^iness of the state, his house of Mellifont was suddenly beset 
by 1300 rebels, who succeeded in entering, after experiencing a 
vigoroius resistance, in which the besieged expended their last 
flask of powder. Thegarrisonconsisted ofno more than twenty-foar 
musketeers, and fifteen horsemen, the latter of whomcnt their way 
through the enemy, and reached Drogheda. The musketeers 
yielded no quarter; bnt twenty-eight persons, in the whole, were 
destroyed, when the rebels rushed into the mansion. One hundred 
and twenty of the assailants fell during the attack. 



[L6INSTER.] COUNTY OF LOVtU. S€? 



Of diit iplendid abbey, ud spacioiia dofensible nuuMioa, 
•earaely oaough testiget now renab to <' pgmt a moral or adorn 
a. tale.** Tbe kails in which the lords Moore banqoetted, with 
their military retainers and armed gnests, are levelled with the 
green-sward, and their former existence is to be ascertained only 
by the page of history, and the lingering tales of tradition. Some 
traces of walls and towers, denotiog much former strength, are, 
however, still visible. Of the religions boildings, the remains are 
aliMMt eqoally few and homble. The onrioos examber looks in 
^aia for the site of that altar at which DervargUIa shed repentant 
tears, and, kneelbg^offered her chalice of gold and rich paraments ! 
Seme fragments of a chapel, havbg a groined roof, may yet be 
sjeen ;* and, adjoining those rains, is a singular stractvre, in rather 
better preservation. This was an octangular building, with an 
arched entrance at each lace. A considerable part of this fabric 
is now demolished, and it is difficult, from the remainder, to ooi»* 
jecture it t. former appropriation. An engraving of the building, 
in « more perfect state than at present, is given by Wright, 
m the Louthuna. That author informs us, that it was locally 
cd}od an octagonal baik, but justly remarks, that it most likely 
eoostttnted a baptistery. Mr. Archdall asserU that there was a 
cietemtn the top, from which water was conveyed, by means of 
pipes,, to diffevent offices in the abbey. 

At MoNASTBUBOiCE, distaut from Drogheda about three miles, 
are .some ruins, of a very interesting character. An abbey wan 
founded at this place by St. jgoetins, who died in the year 521. 
Two fanner prolessora are recorded, as persons eminently skilled 
in the science of antiquities. These were Flm, who died in 105!i ; 
and Fbn Mabisdreach, in 1056; if, bdeed, by those two hemes 



* In the Lenthisnaisuieos'ikTed view of* a finoold Gothic doorway," 
loading into this chapol, which was compotod of blue marblo, *' richly 
ornamented and gilt," hot it now no more. Wright iay» that he heard 
*' it was lold, and going to be taken to pieces;" but Sir Richard Hoaro 
professes to havo been told that it was played for as a stake at piqaef, mod 
lost! 



SOB BBAUTIBS OF IRBLAirb.' 

we are not to undentand tbe same person. No annals of this 
rq)igioas hoase are preserved after the year 11 17- The rnins of 
the bnildings present few architectural vestiges, but are of a simple 
and massive constraction, that evinces considerable antiquity. 
The greater part was probably restored soon after the year 1097, 
at which time the abbey was destroyed by fire* 

Contiguous to one division of the ruins on the north-west, is 
a round, or pillar-tower, partially dilapidated at the top, the alti- 
tude of which is 110 feet in the highest part. The door-case, 
which is arched, and built of free-stone, is five feet six inches in 
height, twenty-two inches wide, and six feet firom the present 
level of the ground. Internally the diameter of the tower is nine 
feet, and it is divided into five stories by bands of stone, sligiitiy 
projecting. 

In the vicinity of the ruins, are two large and curious crosses, 
one eighteen feet in height, and the other about sixteen. The 
most remarkable of these is called Si. Bayce'a croH, and has been 
termed, but without any reason, the most antient religious relique 
now extant in Ireland. Both are crowded with sculpture, and 
are beautiful examples of antient art in this species of ornamented 
fabric. The cross popularly named after St. Boyce, is situated 
between the two divisions of ruin, or chapels, and has been en- 
graved, but after inaccurate drawings, in Wright's Louthiaaa. 
The sculpture is executed in compartments, and is now much 
decayed, but has represented, among other subjects, the Saviour; 
St. Patrick, having at his feet an angel with a pair of scales; 
St. Boyce; and Adam and Eve, with the tree between them. It 
is said by Archdall, after the notes of Dr. Molyneux, that some 
letters, to be traced on this fabric, formed '* tbe word Muredach, 
who was for some time king of Ireland, and died, A. D. 534.** 
Dr. Ledwich observes, that we are not, from such a circumstance, 
to suppose that the cross was erected, and the inscription made, 
in the sixth century, " for neither the letters nor language of that 
time would be intelligible now, as the impossibility of deciphering 
the Brehon latvs, of a much later date, abundantly proves.** The 



[lbinsteb.J county or louth. 309 

inscription was on the base or foot of tlie cross, and is now nearly 
illegible.* 

The second cross, which is on the sonth side of the borial-yard, 
is inferior in point of height, bnt is equally rich in scnlptural 
decoration. 

The Cemetery attached to these abbey-ruins, is still a favoarite 
place of catholic burial. It is noticed in the Louthiana that a 
man digging a grave, near St. Boyce's cross, found, buried in the 
earth, some wedges of silver, and many pieces of Anglo-Saxon 
silver coin. 

CoLLON, the seat of the Right Hon. John Foster, Lord Oriel, 
which forms the most conspicuous ornament of this county, is situ- 
ated on the south-western border of Louth, at the distance of 
about six miles from Drogheda. The mansion on this estate is 
handsome and spacious, but the great attractions of Collon pro- 
ceed from the beauty of the demesne 3 the extent, variety, and 
excellence of the plantations ; and the admirable improvements 
effected in the whole contiguous tract of country. 

The solid value, and ornamental charms, of this place, have 
been entirely created by the energies, talent, and good taste of 
the distinguished family to which it now belongs . When Anthony 
Foster, lord chief baron of the exchequer in Ireland, father of the 
present noble proprietor, first selected this estate as a residence, 
about the middle of the last century, he found the whole country, 
as we are told by Mr. Young, *' a waste sheep walk, covered chiefly 
with heath, with some dwarf furze and fern." Thejndicious mea- 
sures he adopted, in ameliorating a tract, so repulsive to ordinary 
improvers, and the perseverance with which he pursued his object, 
are stated, at considerable length, by the writer last quoted, f Fortu- 

* This inscription, as copied by the late Mr. Beauford, and engraved 
after his copy in the fourth vol. of Goug;h*B Camden, saould be read thus : 

Onn dorr me deachai^ ndern am, d» m. hjo 88m 
For On dar me deachair nderna* 
i. e. By this stone, or cross, I shall go to second life. A. D, 1388. 

t From the account presented by Mr. Young in his Tour, we learn Chat 
the chief baron, anable to tolerate the view of so barren a property* 



310 BEAUTIES or I11KLA.ND, 

Bately^ the correct taste and muDificest spirit of this '* Prinee •£ 
Improvers/* as the Chief Baron Foster has been einpbaticaUy 
tormed by an honest encomiast^ desconded to his son and heir the 
present Lord Oriel j* uikder whose auspices the plantations have 

** determiaed to attempt the improveoirat of an ettate of 5000 acreftf till 
then deemedirreclaimable. He encouraged the tenants, by every species 
of persuasion and expense ; but they had so ill an opinion of the land, that 
he was forced to bejf^in with 2 or SOOO acres in his own hands. He did 
■ot, however^ torn out the people, but kept them itt» to see the effect of 
his operations. He bad, for several years, twenty-seven lime-kilna, bom- 
ing stone. The culm used here was brought from Milford Haven. He 
had 450 cacs employed by these kilns, and paid j^OO. a year for culm. 
The stone was quarried by from sixty to eighty men, regularly at that 
work* Whilst this vast business of liming was going forwards, roads were 
also making (which, it may be added, are now amongst the best in Ireland.^ 
He enclosed the whole traot, is fields of about ten acres each, the baak» 
beipf planted with qaiek and forest trees. Of th^ee fonces 10,000 parche» 
were ma.de. In order to create a new race of tenants, he fixed upon thr 
most active and industrious labourers f bought them cows, &c. and 
advanced money for them to begin with little farms, leaving them to pay 
k as they could. His great object was to show the tenantry, as soon aa 
possible, the improvements in agriculture to be effected by the modes h» 
adapted, in order to set them to work themselves f and, when they proved 
that they nnderstood the value of the lessons imparted, he baUt many new 
and comfortable farm-dwellings, all of lime and stone." The chief baro» 
also commenced those plantations, which have since been extended witb 
so much judgment and success. ^^ This great improver,*' adds the agri* 
caltural tourist, ^ has made a barren wilderness smile with cultivatioik, 
planted It with people, and made those people happy T* Abridged fiNM» 
Toang's Tour in Ireland, Vol. Upp. 140—150. 

* The Eight Hon. John Foster, who long represented the county of 
Louth in Parliament, and was for many years speaker of the Irish House 
of Commons, married Margaretta- Amelia Burgh, daughter of Thomas- 
Bnrgb, of Birt, in the county of Kildare, Esq. which lady (who deceased 
in January, I8S4), was, on the 5th of June, 1700, created Baroness Oriel, 
ofCoUon; and on the Tth of November, 1797) Vicountess Ferrard, of 
Oriel, in her own right, with remainder to the male issue of her husband. 
The Right Hon. John Foster, her ladyship's bnsband, was created Baron 
Oriel, of Ferrard, connty of fjoulfa, in the English Peerage, July I4ib, 
1821. The family of Foster sras fosnarly seated at Dnnloor> In 

ily. 



[lbinstsu.] county of loutii. 311 

been greatly augmented, and the whole demesne brought to its 
present state of perfection. 

CoUon is situated in a fine hilly tract of country, commanding, 
at different points, rich and diversified views, comprising a wide 
district, smiling in cultivation ; the spacious bay of Cariingford, 
and the mountains usually denominated from that place ; together 
with those of Mourne, more lofty, grand, and various in out-line. 
The plantations, which, as we have already suggested, constitute 
the most prominent subjects of admiration in this noble demesne, 
cover nearly six hundred acres of ground, and contain trees of 
every description that is suited to the climate of Ireland. The 
consummate skill with which their growth has been nurtured, is 
evinced by their healthy and flourishing condition. It is, indeed, 
uniformly acknowledged that few gentlemen are qualified to dispute 
with Lford Oriel the palm, as amateur arborists ; and it would be 
euperflnous for us to expatiate on the value, in a national point of 
Tiew, of such an example, and incitement to emulation, in a country 
which has suffered gradual denudation, not more from the unstable 
character of its political hemisphere, and othe|^ obvious causes, 
than from a want of judgment in those who undertook the task 
of planting, on a large scale. To persons who have a taste for 
this delightful and profitable branch of rural oeconomy, the plan- 
tations at CoUon present at once a school of improvement and a 
theatre of refined pleasure. The great beauty of the woods, and 
the rich and picturesque growth of innumerable individuals among 
the various species here preserved in a genial asylum, cannot fail 
to captivate every spectator, however deficient in a knowledge of 
the natural history of trees, and the art and care required to pre- 
serve them from disease, and to elicit theif full display of com- 
manding grandeur or simple beauty.* 

« 

* A recent tonrisi (MK J. G. Curweo) wbo Borvejred these pUDlatkiM 
with an experienced and judicious eye, notices, as objects which 
forcibly arrested his attention, araoof the forest trees, *' a weeping larch, 
and an oalL peculiar to Irelaod, that has the same drooping propensity.'* 
The luxuriant growth of the Rhododendrons, at Collon, snrprise every 
rlfftor. Mr. Curweii observes that he '* measured round the spreading 



312 BGAUTIEfr OF IBBIAND. 

Ill the vicinity of the pavilion^ a residence so termed on thb 
extensive demesne^ is a winter garden, containing an nnrivalied 
assemblagQ of the different 8|)ec]e8 and varieties of shrnbs. - 

The village of Collon attracts notice by the neatness of its 
cottages, or cabins, which are, in most instances, white washed, 
and roofed with slate. Here, as throoghoat the whole of the 
snrrounding country, the beneficial effects of watchful and judicious 
patronage are evident in every particular. A cotton manufactory, 
and bleaching^grecn, aid in providing profitable encouragement to 
the industry of the inhabitants. A dispensary, and a school for 
gratuitous instruction in the Laqcasteriau method, have been esta- 
blished by Lord Oriel. A small stream passes through the village, 
and is crossed with a stone bridge. Tlie church, a handsome 
building, in imitation of the antient English style of architecture, 
has been erected in recent years, chiefly after the designs, and 
under the superintendance> of the late Rev. Daniel Aogostus 
Beaufort, L.L.D. who was long rector of this parish, and resident in 
Collon. Dr. Beaufort, it will be recollected, published a/' Civil 
and Ecclesiastical Map of Ireland,*' and also a " Memoir*' of that 
map, in one thin quarto volume. In addition to those literary 
labours, he hadj we believe, made some topographical collections 
towards a survey of the county of Louth. 

The town and manor of Collon, formerly constituted part of 
the possessions appertaining to the abbey of Mellifont. In the 
y^r 1229, King Henry II. granted to the abbot and convent a 
market, in '* their town of Collan," to be held weekly, on the Tues- 
day I and, in 1349, Edward III. granted to them free warren, in 
this, among their other manors. From the. annals of Mellifont, 
relating to the 15th century, as contained in the Monasticon 
Hibernicum, we also learn that the religious owners of this town 
'^ erected here divers burgesses, and presented to them certain 
hoQses and lands in the town, under the name of burgages, on the 
express condition of constant residence ;" which condition, it 

branches of one, about ten feet high, and found their circumference to b* 
eighty feet." ObservaUooB on the SUteof Ireland, &c. vol. ii. p. 994, 



^J 



[lbinstmr.] county op loctq. 313 

appears, the borgesses of Collon neglected to perform. By an 
inquisition taken in 1618, it is shewn that the abbot and convent 
possessed, ia this parish, a water-mill, and twenty-three acres of 
land, together with the tithes, and the annual rent of £6 : 13 : 4, 
proceeding from the town of Collon. 

Atherdbe, more frequently termed, by a popular abbreviation, 
Abdeb, is a small but neat post and fair town, giving name to a 
barony in the southern part of this county, and also affording the 
title of baron, in the Irish peerage, to the family of Brabazon, earls 
of Meath. Roger de Pipard, or Pippard, obtained a grant of this 
manor and town, shortly after the entry of the Anglo-Normans. 
This place constituted, for many ages, the principal seat of a branch 
of the Pipard family, once so greatly distinguished, and wealthy, in 
the province of Leinster, and in several of the midland counties of 
England. Roger de Pipard and his descendants bore the title of 
lords of Atherdeo, and resided here in a strong but gloomy castle, 
still existing, and now used as a gaol. The manor was surrendered 
to King Edward I. by Ralph de Pipard, and was afterwards granted 
by Edward II. to Sir John Birmingham, created first earl of Louth 
by that sovereign. 

This town was captured, and most of the inhabitants put to tiie 
sword, by Edward Bruce, when that invader harassed this part of 
Ireland in the year 1315. Situated on the frontier of the English 
pale, it was exposed to the frequent assablts of the northern Irish. 
The town was burnt, on the invasion of the pale by a force from 
Ulster, under O'Nial, in 1538. It was also surrendered, in 1641, 
to troops from the «ame quarter, under Sir Phelim 0*Nial, united 
with the disaffected 'pa^ in the north of Leinster. Sir Henry 
Tlchbnrne marched to its relief, and after a spirited contest, which 
took place at the distance of about one mile from Ardee, and a 
skirmish at the foot of the bridge, succeeded in expelling the 
enemy. 

Monastic foundations, in the vicinage of the baronial seat, 
were deemed as essential to the dignity, as they were estimable in 
the pious consideration, of a potent family in the middle ages. 



S14 BEAUTIES OP IRELAND. 

We^ accordingly^ find snch acts of munificenoe to have been 
liberallj practised by the antient ABglo-Norman lords of this 
town. 

The Crouched Friary of Ardee, was founded by Roger, de 
Pipard, A. D. 1207> *^ for the health of bis own soul^ and the 
souls of his wife Alicia^ his father^ William^ his mother, Joan, and 
his brethren, Gilbert and Peter j*' and placed by him under the 
invocation of St. John. George Dowdall, the last prior, snrren* 
dered this Friary, and its ample possessions, in the 3l8t of Henry 
VIII. This ecclesiastic was afterwards elevated to the primacy of 
all Ireland, and, in the 1st year of Queen Mary, obtained a grants 
for life, of the monastery over which he had formerly presided^ 
and its valuable appurtenances. The same estates were afterwards 
granted, by King James I. in the year 1613, to Sir Garrett Moore, 
ancestor of the Marquis of Drogheda. There were eight chapels, 
in different parts of the county of Lonth, appropriated to this 
affluent friary, or hospital. Scarcely any remains of the buildings 
of the Crouched Friary are now to be discovered. A part of the 
church was fitted np, and long used as a parochial place of wor- 
ship ; bnt a new chnrcb has been lately erected. 

^ fFTiite, or Carmelite Friary was, also, founded at this place 
and probably by the Pipard family, to which Ralph Pipard was 
an eminent benefactor in the reign of Edward I. In 1315, a chapter 
of the order was held in this friary 5 but, in the same year, it 
experienced a dreadful calamity from the ravages of the Scots and 
Irish, under Edward Bruce. By those ferocious assailants the 
church of the Carmelites, filled with men^ women, and children, 
who had fled thither for refngej was burned to the ground, with 
all its helpless inmates! The buildings, however, were qnidily 
restored; for, in 1320, a provincial chapter was held here, and 
another was held in 1385, at which many regulations were adopted 
for the promotion of ecclesiastical discipline. Synods were, like'*- 
wise, held at this place in 1489, and 1504. The latter assembly 
was removed hither from Drogheda, on account of the plague then 
raging in thattown ; but was abruptly broken up at this chsrdii also, 
as the eoBtagion, probably conveyed by the persons attending 



[lbinster.] county or louth. 31^ 

the synod, was communicated to Ardee> with fatal quickuess. 
Thi« priory was dissolved in the 31 st of Henry VIII. 

Casth'guturd is the name given to a large> and carious^ artifi- 
cial mount at Ardee. This elevation was apparently designed for 
the purposes of inhabitation and defence^ and appears to have 
been occupied, at different times ^ by distinct races of people. An 
elevation and groand plan of Castle-guard are given by Wright in 
the Lonthiana, and in the same work we are informed that ** the 
perpendicular height of the mount, from the bed of its foundation, 
is nearly 90 feet, and the depth of the main trench betwixt 30 and 
40. The circumference at the top is not less than 140, and round 
the foundation upwards of 600 feet.** The mount is encompassed 
by a double ditch and vallum. On the summit are the foundations 
of what appears to have been an octangular tower, having an outer 
wall, or rampart, on every side. An earthen raised path crosses 
the ditches at the base of the mount, and leads to the works on 
its summit. 

In the same neighbourhood are the rains of the small church of 
MlUtuetown, which are shewn as a curiosity, on account of the 
singular position of a part of the building, that now stands trans- 
versely and unconnected, at some distance from a vacancy at the 
end, which it appears to have formerly occupied. The peasantry, 
prone to take the shortest way of acconnting for surprising circum- 
stances, assert, that it was blown from its former situation, in a 
violent storm! 

The principal seat in the vicinity of the above town, is that of 
the Rttxton family, enriched with a handsome and well- wooded 
demesne. 

In this part of the county are several buildings, nearly of a 
similar character, two engravings of which, but after indifferent 
drawings, are given by Wright, in the Louth\ana. They are 
square, or oblong, and isolated towers, which scarcely merit the 
appellation of castles, but were designed for inhabitation and 
resistance in tlie middle ages. Although their exterior possess little 
to interest the spectator, an examination of these cheerless fabrifcs 
ii calculated to afford some curious materials towards a history of 



316 UKAUTtES or IRKLANP, 

the niaDners in past times. Tbey are firmly built, and hare DinaOf 
at the Bsglea amall towers, either ropnd or square. The windows 
are few, and situated high in the buildings. On this paucity of 
apertures, and in the masay strength of the pile, the designers 
appear to have placed their chief reliance for defence. Ai they 
were calculated to elude surprise, rather than to withstand regular 
assault, the inhabitants were provided with places of retreat, 
resembling, in gloom and humility, the dens of savage animals 
which make war with every weaker creature, and find an enemy 
in each strong hand, or subtle head. Underneath most of these 
buildings are worked vaults and caves, from nine to twelve feet 
square, openiog to each other, and usually communicating with a 
long subterranean passage, that, probably, afforded a distant egress 
to tho surface, on some spot rendered obscure by art. 

Such were the habitations, in the 14th and 15th centuries, of 
that class of the people of Ireland which then occupied the station 
in society now filled by the country gentloman, residing in a villa 
with windows at every eligible point, for the admission of good 
air and the command of fine prospects. The spectator sighs to 
reflect that the gentility of a land should ever have been reduced, 
by party fends, and a want of strength, or care, in the head of 
government, to a lot thus sordid and derogatory to the dignity of 
the hnman faculties. 

The two buildings of the above description, engraved in the 
lioutbiana, are termed MUltown Cattle, about four miles south of 
Dnndalk; and the CiutleofKHVtitgcool, midway between Dnndalk 
and Atherdee ; near which is a tbbd, named Cattle Derver. 
Many stmctares, nearly similar, occur in different parts of the 
country. Mr, Wright observes, " that this manner of building is 
sud to be borrowed from the Spaniards, who, formerly, were 
visitors of Ireland." But such an opinion is so completely void of 
foundation, that it is not entitled to any serious remark. 

BAUMBiTH, the fine seat of Sir Edward Bellow, Bart, is sitn- 
kted in the vicinity of the decayed town of Dunleer, at the distance 
)f seven miles from Drogheda, towards the north-east. The 



[LBIN8TER.] COUNTY OF I.OUT0« 317 

name by wkich this estate is distiognitfaed, is said to ha?e been 
bestowed on it in conseqaence of the effectual resistance here 
made by the Bellew family^ to an armed force issuing from the 
county of Meath> under the command of one of Cromwell's officers^ 
This is one of the finest seats in a district highly enriched by the 
dwellings of nobility and gentry. The mansion is spacious^ and 
comprises some apartments conspicuous for a rich but chaste style 
of embellishment. The demesne is of great extent^ and abounds 
in natural beauties^ duly improved by the liberal, but not exube- 
rant^ exercise of art. 

The family of Bellew came from Normandy with William the 
Conqueror, filling the high stations of marshals in his army. Of 
this name, so greatly celebrated in the martial annals of the middle 
ages, have been reckoned eighteen knights-banneret» in succession ; 
and the rolls of parliament, in both this and the ajster country, 
produce several peers of the same distinguished lineage> whose 
honours, either through failure of issue, or attainder in the civil 
wars, have, in common with those of many other potent houses, 
become extinct. A branch of the family accompanied Earl Strong* 
bow to Ireland; and we find one of the name married to the daugh- 
ter of Hugh de Lacy, the younger. The order of the garter being 
extended to Ireland^ Richard Bellew was, in 1439, elected to that 
honour ; and, in 1666, the Irish peerage of the fiamily was revived, 
by the title of Baron Bellew, of Duleek, in the county of Meath. 

In 1639, Sir John Bellew, of \^11ystown, knight of the shire 
for Louth, married Mary, daughter of Robert Dillon, of Clonbrock» 
in the county of Galway, Esq. by whom he had issue Sir Patrick 
Bellew, of Barmeath, Bart, and Christopher Bellew, of Mount 
Belldw, in the county of Galway, Esq. From these brothers 
descend, in an uninterrupted succession and direct line, the fami- 
lies of Barmeath and Mount Bellew ; both possessing extensive 
estates, and enjoying high consideration, in their respective coun- 
ties. The present baronet succeeded his father, the late Sir Patrick 
Bellew, in the year 1794. 

At the distance of about one m\\6 to the north-east of Dnnleer 



51S BBAUTisa or isklanp. 

18 RoKCftT HXLL. This fluasiofii stands ea an estste pme hn s d 
of Lord Derby by the late Richard Bohhwop, D,D. Baron Bek^, 
and archbishop of Armagh. The haase was erected by the 
primate^ after the designs of Francis Johnston^ Esq. and waa 
named after Rokeby^ in Yorkshire, the seat of the funily of 
Itobinfion^ sold by Sir Thomas Robinson, Bart, elder brother <of 
the prekte. After the deeease of his grace, ia If 94, tlus 
estate became the property of his nephew, Atchdeaoon Robinsoa> 
who resided here for a short time, bat is said to have qoitled 
Ireland in consequence of the alarm created in hb family by the 
mihappy rebellion of 1798. Rokeby Hall is now, we believe, in 
the hands of a farmer, and the chief apartments are let fomisbed 
to casual inmates. The Church of Glonmobb, in this ?iciAit{r» 
and on the Rokeby estate, was also erected at the eipeBse of the 
primate, after the designs, and under the immediate saperin- 
tendance of, the able architect noticed above.* 

In the parish of Clonmore is a decayed castleof the Vevdon 
fomily, former proprietors of this estate; and here are, also« 
some remains of the antient church. 

LovVH, a small and decayed town, is situated near the north* 
west border of the county to which it imparts a name. The 
former celebrity of this place, and the moat memorable events in 
its history, are connected with an Ahhey^ founded here at an 
early period, and, as is said, by St. Patrick himself. 

The abbey of Louth was placed under the inrocation of the 
Virgin Msry, the first abbot being St. Moctens, or Mochtalagh, 
a Briton, who died on the 19th of August, A. D. 534, on the 
anniversary of which day his fsast is commemorated. The 
school of this abbey ranked amongst the most celebrated in 
Ireland, when 'the country was conspicuous for excellence of 

* We are informed by Mr. Johaston tbat ths buiUUeg* erected by 
Primate Robinson, in the connty of Louth, coniiftifl|[ of the naosieo and 
church mentioned in thetext ; many farm houtes on the eitate ; aad the church 
of Ballymakenny, near Drofbeda$ cost about i^30,000 ; bntthat if erected 
at the present time, the expense could not be lesi than ;f40i000. These 
httildings were erected between the years 1785, and 1794. 



[LKIN6TBB.] COUNTY OF LOUTH. S19 

aoh^llMtie dictfiliiies «id produced^ m we are told, no lesa tlum 
one hundred bishops and three hnndred presbyters. The abbey 
and town were repeatedly pUlafed by the Danes, in the 9th 
oeatnry; and those maraoders obtained a settlement at Loath 
in the century following. This religions house was thrice 
destroyed by fire in the l^th century j and, in the year 1148> a 
PnioiiY voB RsODZiAR Canons was erected on the site ol the 
antieat buildings, by O* Carrol, prince of Orgeal, and £dan, 
biphop of Clogheri which prelate was interred here, in 118S. 

The Priory of Loul^ rose to great affluence and distinction; 
and a slight review of its fortunes will be found to implicate the 
remaining principal events in the history of this town . — In the 
year IMS, a chapter was held here by the Archbishop of Armagh, 
at which were present all the abbots and priors of the regular 
canons in this kingdom. Whilst Ireland was harassed by the 
invasion of Edward Bmce, that adventurer and his Scottish 
oftcers, were, at several times, entertained in this priory, for 
which offence, however, the prior obtained pardon from the king, 
<m paying a fine of £40. A general chapter of the order was 
again hM here, on the feast of Pentecost, 1325. John Wile, 
the last prior, voluntarily quitted possession, in the year 1540, 
and received* for his docility of conduct, the reward of a pensio* 
for life. The prior of this house was a lord of parliament. Tlia 
buildings, and ample estates, were granted, at the suppression, 
to the Plunket ikmily. 

Louth-Hall, distant about three miles from the town, or 
village, of Louth, is the mansion of Thomas Plunket, Baron of 
Lfmth, This residence is situated in the parish of Tallanston, 
which place has afforded a seat to the ancestors of his lordship 
since the latter part of the 15th century. The demesne is exten- 
sive, and surrounded by a highly cultivated tract of country. 
Lord Louth is descended from the eldest branch of the house of 
Plunket, as are also the Earl of Fingali and Lord Dunsany, whose 
titles and seats we have already noticed. 

On the opposite borders of the river which winds through 



990 BEAtTflBS or IR6LAN0. 

this piut of tbe county^ is Rosy Park, long the fiae residence of 
a branch of the family of Foster. 

At Knock (antiently termed Knockiuuengan) near Louth, a 
priory for regnlar canons, under the role of St. Aogustin, was 
founded, in the year 1148, by one of tbe 0*Carrols, princes or 
chiefs of this district, and £dan, bishop df Clogher. Moelmoriua 
O'Gorman, abbot in 1167> composed a martyrology, in the Irish 
language, which was formerly much esteemed. This monastery 
was dissolved in the 31st of Henry VIII. The buildings, and 
the whole of the monastic possessions in this county, were granted 
by James I. to Sir John King, Knt. 

OuNDALK, second in importance among the towns of Louth, atid 
the assize town of this county, is distant from Dublin 40} miles, 
towards the north. This is a borough town, and imparts its name 
to a barony. It is situated in a recess of the most spacious bay 
on the eastern coast of Ireland, with the exception, perhaps, of the 
Lough of Belfast. 

In consequence of its site having for a long time occupied the 
extremity of the English pale, Dondalk, then the property of the 
de Verdon family, was formerly walled and fortified. The prin- 
cipal domestic buildings, in those times of danger, were uniformly 
defensible towers, or small castles, many of which were remaining 
in the last century. Mr. Wright informs us, in the Louthtana, 
that Viscount Limerick, to whom this town then belonged, directed 
eighteen or nineteen ruinous remains of such structures to be taken 
down, shortly before the year 1747, and caused other buildings to 
be raised upon the old foundatibhs* The town of Dundalk now 
contains several wide, and tolerably well-built, streets, the chief 
of which is nearly a mile in length. Considerable iiifrovements 
have been effected in recent years. 

This town was a favourite scene of action with Edward Bruce, 
on his invasion of Ireland in the reign of King Edward 11. 
Shortly after his landing, in 1315, he visited this place, with all 
the cruelties which sword and fire could inflict; but was afterwards 
solemnly crowned here, or rather, according to some writers, at 



[lIIN^TER.] OOUNTT op L0{7TH. SSil 

Kacfckiieiiielaii, ditUnt about half a mile from the' town walls. Hare 
he exhibited the pageantty of an ostentations bat short-lived conrt; 
and near this town he paid the penalty of bis presumption^ in 
meeting a violent death. 

The battle in which he fell took place on the 28(Ii of May^ 1S18 ; 
His troops, wasted by famine and disease, were opposed by 1500 
picked men, being about half their own nnmbers, nnder Sir Joha 
Pirmhigham, aided in the dttties of command by Sir Miles Verdon^ 
Sir Richard Tuite, John Cusack, and other gentlemen of the pro«^ 
▼ince of Leinster. The conflict was maintained on both sides with 
considerable courage, but the English at length obtained a deci^ 
sive victory. According to most historians Brace was slain by an 
English knight, named Manpas, whose body was found stretched 
on that of his c<mqnered antagonist; but tradition has ascribed » 
more romantic termiaatiou to the life of this shadowy and 6elf«4 
chosen King qflreioHdJ^ Sir Join Birmingham, for the service 
rendered on the above occasion, was created earl of Louth, and 
at the same time received, from the crown, a gift of the manor of 
Atberdee. 

In the year 1566, and at a period shortly subsequent to that 
date, Dundalk successfully resisted two sieges from the northera 
Irish, under O'Nial. In 1641, it was captured, after an obstinate 
defence, by Sir Henry Tlchburne, and it was, likewise, surren** 
dered to Lord Inchiquin, in 1649. On the latter occasion. Colo- 
nel Monk, afterwards Duke of Albemarle, was governor of the 

* It bas been tvppoied that the scene of action lay on Fort HiU and 
its vicinity » and it certainly took place within the parish of Fau||r|iarl.. 
In the pedigree of the Birmingham fiami^y it is said that ^' Roger de Man- 
,pas, a bnxgess of Paodalh, disguised himself in a fool's dress^ and in that 
character entering the Scottish camp, killed Bruce, by striking oot Ma 
brains with a plummet of lead. He was instantly cat to pieces, and big 
body fonad stretched over that of Brnce, but for this service his beir was 
rewarded with forty mares a year ; of which action Sir John having in- 
teUigencOf met the Scots in good order of battle, and routed their wholo^ 
army, with a very great slaughter/' Lodge's Peerage by Archdalli vol« 
iii. pp. S3-4. 

VOL. n. y 



3i9 1IBAUTIB8 OP IRELAND. 

tova> and it hi said that he was forced to deliver up the place 
through a want of anbordinatioD in the garrison. 

Dandalk was strongly garrisoned for James II. in the year 
16S9, bnt was abandoned on the approach of the army under Doke 
Sdiodbergy which encamped in this neighbourhood on the 7th of 
September in that year. The dnke's camp was sitnated about a 
mile to the north of the town^ on low and moist ground^ baring, 
aays Harris, *^ the town and river to the south, the mountains to 
the east J and to the north hills and bogs intermixed." Here the 
Ea§^sh lay intrenched for more than two months, within sight of 
an opposed army, much superior in numbers, which, however, did 
not think proper to attack them. Whilst they thus remained in a 
state of inactivity, sickness, more destructive than the sword, swept 
away the flower of their ranks > and it must ever be doubted whe- 
ther the extreme caution of Schonberg, in refraining to hazard a 
battle, was justifiable, on a consideration of the whole of the exist* 
Bg circnmstaboes.* 

A priory, dedicaled to St. Leonard, for cross bearers, following 
the rule of St. Augustin, was founded here by Bertram de Verdon, 

* The details of the extremities to which Dak« Scfaoaherg'e arny was 
redttcedias given in StorjfU*' Impartial History," and hy other writers, art 
truly harrowing to the feelings. We are toJd that the soAerers hecane, at 
length* insensible to the emotions of sympathy, Qsing the dead bodies of 
their companions as seats on the cold swampy ground, and mnrmnring 
when they were deprived of such an accommodation ! When the army re- 
moved to winter quarters, some of the sick were placed on board the ships 
which bad arrived on the coast with supplies, and many were sent to Bel- 
fast, lA waggons. Nambers expired, overcome by the motion of tlie land- 
cftfriages.{ and the roads were strewed with their bodies. Dake Scbonberg 
displayed great care and tenderness throaglM>Ht these trying scenes. He 
was tlien more than eighty years of age, bnt, regardless of his own person, 
h» stood, for many hours, exposed to rain and tempest, at the bridge of 
DttDdslk, encovraging the sick', and directing measures for tbefr comfort. 
Whilst tli6 army was removing under these disastrous circunstances, a 
flttddett, aad, happily, a false, alarm was spread that the enetey was at 
^a4> The spirit which might have been exerdsod, with- a prosperous 
issue, in battle at an earlier period, now broke forth. £ve» the diseased 
and feeble snatched their arms, and vowed to solace all their atiserles ia 
vengeance on the foe ! 



[LBIN8TBB.] COUNTY OP LOUTH. 3^3 

towards the close of the rdgn of Henry 11. Patrick 0*Scanlain^. 
archbiahop of Armagh, died here, A. D. 1270. This priory was 
afterwards an hospital for the sick and aged, of both sexes. On 
the suppression of religions houses, the bnildings and appurte- 
nances were granted to Henry Draycot. 

On the east side of the town stood the Gray Friary , which 
was erected in the reign of Henry III. by the Lord John de 
Verdon. A chapter of the order was held at this Friary, in 1289. 
At the dissolution the building and monastic lands were granted 
to James Brandon. This fabric appears to have been of some extent 
and beauty . Ware observes that the east window, when in a perfect 
state, was particularly admired . A view of the church- tower, as it 
appeared in 1770, is given in the first volume of Grose's Antiquities. 
Dundalk is a place of some traffic, and considerable quantities 
of corn are hence exported. The manufacture of cambric, which 
forms a part of the trading pursuits of the inhabitants, was first 
established here in 1737j on the estate of Viscount Limerick.* 
The parochial church is a commodious and well preserved struc« 
tore, surmounted by a plain but well-proportioned spire, which 
was erected after the designs of F. Johnston, Esq. architect. 
Among other public buildings may be noticed a court-house, gaol, 
and barracks. A scHbol, for the education of 20 boys and the 
same number of girls, was founded here, in 17^6, by the Hon. 
Mrs. Anne Hamilton, mother of the first earl of Clanbrassil. 
Here is now a charter school, for sixty girls. 

The family of Hamilton, created baron of Claneboye and vis- 
count Limerick in 1719, and earl of Clanbrassil in 1756, had their 
chief residence at a mansion in this town, which is now a seat of 
the Earl of Roden, in consequence of the marriage of Robert, the 

* The cambric maDofactory was iatrodoced to Ireland, in the year 
above named, by M. de Joncoart, who employed workmen from France. 
The irftt manufactory was establislied at Dnndall^. In 1TS0, a joint 
stock company was incorporated by charter, with power to raise 30,000/. 
by tnbtcriptiott, chiefly for the pnrpoie of carrying on this manufacture, 
**• at Dundalk, or elsewhere in Ireland.*' Towards this joint slock, Vis- 
count Limerick suhKribed the sun of 1000/. 

y2 



3^4 BEAUtlKS or IRELAND. 

first nobleman of that title^ with .the sister and heiress of the las^ 
earl of Clanbrassil. At this maosion^ among someJew paioting9 
are preserved two portraits^ in the style of Holbein, representing 
King Henry VHI. and Queen Anne Boleyn. The honse is ill- 
situated^ but the demesne is extensive and finely circumstanced. 

This town is internally governed .by a recorder, bailiff^ and 
town-clerk, and retams one member to the ioiperial parliament. 
The bay on which it is situated is safe for shipping of moderate 
1)urthen, and abounds with fish of various kinds.* 

» 

The Castle of Castletown., situated on an eminence, about 
one mile from Dnndalk, towards the west, forms a conspicuona 
object, when .viewed from many parts of the surrounding country j 
and the hill on which it is placed commands fine and extensive 
prospects, embracing the bay, and the. mountain scenery towards 
Carlingford. This castle was erected by the Belle w family, a 
branch of which long resided hcre^ being succeeded in the occupa- 
tion of the fortress by the family of Tipping. Spencer relates that 
the village, or town, on which the castle formerly bestowed a name> 
and from which itself borrows a modern appellation, was sacked 
and destroyed by Edward Bruce, in the year 1318. The building 
is of an oblong form, with a square tower at each angle, and has 
been adapted, with additions, to the nses of a modern dwelling. It 
appears to have been originally defended with outward walls and 
other works of circumvallation. Some castellated gateways, not 
remarkable for congruity of character with the main edifice, have 
been recently added -, but, even if they should exist until they gain 
the crust of time, they will scarcely be mistaken for parts of the 
original works. Contiguous to the castle are the rains of a church, 
with a cemetery, still used as a burial-place by the Roman catholic 
peasantry of the neighbourhood. 

* WbiUt noticing the natural plenty of fiab on this part of Ihe coaftt, it 
may not be superfluous to observe that Dr, Rutty mentions a sturgeon oC 
upuftual weight* which was *' caught in a river near Dundalk, in the year 
1754^" It was ten feet in length, and is said to have been above SOOlb. ii^ 
wolght. Rutty, Nat. Hist, ^c, vol 1. p. 3G3. 



[t.EIN8T£R.] COUNTY OP LOUtH. 3^5 

, ■ • • » • > 

On the sammit of the same hill, is a considerable earthwork^ 
appearing to display, in decisive feattires, the marks of successive 
occupants, using different modes of defence. A centfal mount 
presents fhe* aspect of a rath, probably constrrcted by tbeantienf 
Irish. The author of the LoutSdha, observes that this mount 
•*" appears to be all artificial, and is surrounded with a magnificent' 
ditch. The height of the terras virork' in the middle, from the* 
plane of the trench, is in some places fifty feet, and the circum- 
ference of the top is upwards of 460'* Attached to the east aiid 
West sides, and apparently forming additions to tlie original design,;, 
are two small works of castrametation, having earthen ramparts. 
Both adjoin the ontward vallum of the central rath 3 and the united ' 
works cover the top of the hill on which they are constructed.* 
The additional lines of encampment may, perhAps, without fear of 
error, be ascribed to the Danes. — A prospect'^housc has been^ 
recently erected on the summit of this earthwork. 

On the expanse of l^nd between two streams that unite in tlic 
Dnndalk rifer, which' tongue of land has been termed lhej9fni»- 
^la of Ballrlchan, are some remains of very remote antiquity. 
The principal of these vestiges ar^ thus noticed in the Louthiana. 
'* On the top of a small hill'are fi\^e large stones, disposed in a cir- . 
cular form. At some distance on one side, and near the border 
<^f one of the streams, are two upright andponderons stones. In^ 
different contiguous situations are three other large and unwrought 
stones, and also the remains of a cam;-** 

At a short distance from the above remains, are the ruins of 
the Caatie of Baiirichdn, which structure consisted of an oblong 
keep, with a spacious court enclosed by fortified walls. Distant 
about one mile, and placed on elevated ground, are also the 
vestiges of other workd, composed of upright stones, witli attendant 
remains, bearing some resemblance to those of Ballrichan. Mri 
Wright observes that he caused an opening to be made in the areas 
of two of these circles of stone, at the centre, and found in both 
several decayed human bones. From the area of one circle were, 
taken up, on digging, '' the broken parts of two or three different' 
^s, made of a sort of baked clay, one of which was filled wiflu 



386 BEAUTIK8 OP IBSLAN0. 

bnrnt bones and pieces of charcoal, but the rest were almost qaittf 
decayed, and turned to a black grey substance. The cells of thre« 
of those urns were visible, placed in a triangolar form, distant 
about eighteen inches, and near two feet below the surface of the 
earth, all separately enclosed with flat stones, set edgeways, about 
a base one, and covered with one at top." Engravings of the whole 
of the above subjects, bnt not well executed, are given in the 
Lonthiana. 

On the margin of Caricasticken river, at the distance of about 
half a mile from Ballrichan Castle, is a small fort, encompassed 
by a double ditch, termed Mount, or Moat, AUanL Several 
other remains of antient works in this part of the county, appearing 
to have formed stations or forts, are noticed by Mr. Wright, in the 
Lonthiana. Among these, one of the most curious and extensive 
is termed Rosskugh, or the fort of Carriek-Braud. This camp 
was formerly surrounded with a double ditch and a triple vallvm, 
one bank appearing to have been of stone and the rest of earths 
In the interior are ruinous remains of bnildings. In the close 
vicinity are traces of other camps, in one of which are the vestiges 
of an antient chapel. 

Near the banks of the stream sometimes termed the river of 
Ballrichan, is a large and curious artifidal cave, accidentaUy dis- 
covered by the sinking in of a horse, while drawing the plough* 
These subterranean works consisted of several narrow passages, 
or galleries, the sides and top of which were formed of flag*stones. 
The original entrance is thought to have been by a gentle descent 
and a few steps. No traces of the former appropriation of this 
cave were visible^ but we are told, by the author of the Lonthiana, 
that " some bones of large and small animals*' were found in one of 
the galleries. The same writer asserts, but in terms so general 
as to require some qualification, that ** all this part of Ireland 
abounds with such caves, not only under mounts, forts, and castles, 
but under unsuspected plain fields, some winding into little hille 
and risings, like a volute or ram*s horn f others running zigzag, 
like a serpent} others, again, right forward, connecting cell 
with cell.*' A plan of the cave and its passages is given in the 
Lonthiana, 



tLBINSTSR.J COUNTY OF LOVTfl. 39? 

The ritinf of Rogbb Castlb^ near the westera borders of Mm 
eomity, are seated on the top of a rocky hiU, from which eleTatiea 
n obtiMned a cammaDdiiig view over the adjacent coantry. The 
buildiBg is of an inegnkr forin^ thp desigtt having baen 
acconunodaied to the natiiffal circamstances of the site. The dale 
of erectimi is nol koown^ bnt^ aecordiog to a futile Iradition^ 
this castle was coaitrocted t>y a lady named R09& Ferdim, of the 
ftntieat laimily of the Verdons^ once powerfal in this district aad 
in the midland ooaaties of £ng1and. This Lady Rose^ adds the* 
tradition^ married into the family of Bellewi and the name of the 
eastfe is a oorniption of her christian afipeUiation. To whichever 
vace may belong the honoor of foanding this boildiagf, it is certsnr 
that a branch of the aotieat and distiagnisbed famBy of Belbw 
iras seated bete for several: ages. la regard to the dimensions of 
Ihe stracture, and its former character^ we are informed in the' 
IxnUkiama that ** the great chords which is the front and longest^ 
side, is about eighty yards 5 and the versed side, or breadth, about* 
forty. At the opposite corner to that of the main dvireUing, was' 
formerly a tower of defence>andtinderneath a sally-port.*' Roche 
Castle was defended for King Charles I. in 1€49^> and is said to > 
have been demolished by (Niver CromweH. 

Upon the whole of the plains near Dundalk were formerly- 
many rude works of stone, evidently raised at a period previous*- 
€0 the reception of Christianity; several of which still remain, 
i^mongst these> many single and nnbewn stones, of considersMe 
hei^ and bulk, have attracted mnch notice. Some general re- 
marks concerning such erections are presented in the introductory : 
section of this work, treating of d^nttguities and Archkeclure. 

A cromlech, situated in the parish of Ballymascanlan> is im- - 
perfectly represented in a plate of the Louthiana. The covering ' 
atone has three supporters, and measures twdve feet in lengtb^ by 
six feet in width. By the inhabitants of the country it is called ' 
the Giant's Load, and by some of the native Irish this-monument^ 
is said to have been brought, '' all at once," {torn theneighbouring : 
mountains, by a giant, who, as they say, was-btiried near this - 
iplace^ It might have been thought that a tale, or tradition, so* 
absurd, was, in every point of view, unworthy of sAtiqnarian^^ 



3M BEAtmSB or lEBLAtlD, 

duciissioa $ but we show, in tlie annexed BOte> that it bas beeti 
addaeed by a modern writer in sopport of a favoorite bypotbena«^ 
Tbe aatbor of tbe Lonthiana affords the jadidons reader moms 
flatiafactory iote]ligence> in the account of a search made beneatk 
the former base of a fedlen cromlech> about two miles distant^ hwm 
tiiat at Ballymascanlan. Two of the supporters were here bfok«i 
4own by the fall of the incumbent load 5 the third was left stand* 
ing. On digging there was founds in " the middle^ about two 
feet deepj covered and inclosed within broad flat stones^ great 
part of the skeleton of a human figure, all crouded together withui 
a bed of black greasy earth, as if originally inclosed within aa 
wm, now quite decayed and rotten. Mixed with the bones were 
found some pieces of clay» about the thickness of a man's littie 
finger, quite solid and round, as if part of a rod broke to pieces.' 'f 

* Dr. Ledwich (Antiqs* of Ireland^ p. 5l)affiraiB that the cromleeb 
If as *' tb« pensile monumeDt of the Northerns/' In regard to the tradi- 
tionary term the GianVa Load, he observes, ** here we discover plainly 
the northern origin of these monuments. Giants make no part of Celtic, 
thoogh they do of Gothic mythology.'* By what art dooB this writer dlicovOT 
that tbe legend and the monument originated with the same people ? Thm 
endeavour to appropriate a whole class of antiquities, from the traditionary 
tales of country people* is a very surprising mode of reasoning, in dis- 
4|uisitions professedly serious. 

+ Lonthiana, book iii, p. 12. It will be recollected that a wand 
formed the badge of atftboMty, with the antient petty kings of Iretaad. 
!Fhe following account of tbe ceremonies used at the initiation of the kings 
4»f Tyrcoanel, is presented by Mr. Harris. — ** When any person was to be 
invested with the title of O'Donnel, i. e. to be created kingof the territory, 
the nobility and people assembled themselves on tbe summit of a certain 
liiU, when one of the principal of the nobility arose, and performing the 
usual compliments of salutation, presented the new king with a Wand, 
perfectly white and straight, add upon the delivery of it used this form ef 
irords : Receive, O King I the auspicious badge of yoar authority, and 
Teoiember to imitate in your conduct the straightness and wliiteneie of this 
"wand, that neither malice to your enemies, nor affection to your friends, 
may bend your mind from walking in the exact paths of justice. Enter, 
therefore, upon your rightful government, with auspicious omens, and 
safely take upon you the ensigns and ornaments of this State.** Ware*» 
Antiqs. by Harris, vol. ii, p. 65^. 



(lBINSTKE.] > OOVMW 6W toow. 8W 

^ There in, Ao, is tbe Lontliiaiift^ « cdmmDnieitieii from a^ 
friend of Ae tmihar, BUtiog tbtt he Tiiifed the spot sobeeqHeal 
to the first exanination, and found that ^' the conntry-peopie^ 
kad amik ateve a yard deeper^ and were still at work.*' They* 
iMd the>jr addff tlss writer^ '' g6t onder^ and were trying to pnU 
tip, the ktrge sqaare sloney wUch stood on one edge. They 
esme to another flat stone/ nader which they fonfid many large- 
bones ; but we do not yet know whether they be hnman. Tbey 
laised also many regular stones of a considerable length ) and the 
whole place seems to have been built up regularly^ as well to 
M«Dgthen the three great props as' to contain a proper repository 
Av bonesj or whatever was to be laid there."— We have so sel- 
^m anopportonity of aseertaining, fblly^ the state of drcnmstances 
mndemeath a cromlech, that the length of the above extracts wiU 
Beed no apology with the antiquarian reader. 

On the pkdn of BMynahalne are the remains of a circular 
temple, appearing to have been originally composed of foor con- 
^ntric circles of upright stones. This temple was encompassed* 
With a rampart and diteh> admitting of an opeaiog towards the. 

VWlie 

On KURng'HUl, a range of elevations so termed, are the 
remmns of two temples, composed, like that noticed above, of 
imif» of upright stones. One of these incloses a cromlech, the 
{principal stones of which exhibit traces of rude spiral^arvings ; a 
tery unusual feature ia piles of this description^ 

At the distance of one quarter of a mile from KilliagwHili, and 
ai»OQt two miles from DundaUc, are the rokis of an antient 8tmc« 
ture, termed Fagk na am eighe, or the one night's work. Thie 
building is placed on a mount, whfeh would appear to be artificial^ 
and which is cut (to adopt the words of the Louthiana) intei 
^' slopes and terraces." The form of the stractare is oval, and 
fcs dimensions 44 feet 9 inches, by 21 feet. The walls are nearly 
seven feet in thickness, and are composed of rough stones, of 
different sizes. There are no traces of either doors, windows, or 
loop*holes. The ruins have been thought to resemble the hull of 
an antient 8hip> and have given rise to much antiquarian discusi* 



8108. <Soveni^ PdwiiaU (in ft paper iDsorled in llw Arehao l og M i) 
ucribM tbb iiMc to the BordMni pinilM wbo invaded Ifehad^ 
mulcoBJaelftrM it to be iha BUdUii^ker q£ theEddft) ift whkdk 
opnion beis npported by Dr. Iiedwklu A bwl^ig ■ oia ew ba r 
nmilar it sttd by Mr* Beanford to ba?e been diaeerered in An 
connty of Mayo. ItmaybeobeerrediOnUieaalborityoflbeaaftbor 
oC «' Nortbcrn Aatlqottiea.." that the lertroiaeB of theanlieat Danea 
were, like this boildiB^, mere rede pilevi femdi9nd kmeeemUe jy 

Fauobabo, Oft Faughjsb, two mites and a quarter firwn 
DundaUi, towards 4be north-east, if celebrated as the birth«ptaoBiftf 
St. Brigid, who was bom towards the middle of the fifth centory, 
and was fimndress of knany nonaeries in dilereBt parts of Ireland^ 
but resided chiefly in the convent of her own foondation at Kildsve. 
She died on the 1st 4d Febraary, either in the year 5SI or 6113, on 
the anniversary of whieh day her memory is edebrated. According 
to Usher, a nunnery was erected here^ by 8t«Monenna, in the 
year €38, whereb Ihst siint presided^ for seme time, over 160 
virgins. It is also said that a monastery for regolar canons was 
erected hdre, ia an eady age, to the bononr of St. Brigid ; btst 
no records of sncb a fonndatjon are noif remaiaiag. The parisli 
diurch is tiiiovghl tot hate oocv|ned its site. The antlent ofajKck 
Mting to dipay/ a new strnctore has been recently erected, with 
the md of 800/. lent by the board of firat finits, on a plot of 
gfoandfrnndasedfiMr that purpose of Lord Clermont* A handsome 
reetosy«hoBse has likeirise been bnilt, in'that pari el the pariek 

, . Mr. Wri^t cspatiales, at some length, on certain vestiges mt 
mitiqaity comiected with tUsparisk Anifpitf^t and itabewn 
mass.of atone he describes as bmng named after St. Brigid. ^ it 
has a raised work abont it, in the ionr of a horseshoe," andtho 
place is shown, where, *^ npon a noogh rocky fint, Aose who 
were enjoined penance, as he was informed by a priest, nsed to 
pray upon thmr bare knees, iHl the hhod nm rmnd ahmii ikem.'* 
He likewise noticeaa st^meeaUed St.Brigid^'s PiHar, '' saised 



[LKlNgtKm.J ^VMY QP LOOn. 331 

upoft tira circaltr and coacwktrie steps, nniad wbkh Ike naM of 
the convent used to go tfpon their knees, on particular occasions ; 
eoiiietfanea ronnd tke ksser, and sosMtimes roond the larger 
Giide, as their peutence reqnired.*' An artificial monnt, in this, 
neighboorhood, called the Famghmd, is mentioned by the same 
writer J, as being ** composed of stones and terras, raised to the 
height of sixty feet, in the form of the frnstmm of a cone, with a 
deep trench round it. ' There was, formerly^ some sort of an octa«' 
gonal building npon the top of it^ as appears from the ibandattone 
remaining 3 but whether it was a tower, or a parapet only breast 
high, there is not wall enough now remaining to determine.*' 
BttgraTcd views of the whole of these subjects are presented in* 
the Louthiana. 

Sir John Davies nentionsr on the authority of the red book 
of the exchequer, that ** Fagher, netre Dtmdalkt," was the 
field of action between the armies under Edward Bruce and Sir 
John Birmingham, in which the first-named leader was overthrown 
and slain. Here also Lord Mounl|)oy gsve a check to the arms of 
Tyrone^ in the reign of Elizabeth. 

Between the town of Dandalk and Fork Hill is the handsome 
mansion of Colonel Ogle, recently ereeted at a considerabie 
expense. 

Ratbhsdalb Piimx, in the parish of Ballymascanlan^ is one ol 
the seats in this county belonging to the family of Fortescue^ 
descended from the antient fiunily of that name in Devonshke^ 
and ennoUed by the tides of viscount and bar<m Clermont. The 
first of this family who resided at Raveosdale was the Right Hon« 
James Fortescue, who represented the county of Louth, in the 
parliament of Ireland, lor many years, and died in l-TSS. Vf 
that gentleman the present well- wooded uud improved demesne 
was created, from a tract so wild that it might be denominated • 
waste. The house is finely situated, and the grounds possess- 
much beauty j but this seat seldom affords a residency to ite 
nfMe owner. 

In the same neighbourhood are the seats of Baron M'Clelland^ 
and J. Wolfe M'Neale, Esq. 



^9 BBAtTTIBS OF IftlLANft. 

Near Lurgdh Gfeen, a smMfair town on the western natfiit 
of tbe bay of Dandalk, is CLtnitoitT^ a seat that affords the 
tHle of Ytecottnt and Baron^ in the Irish peerage^ to the family 
of Fottesciie. 

At a short distance from the' above seat^ towards the sontb, 
is Dromiskin, or DaiMisitiN^ where are the remains of a' round 
Or pillar tower ^ which fabric would appear to have been^ whetr 
perfect in its original height^ one of the tallest and most spacious- 
buildings of the kind in Ireland. The antient doorway is ronnd'^ 
headed^ and elevated^ as nsual^ many feet above the ground'; but 
sto opening, level with the soil, was made in late ycivs, this min 
having been adopted for a belfry. The castle and lands of Dro- 
miskin, belonging to the Fortesctae family, were obtained by Sir 
Faithful Fortescue, Knt. in the reign^ of James I ; early in which 
r^ign Sir Faithful settled in Ireland. Chichester Fortescne, Bsq. 
the grandson of Sir Futhfal, became ancestor of that branch' of 
the Fortescne family that is- denominated after this place. 

Castle Belling ham, an^other village on the margin of 0un- 
dalk (coiktignous to Gemon$toum, the antient residence of the 
Gernon family) is pleasantly situated, and is celebrated for its 
breweries, which are said to produce the best ale in Ireland. 
Some linen is also manufactured here. Near the village is an 
earth-work, situated on the summit of an eminence commanding 
extensive views. Mr. Wright describes this work as having 
^' been formerly a very strong camp, in the shape of an heart.*' 
In one corner of the enclosure is a drctdar tumulus. The neigh- 
bonring country-people have a vague tradition, that the first 
parliament held in Ireland was assembled here. 

At Ktharan, near Gemonstown, a commandery for Knights 
Templars was founded, in the twelfth century, by Maud d^ Lacy. 
In the reign of Edward IL this foundation was bestowed on the 
Knights Hospitallers. 

The small town of Carlingford is situated near the foot of an 
extensive range of mountains, on tbe south east side of a spadons 



[lKINSTKR.] county of LOUTH, 93f 

twj. This wa9 a station of some importance daring the early 
ages of the English ascendancy in Ireland. The Arst formation 
of a town, to any considerable extent, was probaUy consequent 
on the erection of a castle, which is traditionally said to have 
taken place by order of King John. This town was never regn* 
larly walled or fortified; but, as it was exposed to continual 
dangers, on account of its situation on the frontier of the Pale^ 
every principal domestic building was designed in humble resem* 
blance of a fortress. ,Tlie remains of such stmctures were nume- 
rous, not more than half a century back. 

History has not preserved the remembrance of many important 
events connected with this frontier town. In 1649, it quickly 
surrendered to Lord Inchiquin, after that commander hadsuc- 
ceedbg in reducing Dnndalk, its more powerful neighbour. Ii| 
the war between William and James, a detachment of the forces 
under the Duke of Berwick set fire to Carlingford, and effected 
considerable damage. 

The Castle, which is often termed King Johns Casile, is an 
extensive but not a picturesque ruin, seated on a solid rock, the 
sides of which are laved by the sea. Lofty mountains rise in af 
inland direction, at the foot of which is a narrow paos, fotmerhf 
commanded by the fortress. The building was of an irregular 
form, adapted to the natural circumstances of its site. The walls 
are, in some parts, not less than eleven feet in thickness. 

On the southern side of the town are the ruins of a Monastery, 
founded in the year 1305, by Richard de Burgh, Earl of Ulster^ 
under the invocation of St. Malachy, for friars-preachers, or Domi- 
nicans. In the thirty-fourth year of Henry VUI. tUs dissolved 
friary and its ^possessions, among which were seven messuages 
within the town, and a water-mill, were granted, m capiie, to 
Nicholas Bagnell. The remains of the buildings are extensive and 
picturesque, exhibiting traces of the pointed architecture of the 
fourteenth century. On the summit of a neighbouring hill is a 
church of antient foundation, with a large burial-ground. 

Carlingford formerly gave the title of earl to the family of 
Taafe, seated for many centuries in the county of Ix>uth. The 
title becoming extinct in that family, by the decease of Theobald, 



334 BEAUTIES or lEBLAND. 

the fourth earl, without issue^ in 1738, his late majesty, George Ilf • 
bestowed the title of Fkamm Carllngford on the family of Car- 
penter, together with the earldom of Tyrconnel. 

The Bay of Carlingford is spacious, and the water deep ; but^ 
unfortunately, the navigation is rendered dangerous by hidden 
rocks. The scenery is truly beautilul. The mountains, which 
rise on both sides, are in some parts ornamentally wooded, and 
in other divisions are richly varied with heath or verdure, and 
smiling strips of cultivation. The shores are decorated with nume- 
rous villas and agreeable cottages, whilst several villages, much 
resorted to for bathing, increase the animation that imparts an 
indescribable charm to the margin of these attractive waters. 

We must nol^ quit this favonred spot without obserring that 
the shores of Carlingford bay are celebrated for the production of 
a species of oyster, highly esteemed, and sent for sale to Dublin, 
and many more distant parts of the island. This oyster has the 
peculiarity of green skirts, or fins, and is by no means of a pre- 
possessing appearance, but has a delicious flavour. 

Some farther descriptive remarks on the shores of Carlingford 
Bay, are presented in that part of our work which treats of the 
county of Down. 



BKD OF THE PROTINCB OF LBIKSTBR. 



PROVINCE OP MUNSTER. 



> 



PROVINCE OF MUNSTER. 



MuNtTliR, the soatliern province of Ireland^ is bounded on the 
north by Connaught, and on the east by Leinster : on the south 
mnd west it meets the ocean. This is the largest of the four 
provinces into which the island is divided. According to Wake- 
field it comprehends 9S76 English square miles *, but Beaufort 
makes the number of square miles to be no more than 8^474 
English^ or 5,^75^ Irish measure. It is said, in the additions 
to the Britannia, that *' Munster is about 100 miles long. The 
breadth is very unequal, being from 68 to 107 miles, and 
the circumference, including the windings, about 600.** The 
total number of inhabitants, in the year 1821, appears, from the 
periodical returns of the enumerators, and the reports of the 
magistrates, to have been 2,005,363. It is divided into the six 
counties named, Cork) Waterford^ Tipperary; Clare ) Limerick 3 
and Kerry. 

Ptolemy places in this division of Ireland the nations, or tribes, 
termed Velabri; Uterini; Vodise, and Coriondij to which, if we 
follow Orosius, may be added the Luceni. 

It is stated, in Gough*s additions to Camden, chiefly on the 
authority of Ortelius, and documents presented in the Collectanea 
de Rebus Hibemicis, that Munster, before the arrival of the 
English, contained the eight following principalities : 1 . H^ Breo- 
ghan, the present county of Waterford. 2. Osragij, the antient 
Ossory, being part of the present Queen's County, and county 
of Tipperary. 3 . Ormond, or Otr-Mumhan, that is. East Munster, 
comprehending the present baronies of Upper and Lower Ormond, 
and also the baronies of Owny and Arra, in the county of Upperary . 
4. Thomond, or Tuatk-Mumhan, that is North Munster, compre- 
hending the present county of Clare. 5. Aine Ciiach, or Eoganach 

VOL. II. z 



338 BEAUTIES OF IJIBLAND. 

Ainecliach, the present county of limerick. 6,Cerrigia, or Ciar, 
the present coonty of Kerry. 7. Amhh Liatham, containing the 
north part of the connty of Cork, and the present baronies of 
Fermoy, Barrets, Barrymore, Killnatatoone, and Imokilly. 8. 
Corcaluighe, the antient kingdom of Cork/ 

In conformity to the usage of Celtic institutions, the petty 
princes who ruled over the above districts* were subject to a pro- 
vincial sovereign, who was styled King of Mnnster. In the first 
volume of the Collectanea Hibemicis is given a genealogical and 
historical account of the kings of Muuster, commencing with 
Eogan More, who lived in the latter part of the second century. 
The account of those kings, from Eogan More down to Keanody, 
the father of Brien, king of all Ireland, is extracted from the 
Codew MamoniensU, or Munster book. After which reign the 
historical particulars are collected from various annals, but chiefly 
from those of Innisfallen and Tighemach. It will readily be 
expected that the anecdotes presented, relate . to little besides 
battle and murder. They, however, assume, some importance as 
the story approaches the conclusion of the eighth century, at which 
time Munster was first infested by invasions from the north. 
From these provincial annals we find that the Danes, or Ostmen, 
with various fortune, harassed the most fertile parts of Monster, 
for many successive ages, although often encountered by the 
natives, with distinguished bravery. The memorable gallantry 
of Brien Boiroimh, King of Munster, who marched against these 
foes, at the head of the tribe of Dal-Cas, and perished at Clontarf, 
in the arms of victory, has been already noticed in our descripCion 
of Leinster. 

When the vacillating power of the Danes, in Ireland, fell, far 
ever, beneath the ascendancy of the English, Munster made no 
step towards the attainment of internal tranquillity. Mnch blood 
was shed in an oppesition to the new power, waged by the native 
princes ; or, on their decay^ by the antient Irish interest. When 
the sword was not drawn in the general cause, it was employed 
in family quarrels, almost equally destructive in operation as 
warfare on great public questions. Among these, the hostilities 



[MUNtTKR.] PROVINCE OF MUNSTfiR 339 

between* tfiA l>e8raoiid8 and M'Carthya are offemively prominent* 
But the moetimperUnA event in libe^uuiak of MunBterj^snbseqpent 
to,tbe«ntryToC .th0 Ipoi^h, es xegiirds tqyigraphiCRl inve^tiga- 
tiofifij is foand,in the change of .property and population derign^, 
and pai^lyoft^ted, by Queen EHsabeth. 

That aagaciooe qneen,, and her advisers, iad long entertained 
thescheoie of x^[ieoplingthe South of feelandwith English families } 
nndfthe^gdevoasconeeqaences of t^ long and devastating war, 
presented an adv^ageoos opportunity for carrying this psqjeet 
into execution, Qn-theattalnder of the Earl of Deemond, and 
as many as one hundred and forty of his adherents, the yonng^r. 
sons of good fitmiliesj and other adventarous personsi were invited 
fiom.every paxt^f England to.become wmderiaiers, or settleiff on 
the forfeited<estates« We are takd, by the historians of this sera, 
that lands arereoSered, in fee^ ''at a email acreaUexeRU of three 
pence^ and in some places two pence/* Tha fall payment^of. 
even that «naU rent was not to oommeaee. viitilthe expimtjion of . 
six years, and sevefi years were allowed to complete the,planjt%r,. 
tiims. " The nadertaker for twelve thousand aores, wa^ bound 
to plant eighty«six ifamilies on his estate : these wJio .engaged. lor > 
lesser seigaiovies were to provide a proportionable namber. Sir 
Christopher Hatton, Sir Walter Raleigh, Sir Thomas Norris, Sir 
l¥alter St. Legeri Sir Qforge Bonrcfaier, and many other gentle- 
men of power and distinction, received grants of differant por- 
tions." 

The laads forfeited, at this juncture, are said to have amonated 
to upwards of 5740 acres^ Of these it is supposed that about 
9440 wA^ granted to undertakers) the remainder beiug restored: 
to such as ' were pardoned, * or being suffered to remain in 
posseseioa <rf tha pM proprietors. 

The result of this politic design, proved remarkably inade* 
qnate to the expectations formed by Elisabeth and her council. 
Many of the principal grantees were of too high a station ia their 
own coaatry, io enter*on the penalties of a residence vpon lands 
to which themtelves, and the hand from which they derived^ 
had no other claim than that of the sword, still w4t with blood.* 

z^2 



*r 



340 BUUTIKS OF IIELAND. 

Utey were, also, tniable to place a doe nnmber of uaefU tenut* 
on thur respective estates; and it spears that the goTerament, 
and the planters, were eqnaUy nef^eclfiil of meaiores for the 
defence of the new colony. From these, and nnmeronB minor 
caoaei, very few of the fomiUes endowed with the forfeited property 
ofMnnater, in the time of Elizabeth, Rtmck root in the soil. It 
is truly observed, in an analysis of the Down 8nrvey> prefixed 
to the valuable work of Mr. Shaw Mason, that the deaeendants 
of the adventnrers nnder Qaeen Elizabeth, viewed m s body, 
have, for the most parti melted away from obsemtien, in a 
manner altogether painful and snrprising. 

This Sootheni province comprises tracts of great nataral 
fertility, hat there are many ranges of monntain inaccessible to the 
agricnltorist, and not calculated to afford any real benefit to 
society, nnless it shsJl be fonod that they contain mineral pro- 
ducts, in infficient qnanlities to reward the efforts of enterprise 
and industry. To the traveller in search of the pictnrcsqne, 
mtny parts of Monster will afford high gratification. The charms 
of Kitlamey exalt this island to a rivalry with Switzerland, Ihe 
great show-place of Europe. Nor are the attractions of Mnnater 
confined to the boasted splendour of the lakes . Its extensive iiuea 
of coast, in varioas parts, bat pnrticuUrly those towards the west, 
display nnosDal grandenr of scenery; end the banks, not only of 
the principal riverB, but of some anregarded streams, reveal bea»- 
ties calculated to sarprise and enchant the admirer of natnre. At 
■ome fntnre day, when the neglected charms of this hir territory 
shall he more duly appreciated than at present, it is probable 
that each of thei^e rivers will have its descriptive "Guide," or 
encomiastic " ToDrist;" and it will then be found that they are 
as deserving of tasteful inquiry, and of illnstratioa f^m the 
pencil and the pen, as the more favoured Wye of an island under 
lappier circnra stances. 

The cities of Cork, Limerick, and Waterford add mnch to the 
npftrttnce of this division of Ireland; and the conntry abonnds in 
objects of autiqnarian speculation, many of which possess a 
onsiderable d^ree of Interest. 



J A 



Imunbtbr.] county or cobk. 341 



COUNTY OF CORK. 

Tai8 is jnoch the largest county in Ireland^ and is oot iuferior 
in size to any English county, except Yorkshire. Its greatest 
extent, from east to- west, is rather more than ninety Irish miles, 
and its width, at the broadest part, which occurs near the centre, 
is about forty. On the north its boundaries meet those of 
Limerick. On the east and north-east lie Waterford and Tip- 
pef ary« Kerry joins this county on the west > and on the south is 
a fine extent of sea-ooast, comprehending, indeed, the greater 
part of the southern coast of Ireland. 

The county of Cork is of a hilly character throughout, and in 
•some parts presents mountains of great altitude and extent. The 
western districts are chiefly mountainous, and exhibit much 
wildness of aspect, often blended with great beauty. A chain of 
mountains runs westward, through the central parts of the county. 
It is remarked by Mr. Townsend, that all the ** ranges of high 
and low land are obsenred to run nearly in the direction of east 
And west, if not with perfect regularity, at least with such a 
general tenour as to stamp this their leading character.'* The 
most equable and fertile tracts are found in the north and east. 
The south-west borders of the county are composed of immense 
masses of rock, which act as barriers against the rage of the 
Atlantic ocean, often forming prominent headlands, for the defence 
of the bays and harbours which are numerous on this coast. 

From this prevailing diversity of surface, is obtained an endless ' 
variety of captivating scenery, deficient in no component part of 
the picturesque, with the exception of wood. That this county 
formerly abounded with timber, is sufficiently evident from the 
vestiges discovered beneath the soil ; but the same causes which 
have led to the denudation of other parts of Ireland, have here 
operated with most destructive force. 



34S BSAUTiKS or iiimlamd. 

No ooDoty of Irelaad ia more amply watered than that wMcli 
we are now detcribin^. Tbe Blackwater, which takes its rise 
among monDtaini on the borders of Kerry, and dischargeB itself 
into the sea at Yonghal, is tbe principal river. The banks of 
this river afford an exnbenmce of rich and lovely scenery, bat the 
rapidity of its oonrse is so great, that it is not navigable, in an 
in^rtant degree, beyond the flow of tbe tide. This is the 
Awmlmff of Spencer. The river L^, which rises from a lake, 
alio on the confines of Kerry, proceeds in an easterly fUiectim, 
for about thirty miles from its sonrce, when it arrivea tX the city 
of Cork, and there, meeting the tide, baoomei navigable i<x 
vessels of considerabla bnrtlieQ. The rivns of minor comsidaratioD 
are the BandoH; tbe Hat ; and the Awbeg. Hue latter river, 
under the name of the gvitUe MtUU, is celebrated in verMa, 
likely to prove lasting as the flow of its own wntert, by tbe poet 
Spencer, whoee former place of residence en its banks will be 
hereafter noticed. Many smaU lakes are fbnnd in the mottntainoiis 
parts of the coanty, and chalybeate sprin|s occor in variens 
districts, the most popular medicinal waters being those of Halknr, 
agtin mentioned in onrdescripdoa of that place. 

The Soil, although branching Into rariom snbordinata 9pedefl> 

may be rednced, in a general view, into fi}nr kinds, which are 

thus BQcdnctly described in the A^cnltnral Snrvey.— " Tbe 

calcareous, or that found in the limestone tracts. — ^The loamy 

soils not calcareoDS, by which are meant those deep and mdlow 

soils remote from Ihnestone, and generally oecnrriDg in the less 

elevated parts of the greyiKd red stone districts. — The l^ht aad 

shallow soils, resting npon an absorbent bottom, as gravel and 

"ily stone;— and the moorland, orpeatsoiF, the usnsl snbstra- 

of which is hnd rock, or coarse retentive day." 

Hie state of agriculture is stilt very badward, except on tlM 

tes of those amateur fermers of high rank, whose lands, like 

r drawing-rooms, are disposed nearly in the same fashion in 

y part of the empire. The various causes which have long 

rieved the agricoltural interest of Ireland, and can only be sur- 

nted by a gradaal and general ameRoration of manners, press 



[UVNSTKR.J COUNTY 9F COJIK. 343 

heaTily on the petty fivmers of tluB diAtriet, who> as in every othttr 
part of thia island, form the great majority of persons employed 
in cultivating the soil. Among snob, the spade is still often nsed 
as a substitute for the plough, not from preference, but through 
want 5 and we thus see, imposed by necessity, that simple and 
laborious state of husbandry, which a modern benevolent speculator 
would fain recommend to adoption, on a principle of improvement. 
Men naturally strive to persuade themselves that th^ defects, or 
privations, are, in fact, beneficial; and^ thus, the lower and 
ignorant classes of farmers, in this county, indulge in a prejudice 
that much ploughing weakens the soil! 

The growth of potatoes is the object of greatest concern with 
the ordinary farmer) and, after this crop, the common succession 
is wheat -, barley ; oats. Our readers in England, conversant with 
good agricultural practice, will not find, without surprise, that 
the seed of the last-named grain, where the plough is partially 
nsed, ie *' commonly thrown on the stubble, and ploughed in, fre- 
quentiy without the application of the harrow." After wheat and 
barley are sown, the dods are usually broken with a spade*— an 
inefficient, or, at least, a most laborious, substitute for the proper 
use of the plough, and the adoption of the harrow. 

Weeding is seldom practised, except with the potatoecr^j 
and this drcumstance of n^lect, joined with the exhaustidjlo 
which the land is subjected by a repeated succession of corn, 
renders unavailing the real goodness of the soil, and the intended 
bounty of nature. The use of artificial grasses is obtaining in 
many parts of the. county, and presents the best means of counter- 
acting the ill effect proceeding from the mischievous activity of 
the ignorant agriculturist. 

The system of mimic gavelkind, or division of small holdings 
amongst the numerous sons of a fanning ftmily, produces here, 
as in other parts of Ireland, the serious evil of a gveat population 
of small Curmers, all indigent, all prejudiced, and rendered, 
from their self-elected position, a weak and ready prey to the 
impositions of those who trade in land, and usurp a name of much 
reverence in countries where no such petty divisions take place — 



344 BBAUViss or ibblano. 

that of landlord. We present^ below>* an accorate descriptioa of 
the dweUing of an iNrdinary &rmer$ and^ where the head of an 
agricaltoral establishment lives in sacdi circomstances of misery, 
it will be easily suf^osed that the condition of the peasant, hk 
laboarer, is wofiil indeed! A progressive improvement, however^ 
has been taking place in the condition of the lower classes of 
society, throogh many recent years. 

The implements of hasbandry are few, and of rude constrection, 
on the small farms; and the car withont wheels is still nsed, in 
monntainous and recluse parts of the ooontry. 

The manners and customs of the people of this district do not 
differ, in > many important particulars, from those prevailing in 
other parts of Ireland. The peasantry of both sexes are capable 
of great and patient labour, and are uniformly of a vivadoos and 
commuuicative temper. So curious are the paradoxes of human 
condition, that poverty itself, by precluding all calculations 
respecting the future, gives cheerfulness as a sd[>stitnte for the 
cares and anxiety which attend every stage in the acquirement of 
property, and invariably promote taciturnity of habit. A very 
poor i9, generally, a very merry people. 

The Irish language is exclusively nsed, in most places remote 

S principal towns ; and hence, if no other motive w(^ apparent, 
t we, in some measure, account for the abhcmrence mth whi^ 
the natives of thb county view all proposal^ of emigration. Traces 
of anfient customs must be expected amongst a people who thus 
fondly adhere to the original language of thdr coontry, and clings 
through all severities of privation, to the spot that afforded then^ 

* ** HoQsei dilTer in size according to th^ circumstances of the occu- 
pier, bnt tbey are all built, when left to tbe farmer's choice, on the same 
exceptionable plan, with an open chimney at one eadv and a small room 
separated by a partition at tbe other. This is the bed-chamber of tbK^ 
faally, and serves also au a store room* Th« walls are too low te allow 
an upper floor for liabitable purposes, but a few sticks, thrown across at 
the feet of the rafters, form a receptacle for lumber Glass windows axe 
a luxiiry towhich cottagers rarely aspire; but, as light is an indispensable 
requisite, they contrive, by making two opposite doors, to have one always 
open for its adniissioq/' Townsend's Stat. Survey, p.H\\» 



[uUNdTBB.] C6l71tTy OF COBK. 34^ 

birth. The most remarkable of these is the practice of the fuDeral 
orj^ or pkint; an obttreperons sabstitnte for the genuine expres- 
sions of grief, that is here raised by women only, and often by 
sneh females as officiate upon this occasion, without the incitement 
of any proTiotts connexion with the deceased, or real sympathy 
with the woes and interests of the snryiving family. The cere- 
monies of the irak0 do not vary from those of other counties. 

Little is known concerning the subterranean contents of this 
eounty. Iron ore is found in great plenty, and was formerly 
smelted in considerable quantities. Lead has, also, been frequently 
discovered, but usually in small veins* Copper is more rarely 
seen. Goal, the fossil of primary importance to the wants of man 
in a denuded country, has been found in one barony only, and 
fiur distant from the principal towns. Marble, of a great variety 
of hues, and often of a very estimable quality, abounds in 
several tracts, and may, when better known, become an article of 
great request. It is generally of a mixed colour, but pure white 
is found in narrow veins. Brown and yellow ochres, and potter's 
elay, complete the list of useful subterraneous productions hitherto 
disoovered. 

The mannlactnres are of little importance, in a commercial 
point of view. Besides friese and linen, chiefly used for liome 
eensumptiott, there are, in different parts of the conty, sAe 
few establishments for the manufactures of cotton ; sail-cloth, of 
an approved quality ; woollen articles ; and paper. The provi- 
sion trade forms an important branch of commercial pursuits, in 
the dty of Cork. A great part of the beef, pork, and butter 
produced throughout the south of Ireland is shipped at that port. 

This large county is divided into the following Sixteen Baro-" 
nies: Duhallowj Orrery and Kilmare-, Fertnoy ; Condons and 
CiamgMoni KUlnaialhon; ImoiMly ; Barrymore -, Barretter Mm»'- 
kerry ; Ktnaimeaky ; Kinaiea and Kerrkurrikf ; Coureeys ; Barry ^ 
roe; Ibawne or Ibane; Carbery ; and Bear and Bantry, To these 
most be added, in regard to circumstances of political division, 
the oounly a/the City of Cork, and the liberties of Youghed, Kin^ 
Male, 9nd Maliow, 



346 BibAUTISt or IIIIL4ND. 

The whole of the nbove districts are sob-divided^ in reference 
to ecdesisstical afiairs. Into three diocesslM and 869 parishes. The 
diocesses are those of Cork> Cloyne> and Ross, which now fcim 
two sees only; the bishoprics of Cork and Ross being united. 

Besides its capital, the City of Cork, this county oontaina 
several towns of great respectability, bat none, with the above 
exception, of distingnbhed commercial importance. Amongst 
these Kinsale and Yonghal are the most coo^icnons, as sea- 
ports 5 whilst Mallow, from several causes, takes a priority of 
rank, in regard to inland towns. 

The seats, both antient and modem, of nobility and gentry, 
are very nnmerons, and are often placed in situations of great 
beauty. 

Before the arrival of the English, Cork formed a separate 
kingdom, under the sway of the McCarthys. It was granted 
by Henry 11. to Robert Fitz-Stq»hen and MUo.de Cogan, with 
the exceptions of the City of Cork, and the '' Cantred bekmging 
to the Ostmen of the said City,** which the king retained in his 
own hands. It was made shire-ground by King John, in the 
year 1210. Traces of the antient Irish families are still to be 
discovered) but the larger part of the pn^erty is vested in the 
discendants of various settlers, rewarded with grants of conquered 
or forfeited-lands, at this several seras of great political change in 
Ireland. 

The county of Cork yields a rich harvest of subjects, for the 
gratification of the antiquarian examiner. Amongst the most 
antient vestiges, are numerous drdes of upright stones ; crom- 
lechs $ raths j pillars, consisting of a single erect stone, or of 
two stones, dissimilar in bright, placed at a short distance from 
each other ; and caves, or excavations, in several instances of 
considerable extent. Some few remarks, of a general character, 
may be here presented concerning the above-named relics of 
antiquity in this county. 

It is noticed by Mr. Townsend, as a feature of some peculiarity, 
that the Cromlecht are usually composed of stones approaching to 
a rotundity of form. This practice, so likely to prevail among a 



[MUN8TER.] COUNTY OF CORK. 347 

people with whom the spherical figure wa9 adopted in sacred erec- 
tiotts^ undoubtedly through a desire of imitating the apparent Ibrm 
of the greater celestial bodies, is not, as we believe, obseryable 
in other districts. The Raihs, thickly spread over this county, 
would appear to have been chiefly designed as defensible places of 
habitation^ and, although ascribed, by popular tradition, to the 
Danes, were probably the works of the antient Celtic proprietors 
of the soil.* A vault, or excavation, having a low entrance, is 
generally found in each ; and it must be mentioned, that, in some 
few instances, the raths of this county are of a square form. 

The remains of antient ecclesiastical structures are numerous, 
but are, in scarcely any instance, of imperative interest. Many 
examples occur of the relics of small and very old churches, com- 
posed of stones heaped together without the use of cement, and 
quitedestitute of any decisive features in architectural arrangement. 
Vestiges of the circular style, often termed Saxon, are rarely seen ; 
and the remains of buildings in the pointed mode of design, 
although frequently rendered picturesque by the effects of decay, 
do not, in many instances, evince grandeur of design or con- 
spicnoofl merit in execution. There are only two round, or pillar, 
towers now remmning in tins county ; one of which Is situated at 
Cloyne, and the other at Kinneagh. 

The relics of castellated structures are numerous, and afford 

m 

« 

• Mr. Townsend, in hit *' Statistical Survey/* inclines towards coia- 
cidiof with the popdlar superstition, and is willing to suppose that tbe 
ratbi in tbe county of Cork were erected by ** tbe northern invaders,** 
because places of such strength ** imply a state of contention and insecurity^ 
and are irreconcilablfs with the idea of a pastoral life^ and the common 
condition of aboriginal inhabitants," No person oyer tboqgbtoC ascribing 
tbe fortified camps of tbe Celtas and Belg», whether in EoglaBd or Ireland, 
to tines of pastoral simplicity. Those ages, alas 1 bad passed away before 
existing record begins. But tbe writings of Canar and Tacitus ozplain 
the necessity of defensible places amongst the natives, when those authors 
penned the first credible pageii concerning Britain ; and the same want, 
amongst the first known inhabitants of Ireland, is equally apparent from 
tbe testimony of the most antient writers, entitled to credit, upon the 
sniject of that Island, 



1 



348 



BBAUTISS OF IBKLAND 



examples^ often strougly marked^ of the different styles wlucb 
prevailed in the varions ages between the entry of the Anglo- 
Normans, and the disuse of actual fortification in the dwellings of 
the affluent classes of society. Some few of these are still in 
fair preservation, and, with the aid of additional baildiogs, are 
inhabited by families of high respectability. 

Population of the County of Cork, 
According to the returns made under the act of Parliament 
of 181^. 



Baronlct, Half Baronies, or Parlahei. 



Bantry, 

Bear, 

Barretts, 

Barrymore, 

Barryroe and Ibawn, 

E. Carbery, B. div 

E. Carbery, W. div 

W. Carbery, E div 

W. Carbery, W. div 

Condons, 

Conrceys, 

Duhallow, 

Fermoy, 

Imokilly, 

Bandon, 

Kerricurrihy, 

Killnatalloon, 

Kinalmeaky, 

Kinalea, 

Kinsale, 

Mallow, 

Maskerry, W 

Mnskerry, B. 

Orrery, 

Youghal, 

Total. . . . 



Number of 
Houses. 



1,768 
9,492 
2,473 
7,140 
3,781 
5,737 
5,607 
5,639 
4,822 
5,111 

761 
7,353 
5,990 
6,314 

388 
1,742 
1,116 
2,654 
3,012 
2,016 

869 
4,979 
4,024 
4,331 
1,428 



91,447 



Gross 
Population. 



9,872 
1 1,945 
13,970 
41,235 
22,026 
33,994 
31,066 
30,515 
25,923 
30,066 

4,171 
43,067 
34,182 
36,846 

2,915 
10,695 

6,653 
14,955 

16,547 
11,863 

5,542 
28,943 
23,354 
24,462 

9,109 



523,936 



J 



According to the returns obtained in 1821, the number of 
inhabitants in the County was 702,000. Not any retnm is pre- 



[mvnstbr.] county of cork. 349 

seated us to the nnmber of hontes . The number of inhabitants 
in the dty, was^ at the same time, 100>5S5. 

CoBK. 

Tliis large, commercial, and handsome city, entitled, in every 
point of view, to the rank of the second city in Ireland, is distant 
from Dablin 124^ miles, towards the south-west. Its name is 
thought to have been derived from its circumstances of situation ; 
Carcach signifying, in Irish, a moor, or marsh. 

The earliest historical notice preserved respecting this place, 
relates to the commencement of the seventh centnry, at which 
time a monastery was founded here by St. Barr, or Finbarr. The 
schools attached to this religious house attained so much celebrity, 
and attracted hither '* such numbers of disciples, who flocked 
from all parts,*' that, according to the biographer of St. Nessan, 
'' a desart, as it were, by quick degrees became a large city.*' 
It would appear to be unquestionable that the religious founders 
of monastic houses, in the early ages of Christianity, selected the 
most secluded spots for the indulgence of their pious and contem- 
plative habits. We may, therefore, safely conclude that the 
country bordering on the site of St. Finbarr's Abbey, if not 
literally a desart, was thinly peopled ; and to that saintly personage 
most be ascribed the origin of a city, which has since risen to so 
high a rank of commercial importance, and now constitutes the 
capital of Mnnster. 

The first assemblage of dwellings was, probably, made on 
the south side of the river, in the vicinity of the abbey and 
eathedral. It is usually said that the Danes, or Ostmen, settled 
in Cork soon after their invasion of Ireland, and enclosed the city 
with walls, about the middle of the ninth century. But the pages 
of early annalists abound with notices of ravages committed upon 
this town, by the Danes, with fire and sword, in many years of 
the ninth and following centuries, the last recorded act of agres- 
sion being of so recent a date as 1013. It would, consequently, 
appear that the ascription of such an honour to that barbarous 
people is entirely erroneous, at least in relation to so early a date 



350 BEAUTIH8 OP IRKI.AND. 

as the ninth oentary« It is, hoirever, clear thai they posseaaad 
the allotment of a certain part of the town, on the entry of the 
Anglo-Normans. 

The city is said to have been destroyed by fire^ in the year 
1080 3 bnt, by this term, we are, probably, to understand no 
more than a partial demolition . It formed a place of some strength 
on the arrival of the Anglo-Normans^ or English $ and was snecess* 
ftfliy held by them against the united fofrces of McCarthy, of 
Desmond, and O'Lougblan, together with troops from Gonnaoght. 
When the introduction of artillery altered the character of warfare, 
Cork ceased to constitute a post capable of lasting resistance. 
Commanded on both sides by rising grounds, no art of fortification 
could render it long defensible against the assault of cannon. The 
most important military event of recent ages, is the siege toivhidi 
it yielded, but not ingloriously, in the year 1G90. 

On the 91st of September, in the above year^ the Earl of 
Marlborough, with about 5000 men, arrived in Cork-road, and 
was shortly joined by the Prince of Wirtemberg and General 
Sgravenmore, with a force nearly equal to his own. He effected 
a landing with little difficulty, and the garrison gradually ahan** 
doned their outworks. A breach was made in the wail $ and the 
English and Dutch passed the river, wading to the he^t of thdr 
shoulders, and posted themselves under that bank of the tnltfih 
that acted as a counterscarp to the city wall. They were stitt, 
however, in some measure, exposed to the fire of the gairison ; 
and here the Duke of Chiafton, natural son of Charles II. reeaved 
a mortal wound. Preparations were made for a general assault, 
when the garrison, about 4,500 strong, sounded a paifey, and 
surrendered as prisoners of war. The surrender was made five 
days after the commencement of the siege. 

The bounds of antient Cork, for several centuries subsequent 
to the entry of the Anglo-Normans, were formed by a marshy 
tract of ground, insulated by a division of the river Lee into two 
branches, which island still constitutes the site of a considerable 
part of the dty. '' Cork," writes Dr. Smith, *' was originally 
built in the form of an oblong square, the length of which was 



[munster.] county of gobx. 351 

firom the north gate to the soath gate, aad its breadth from the 
dty wall on the west marah to that parallel to it, which faced the 
east marsh. This wall had an interrnption, towards the middle, 
at the lower end of Castle-Street, called Martin Gate, defended 
on the north by a strong castle, which stood near the site of the 
new market-house, called the Queen's Castle; and, within the 
waUs, on the ground where the present county court-house is 
built, stood another castle, called the King's Castle. The former 
was subsisting in the reign of James I. and the latter was taken 
down in the year 171d, and houses built on the ground. To the 
ieiath of this castle, at the lower end of Christ-church lane, stood 
a strong tower on the city wall, from whence I do not find any 
other till the soutli-east angle of the wall, "where there was 'a small 
tower ', and from thence to the south gate there was no fortification . 
Both.thenortb And south gates weredefended by ca8tk»,one at each 
end of the bridge. From the south gate to the south-west angle, was 
a tower, about midway; and one at that angle. The water-gate 
was defended by a small castle, between which and the north-west 
angle stood the belfry of St. Peter's church. From hence to the 
north-west angle is one small tower, still remaining; and another 
at that angle, whence the wall ran without any fortification, till 
it came to the north gate." 

Cork has been fortunate in possessing natursd circumstances 
adapted to the cultivation 6i commerce, rather than such as were 
calculated for militaify defence. Whilst strong holds, which have 
incited the resort of conflicting armies, have had their gaudy day, 
and passed into rain, this city, with slow but certain steps, has 
advanced in magnitude and consideration, beneath the fostering 
influence of Tbads, die mother of the arts. Her progress, how- 
ever, has been tardy, nor has she, until within the century last 
passed^ eclipsed the rival cities of the South. Camden describes 
Cork as *' a city of an oval figure, and consisting of one straight 
street, continued by a bridge." He adds, that " it is a little 
trading-town, of great resort and eminence." Stanihurst speaks 
of it, as a place inferior to Limerick and Waterford. 

We have observed that the limits of antient Cork were formed 



35S BSAVTIE8 OP lAKLAND. 

by tlie river Lee, here separating into two streams. Besides those 
two principal channels, several minor branches of the river inter- 
sected the city, in various directions. These were said to have 
fpren to the place the aspect of a Dntch town ; and they, in fact, 
constituted canals, which were supposed to afford facilities to 
commerce. But the better judgment of recent ages has discovered, 
that even an increasing trade, required not the aid of such auxilia- 
ries. The main branches of the river present sufficient oppor* 
tunities for the warehouses of merchants ; and the corporation 
have wisely arched over the numerous shallow and muddy canals, 
greatly to the improvement of several principal streets and 
subordinate lines of thoronghfare. The city walls no longer exist; 
and a large increase of buildings has taken place, both to the 
north and south of the river Lee, but chiefly in the former direc- 
tion. A great augmentation of the city commenced early in the 
eighteenth century. The historian Smith, writing about 1748, 
observes that Cork was, at that date, *^ above thrice as laige as it 
was forty years ago.*' Since the time at which Dr. Smith wrote, 
the increase in size has been very considerable, and in neatness 
and convenience beyond the calculation of a person, living at the 
sera in which he took so much honest pride in the augmented 
extent and elegance of the dty. 

Cork, in its present state, occupies not only a vale, watered 
by the river Lee, here flowing through two branches 5 but, also, 
the north and south banks of that river, which rise, in a gentle 
scale of ascent, to a considerable altitude. The new streets, and 
those improved by recent alterations, are of an eligible width, 
and several are both spacious and handsome. Many of the mxnw 
avenues still act as conhned, crowded, and dirty memorials of 
the antient state of the city. An accurate idea of the nsual width 
of these old lines of thoroughfare, may be conveyed by observing 
that one miserable alley, not more than ten feet in width, was 
of dimensions so pre-eminent as to be entitled to the denomination 

of Broad lane. 

* 

The houses in the principal streets are, in general, large and 
good, but deficient in regularity, beyond those of any groat city 



[munstkr.] county or cork. 363 

with which Ve are acquainted. They are rooted with skte^ and 
many are ^oed With that material; a drcnmstance by no means 
£avo«rable to beaoty and cheerfolness of aspect. The footpaths, 
like the parts designed for the transit of carriages^ are merely> 
paved with roogh, pebbly stones^ except in the favoured instances 
of some individual houses, where flag-stone pavement has been 
introduced, as a laudable example to the inhabitants of the city at 
large. The street termed the Grand Parade is wide, and of a 
pleasing character, though the great irregularity of the buildings 
detracts much from its real beauty. On this parade is one of the 
few efforts at ornament introduced in this city; an equestrian' 
statue of King Qeorge IL* The South Mall is, likewise, a well- 
proportioned and handsome street. Cork wears, throughout, the 
appearance of a commercial town, and its similitude of character 
to many of the large trading places of England has been frequently 
noticed^ and cannot fail to strike the traveller. Hence, as well 
as for more solid and estimable reasons, it is often termed the 
Bristol of Irdand. 

The approaches to the city are confined and uninviting, in 
every direction except that from the north-east j in which line the 
river Lee is crossed by a handsome new bridge, erected under the 
care of Mr. Michael Shanahan, of Cork. It consists of three semi- «* 
elliptical arches, and was designed partly on the plan of that • of 
Neuilly, near Paris. Patrick Street, to which this bridge conducts, 
has been recently improved, and now forms a wide, impropriate, 
and pleasing, entrance to a city, which, on a more intimate view, 
is speedily found to possess real importance. 

' We have already observed that this southern emporium of 
commerce is but little indebted to the ornamental labours of the 
statuary, or toihoseof the architect, as regards domestic bnildiDgs. 
It will be found that the same penury of tasteful decoration prevails 
in the public structures. 

• On the die of the pedestal is the following inicriptioD : '' The ciliaeni 
of Cork erected this statue to the memory of King George the Second, iii 
gnititode for the many blessings they enjoyed during hit autpicioni reign. 
A.D. 176«." 

VOL. II. A A 



1 



359 BKAVTIES OF IRKLAND. 

by the river Lee^ here separating into two streams . Besides those 
two principal channels, several minor branches of the river inter- 
sected the city, in varioas directions. These were said to have 
given to the place the aspect of a Dutch town ; and they, in fact, 
constituted canals, which were supposed to afford fadlities to 
commerce. But the better judgment of recent ages has discovered, 
that even an increasing trade, required not the aid of such auxilia- 
ries. The main branches of the river present sufficient oppor- 
tunities for the warehouses of merchants; and the corporation 
have wisely arched over the numerons shallow and muddy canals, 
greatly to the improvement of several principal streets and 
subordinate lines of thoroughfare. The city walls no longer exist; 
and a la^e increase of buildings has taken place, both to the 
north and south of the river Lee, but chiefly in the former diiec- 
tion, A great augmentation of the city commenced early in the 
eighteenth century. The historian Smith, writing about 1748, 
observes that Cork was, at that date, ** above thrice as laq^ as it 
was forty years ago." Since the time at which Dr. Smith wrote, 
the increase in size has been very considerable, and in neatness 
and convenience beyond the calculation of a person, living at the 
sera in which he took so much honest pride in the augmented 
extent and elegance of the city. 

Cork, in its present state, occupies not only a vale, watered 
by the river Lee, here flowing through two branches ; but^ also, 
the north and south banks of that river, which rise, in a gentle 
scale of ascent, to a considerable altitude. The new streets, and 
those improved by recent alterations, are of an eligible width, 
and several are both spacious and handsome. Many of the minor 
avenues still act as confined, crowded, and dirty memorials of 
the anttent state of the city. An accurate idea of the usual width 
of these old lines of thoroughfare, may be conveyed by observing 
that one miserable alley, not more than ten feet in width, was 
of dimensions so pre-eminent as to be entitled to the denomination 
of Broad lane. 

The houses in the principal streets are, in general, large and 
good, but deficient in regularity, beyond those of any great city 



J 



r 



[UUNSTBB.] COUNTY OF CORK. 363 

with which \ve are acquainted. They are roofed with slate^ and 
many 4irelaoed With that material; a circamstance byoo means 
Cftvenrable to beaoty and cheerfahiess of aspect. The footpaths^ 
like the parts designed for the transit of carriages^ are merely 
paved with roogh, pebbly stones^ except in the favoared instances 
of some individoal hooses^ where flag-stone pavement has been 
introduced, as a laadable example to the inhabitants of the city at 
large. The street termed the Grand Parade is wide, and of a 
pleasing character, though the great irregularity of the buildings 
detracts much from its real beauty. On this parade is one of the 
few efforts at ornament introduced in this city; an equestrian' 
statue of King George II.* The South Mall is, likewise, a well-- 
proportioned and handsome street. Cork wears, throughout, the 
appearance of a commercial town, and its similitude of character 
to many of the large trading places of England has been frequently 
noticed, and cannot fail to strike the traveller. Hence, as well 
as for more solid and estimable reasons, it is often termed the 
Bristol .of Ireland. 

The approaches to the city are confined and uninviting, in 
every direction except that from the north-east ; in which line the 
river Lee is crossed by a handsome new bridge, erected under the 
care of Mr. Michael Shanahan, of Cork. It consists of three semi- : 
elliptical arches, and was designed partly on the plan of that • of 
Neuilly, near Paris. Patrick Street, to which this bridge conducts, 
has been recently improved, and now forms a wide, appropriate, 
and pleasing, entrance to a city, which, on a more intimate view, 
is speedily found to possess real importance. 

We have already observed that this southern emporium of 
commerce is but little indebted to the ornamental labours of the 
statuary, or to those of the architect, as regards domestic buildings. 
It will be found that the same penury of tasteful decoration prevaib 
in the pubUc structures. 

• On the die of the pedestal is the following intcription : '* The citisens 
of Cork erected this statue to the memory of l^ing George the Second, ia 
gimUtttde for the many blessings they enjoyed during hit aiispicioai reign. 
A.D. 176«." 

VOL. II. ▲ A 



554 BEAUTIES OF IJIBLAND 

The E:tchange is aot entirely destitnte of pretensions to 
arcbitectnral beanty, but is inconveniently situated in the midst 
pf crowded buildings^ and is qnite unworthy of the city to which 
it appertains. The lower^ or open part^ is of the Doric order. 
The floor abo?e contains a spacious room, and is ornamented on 
the outside with Ionic columns and pilasters. This fiabric waa 
commenced in the year 1T08, and completed in 1710. The 
architect was an Italian. 

The inconvenience of the exchange was f6und to be so great 
in modern times, that a more eligible stncture has lately been 
erected for the resort of merchants, under the name of Tax 
CoMMBBOiAL fiuiLDiNGS. This cdificc is Well situated, and ia; ia 
every respect, judiciously adapted to its intended purposes. The 
principal room is ascended by a flight of stone steps, and ia 
seventy-flve feet in length, by nearly forty feet in width* We are 
told that the ground on which these buildings stand, is subject to 
the high rent of 650/. per amium ; a satisfactory proof of the great 
value of property in the central parts of this trading city. The 
proprietorship is vested in o^e hundred shares, of 120/. each 5 
which now, we believe, sell for considerably more than their first 
value. The great room, with the accommodation of newspi^ra, 
IS open to strangers $ but a small annual subscription is required 
from the inhabitants of Cork and its vicinity. Attached to the 
Commercial Buildings is a good hotel. 

The antient Custom House was calculated merely for the 
infancy of a commercial town, and a fresh structure was erected in 
1794 ; but this, also, proving undesirable, a fabric of more spa- 
cious proportions, and in a more appropriate sitoation, has been 
recently completed. The present building is composed of stone, 
and is sufficiently commodious, but can scarcely be deemed of aa 
oiaamantal character. 

The Corn Maekbt-housb is a respectable building, erected 
by the architect who designed the Exchange. It is supported by 
stone piUars of the Tuscan order ; but is most improperly placed 
in the midst of narrow streets, and a crowd of domestic tmildings. 

Such are the public edifices connected with the trade of this • 






[mctnster.] ctivm\ or corjc. - JS& 

city. Our notice of its ecelesiastical strueturw ii«tiinAycoiii«' 
mences with an accooBtof tbe 

r 

Cathedral. 

TUts strndtttte is Mtvatckl on a slight eminence^ upon tl^e 
bordlnr of the sootheni branch of the river Lee. A cathedral WW 
fleeted at this place, early is the seventh centory^ by St. Finbarrj 
who became the first Mshop cf Cork, and was iAtssrred within the 
vHtils of his own churchy where his bones^ throiif h many succeeding 
ages, were preserved in a silver shrine. 

Tbe caUiedml'Stmctare thns founded, was, pnobably, rea<K 
vttted at diffnrent tioMis, in conseqnence of the wear of years ; 
^theiigariM inflicted by the Danes; and in attention to the 
ineresaiAg importance of tite city. No p^rtlcnlars are preeerved^ 
cbndertiing the character of the antient beildiDgs^ at atiy period ; 
but we are told by Ware and Smith, lAiaty in the early part of 
tWs seventeenth century, this chnrch had faUen into a lamentsUe 
slate of '' decay aad min/* and was taken down in the year 172S. 
It was rebuilt^ in its present forta^ between that date and 1795, 
the expense of rc-edi&catiott beifigf defrayed by a psrIiaBieiitary thr, 
of one shilling per ton^ lud on all coal and culm consumed within 
the dty of Cork. 

This cathedral is quite unworthy of the diocess to which it 
i>elongs, nHiether • we consider its dimensions or smMtectural 
character. It is a massy, but tasteless and dull pAe, iMnposed 
of stone. Tliere is no transept, and at thd west end is a tower, 
ennnounted by an octangular spire, of most indegant proportions. 
The doric order is affeeted in the body of thtf baildiii|f, but the 
windows have wooden sash irames, and no Mogle ftttfnre of the 
exterior is calculated to gratify either 4ihe eit^itlY Cf the )«didous 
examined. The interior is distingnished ftMa thial mi a parochial 
church, sirited to a provincial town, merely by the UlMne and 
stalls, wlitA are in a sedate and respe(itabt6 lAdd^ of design. At 
the west MSd is placed a good- organ . 

In tie' immediate vicinity of the church tWe atbcfd, until 

JL At 



356 BBAUT1B8 OP IRELAND. 

recent yeare^ a round or pillar tower, wluch bad, nndoabtediy> 
appertained to the foundation of St. Finbarr. 

The episcopal palace, which waa erected by Biahop Mann, is 
a handsome and commodious edifice, situated near the cathedral* 

So little distinct or authentic information has been obtained 
ooncemiog the history of this bishopric, between the date of its 
foundation and the entry of the Anglo-Normans, that we forbear 
to attempt any analysis of the fugitive hints afforded by the few 
writers upon this subject. From the subjoined enumeration of 
the bishops who hare occupied the see since the year 1172, it will 
be perceived that the ecclesiastical state of the county of Cork has 
undergone several changes, as to episcopal arrangement ; and 
that this district is now partitioned into three diocesses, namely, 
Cork and Ross, which at present constitute one see ; andCloyne. 
The diocess of Cork comprises ninety-four parishes ; and that of 
RoMs thirty-three. It may be here observed that five parishes, 
in this county, belong to the see of Ardfert. The chapters of 
the diocesses of Cork and Ross are each composed of a dean ; a 
precentor j a chancellor ; a treasurer, and an archdeacon ; besides 
twelve prebendaries in Cork, and five in Ross. 

Biihop9ofCwrk» 

SOGC. 

Gregory 117« 

Ranald 

O'Selbuc (died in 1205) 

Oeoffry White 

Marian 0*Brien 

Gilbert 1285 

Lanrenoe (died 1264) 

MTilliam of Jerpoint 1266 

l^ginaM 1267 

Robert Mac Donogfa 1977 

John Mac Carwill 1902 

Philip of Slaae 15«1 

Walter le Rede 1327 



[munstsb;] county of cobk. 357 

Succ. 

Jolm de BaliconiDgham • 1330 

John Roche 1347 

Gerald de Barry 1359 

Roger Ellesmere 1396 

Gerald 1406 

Patrick Ragged (resigned 1417) 

Milo Fltz John 1418 

Biskapi of Cork and Ciopne. 

Jordan* 1431 

Gerald Fitz-Richard 1464 

William Roche 1479 

Thady Mac Carthy 1490 

Gerald (resigned 1499) 

John Fitz-Edmnnd. . . .* 1499 

Dominick Tirrey 1536 

Roger Skiddy * 1567 

Richard Dixon 1570 

Matthew Sheyn 1573 

Bishops of Cork, Cloyne, and Ross. 

William Lyonf 1583 

John Boylet 1618 

« We are informed by Ware, that, " upon the death of Milo Fits- 
John, the castody of the see of Cork was, for a time, committed to the 
Biahop ofArdfert and the Archdeacon %f Cork. But, before the clofe of 
the year 1430, Jorimtf Chancellor of Umerick, waa, by the provision of 
Pope Martin Y* advanced to the bishoprics of Cork and Cloyne, both 
vacant at.one time, and then canonically united/^ Ware's Bishops, &c. 
p. 568. 

t William Lyon was consecrated bishop of Ross in 1588. In the year 
following he obtained the sees of Cork and Cloyne, to be held during the 
pleasure of the crown ; which sees were annexed, under letters patent, to 
that of Ross, in the person of this prelate, by Qneen Blisabeth, A. D. 
1586. 

t Elder brother to Richard Boyle, Earl of Cork. He held Ross in 
eoMtMndam^ with the bishoprics of Cork and Cloyne. 



35S BBAVTIBB or IRKLAND. 

by the river Lee^ here teparatiDg into two streams. Besides those 
two principal channels, several minor branches of the river inter- 
sected the city^ in various directions. These were said to have 
given to the place the aspect of a Dutch town ; and they, in fact, 
constitated canals, which were supposed to afford facilities to 
commerce. Bnt the better judgment of recent ages has discovered, 
that even an increasing trade, required not the aid of such auxilia- 
ries. The main branches of the river present sufficient oppor- 
tunities for the warehouses of merchants; and the oorporatioB 
have wisely arched over the numerous shallow and muddy canals, 
greatly to the improvement of several principal streets and 
subordinate lines of thoroughfare. The city walls no longer exist; 
and a lurge increase of bnildings has taken place, both to the 
north and south of the river Lee, but chiefly in the former direc- 
tion. A great augmentation of the city commenced early in the 
eighteenth century. The historian Smith, writing about 174B, 
observes that Cork was, at that date, '* above thrice as large as it 
was forty years ago.*' Since the time at which Dr. Smith wrote, 
the increase in size has been very considerable, and in neatness 
and convenience beyond the calcnlation of a person, living at the 
sera in which he took so much honest pride in the augmented 
extent and elegance of the dty. 

C<Nrk, in its present state, occupies not only a vale, watered 
by the river Lee, here flowing through two branches 5 but, also, 
the north and south banks of that river, which rise, in a gentle 
scale of ascent, to a considerable altitude. The new streets, and 
those improved by recent alterations, are of an eligible width, 
and several are both spacious and handsome. Many of the minor 
avenues still act as confined, crowded, and dirty memorials of 
the antient state of the city. An accurate idea of the usual width 
of these old lines of thoroughfare, may be conveyed by observing 
that one miserable alley, not more than ten feet in width, was 
of dimensions so pre'»eminent as to be entitled to the denomination 
of Broad lane. 

The houses in the principal streets are, in general, large and 
good, but deficient io regularity, beyond those of any great city 



[munstkb.] county of coek. 363 

with which \ve are acquainted. They are roofed with slate, and 
many are feoed With that material ; a drcnmatance by no means 
favourable to beaoty and cheerfabess of aspect. The footpaths, 
like the parts designed for the transit of carriages, are merely 
paved with roogh, pebbly stones, except in the favoured instances 
of some individual houses, where flag^stone pavement has been 
introduced, as a laudable example to the inhabitants of the city at 
large. The street termed the Grand Parade is wide, and of a 
pleasing character, though the great irregularity of the buildings 
detracts much from its real beauty. On this parade is one of the 
few eflbrts at ornament introduced in this city 3 an equestrian' 
statue of. King George II.* The South Mall is, likewise, a well- 
proportioned and handsome street. Cork wears, throughout, the 
appearance of a commercial town, and its similitude of character 
to many of the large trading places of England has been frequently 
noticed^ and cannot fail *to strike the traveller. Hence, as well 
as for more solid and estimable reasons, it is often termed the 
Bristol of Ireland. 

The approaches to the city are confined and uninviting, in 
every direction except that from the north-east j in which line the 
river Lee is crossed by a handsome new bridge, erected under the 
care of Mr. Michael Shanahan, of Cork. It consists of three semi- .* 
elliptical arches, and was designed partly on the plan of that of 
Neuilly, near Paris. Patrick Street, to which this bridge conducts, 
has been recently improved, and now forms a wide, impropriate, 
and pleasing, entrance to a city^ which, on a more intimate view, 
is speedily found to possess real importance. 

' We have already observed that this southern emporium of 
commerce is but little indebted to the ornamental labours of the 
statuary, or to those of the architect^ as regards domestic buildings. 
It will be found that the same penury of tasteful decoration prevails 
in the public stmctores. 

• On the die of the pedestal is the following inicriptioD: '* The citiaent 
of Cork erected this statue to the memory of King George the Second, ill 
graUtsde for the many blessings they enjoyed daring bis aiwpkioui reign. 
A.D. 176«.'' 

VOL. II. A A 



354 SEAVTISS OF IJiBliiLND 

The Ejfchange is not entirely destitate of pretensions to 
architectural beauty, but is iDconveDiently situated in the midst 
of crowded buildings, and is quite unworthy of the city to which 
it appertains. The lower, or open part, is of the Doric order. 
The floor abo?e contains a spacious room, and is ornamented on 
the outside with Ionic columns and pilasters. This fabric was 
commenced in the year 1708, and completed in 1710. The 
architect was an Italian. 

The inconvenience of the exchange was found to be so great 
in modern times, that a more eligible structure has lately been 
erected for the resort of merchants, under the name of Ths 
CoMMBROiAL BuiLDiNGS. This cdlficc is Well situated, and is; in 
every respect, judiciously adapted to its intended purposes. The 
principal room is ascended by a flight of stone steps, and is 
seventy-flve feet in length, by nearly forty feet in width. We are 
told that the ground on which these buildings stand, is subject to 
the high rent of 650/. per aumm ; a satisfactory proof of the great 
value of property in the central parts of this trading city. The 
proprietorship is vested in ope hundred shares, of 120/. each $ 
which now, we believe, sell for considerably more than their first 
valne» The great room, with the accommodation of newspapers, 
IS open to strangers 5 but a small annual subscription is required 
from the inhabitants of Cork and its vicinity. Attached to the 
Commercial Buildings is a good hotel. 

The aatient Custom Housk was calculated merely for the 
infancy of a commercial town, and a fresh structure was erected in 
1794 i but this, also, proving undesirable, a fabric of more spa- 
cious proportions, and in a more appropriate situation, has been 
recendy completed. The present building is composed of stone, 
and is sufficiently commodious, but can scarcely be deemed of aa 
ornamental character. 

The Corn Mabkst-housb is a respectable building, erected 
by the arditect who designed the Exchange. It is supported by 
stone pillars of the Tuscan order ; but is most improperly placed 
in the midst of narrow streets, and a crowd of domestic buildings. 

Such are the public edifices connected with the trade of this 



[munster.] GOOirrY or corx. !$& 

city. Our notice of its ecdetiastkjftl structarat natoraUyooiiK 
mences with an tccoontof the 

Cathedral. 

This stfiM^taffB is sitvated on a slight eminence^ opon the 
ixnrder of the southera branch of the river Lee. A eathedml ww 
<et«cted a(t this plaee, early ia the seventh cehtary^ by St. Fiiiberr, 
who became the first bishcy of Cork, and was kutisrred within the 
#ills of his own church, where his bones, through many sneceediiig 
ages, were preserved in a silver shrine. 

The cathedniUstmctare thus fovnded, was, probubly, reao«- 
viated at dlffisrent tinoes, in conseqnence of the weat ai years y 
ttf the iigaries inflicted by the Danes $ and in atteittionto the 
iaereasing importaaee of the city. No pkrticalars ate preserved 
ciim<3ertiing the character of the antient bnildiogs, at any period ; 
but we are told by Ware and Smith, that, in the early part of 
the sertfnttenth centnry, this chorch hiul fiJlen into a lamentable 
state of *' decay aadmin,** and wns taken down in the year 1T2S. 
It watt rebuilt, in its present font, between that date and 17M> 
the expense of rc-edificatiott beidg defrayed by a parliamentary thr^ 
of one shilling per ton, laid on all coal and cnlm consnmed within 
the city of Cork. 

This cathedral is quite unworthy of the diocess to which it 
belongs, whether • we consider its dimensions or smAlitectnral 
character. It is a massy, bat tasteless and dull pAe, Mnposed 
of stone. There is no transept, and at the west end is a tower, 
enrmounted by an octangular spire, of most indegant prd^rtions. 
The done order is aifected in the body of thcr building, but the 
windows haYe wooden sash frames, and no single UMmt of the 
exterior is calculated to gratily eith^ the ^rdklXty 6t the j«didons 
examiner. The interior is dtstingnwhed freAi that ef n parochial 
church, strited to a provincial town, merely by the flMne and 
stalls, wffdi are in a sedate and reepedtabl6 it&Ak of design. At 
the west eUd is pbeed a good-organ. 

In tU ilnmediate vicinity of the churA tWe ttb<^, nntil 

A At 



350 BBAVTIRS OP IBBLAND. 

as the ninth centory* It i$, however, cloar tkit they posie wd 
the allotment of a certain part of the lown» on the entry of the 
Anglo-Normans. 

The city is said to have been destroyed by hre, in the year 
1080 5 bnt, by this term, we are, probably, to understand no 
more tlian a partial demolition . It formed a place of some strength 
on the arrival of the Anglo-Normans, or English ; and was snecess* 
fdly held by them against the united farces of McCarthy, of 
Desmond, and O'Loughlan, together with troops ft'om Connaoght. 
When the introduction of artillery altered the character of warfare^ 
Cork ceased to constitute a post capable of lasting resistance. 
Commanded on both sides by rising grounds, no art of forti6es(tioti 
could render it long defensible against the assault of cannan. The 
most important military event of recent ages, is the siege towhidi 
it yielded, but not ingloriously, in the year 1090. 

On the 91st of September, in the above year^ the Earl of 
Marlborough, with about 5000 men, arrived in Cork*road, nnd 
was shortly joined by the Prince of Wirtemberg and General 
Sgravenmore, with a force nearly equal to his own. He effected 
a landing with little difficulty, and the garrison graduaHy ahan*- 
doned their outworks. A breach was made in the wall $ and the 
. English and Dotch passed the river, wading to thehe^t olFthm 
shoulders, and posted themsdves under thiit bank of the mfetfib 
that acted as a counterscarp to the city wall. They were sUll, 
however^ in some measure, exposed to the fire of the garrison 5 
and here the Duke of Grafton, natural son of Charles II. reedved 
a mortal wound. Preparations were made for a general assanh^ 
when the garrison, about 4,500 strong, sounded a parley, and 
surrendered as prisoners of war. The surrender was made five 
days after the commencement of the si^e. 

The bounds of antient Cork, for several centuries subsequent 
to the entry of the Anglo-Normans, were formed by a marshy 
tract of ground, insulated by a division of the river Lee into two 
branches, which island still constitutes the site of a considerable 
part of the city. " Cork,*' writes Dr. Smith, '' was originally 
built in the form of an oblong square, the length of which was 



[munstbr.] county of cork. 351 

firom the north gate to the south gate, and its breadth from the 
city wall on the west marsh to that parallel to it, which feced the 
east marsh. This wall had an interroption^ towards the middle, 
at the lower end of Castle-Street, called Martin Gate, defended 
on the north by a strong castle, which stood near the site of the 
new market-honse, called the Qaeen's Castle; and, within the 
walls, <m the ground where the present county court-house is 
Intilt, stood another castle, called the King*s Castle. The former 
was subsisting in the reign of James f . and the latter was taken 
down in the year 1718, and houses built on the ground. To the 
ie«th of this castle, at the lower end of Christ-church lane, stood 
a strong tower on the city wall, from whence I do not find any 
other till the sontiipeast angle of the wall. Where there was 'a small 
tower ; and from thence to the south gate there was no fortification . 
Both the north and south gates weredefended by ca6tie8,one at each 
end of the bridge. From the south gate to the south-west angle, was 
a tower, about midway; and one at that angle. The water-gate 
was defended by a small castle, between which and the north<^west 
angle stood the belfry of St. Peter*s church. From hence to the 
north-west angle is one small tower, still remaining; and another 
at that angle, whence the wall ran without any fortification, till 
it came to the north gate." 

Cork has been fortunate in possessing natural circumstances 
adapted to the culturation 6f commerce, rather than such as were 
calculated for militaiSy defence. Whilst strong holds, which have 
incited the resort of conflicting armies, have had their gaudy day, 
and passed into rain, this city, with slow but certain steps, has 
advanced in magnitude and consideration, beneath the fostering 
influence of Trade, the onother of the arts. Her progress, how- 
ever> has been tardy, nor has she, until within the century last 
passed, eclipsed the rival cities of the South. Camden describes 
Cork as *' a dty of an oval figure, and consisting of one straight 
street, continued by a bridge.*' He adds, that '^ it is a little 
trading-town, of great resort and eminence." Stanihurst speaks 
of it, as a {riace inferior to Limerick and Waterford. 

We have observed that the limits of antient Cork were formed 



d5!2 BBAUTIES OF tllKLANO. 

by the river Lee^ here separating into two streams. Besides those 
two principal channels, several minor branches of the river inter- 
sected the city, in various directions. These were said to have 
given to the place the aspect of a Dutch town ; and they, in fact, 
constituted canals, which were supposed to afford facilities to 
commerce. But the better judgment of recent ages has discovered, 
that even an increasing trade, required not the aid of such auxilia- 
ries. The main branches of the river present sufficient oppor- 
tunities for the warehouses of merchants ; and the corporation 
have wisely arched over the numerous shallow and muddy canals, 
greatly to the improvement of several principal streets and 
subordinate lines of thoroughfare. The city walls no longer existi 
and a large increase of buildings has taken place, both to the 
north and south of the river Lee, but chiefly in the former direc- 
tion. A great augmentation of the dty commenced early in the 
aghteenth century. The historian Smith, writing about 1748, 
observes that Cork was, at that date, '* above thrice as large as it 
was forty years ago.** Since the time at which Dr. Smith wrote, 
the increase in size has been very considerable, and in neatness 
and convenience beyond the calculation of a person, living at the 
sera in which be took so much honeit pride in the augmented 
extent and elegance of the city. 

Cork, in its present state, occupies not only a vale, ivatered 
by the river Lee, here flowing through two branches ; but^ also, 
the north and south banks of that river, which rise, in a gentle 
scale of ascent, to a considerable altitude. The new streets, and 
those improved by recent alterations, are of an eligible width, 
and several are both spacious and handsome. Many of the minor 
avenues still act as confined, crowded, and dirty memorials of 
the antient state of the city. An accurate idea of the usual width 
of these old lines of thoroughfare, may be conveyed by observing 
that one miserable alley, not more than ten feet in width, was 
of dimensions so pre-eminent as to be entitled to the denomination 
of Broad hoke. 

The houses in the principal streets are, in general, large and 
good, but deficient in regularity, beyond those of any great city 



r 



[munstkr.] county of cork. 353 

with which Xve are acquainted. They are roofed with slate, and 
many are faced with that material i a circomBtaoce by no means 
£avonrable to beaoty and cheerfabess of aspect. The footpaths^ 
like the parts designed for the transit of carriages^ are merely 
paved with roogh, pebbly stones^ except in the favoured instances 
of some individoal houses, where flag-stone pavement has been 
introduced, as a laudable example to the inhabitants of the city at 
large. The street termed the Grand Parade is wide, and of a 
pleasing character, though the great irregularity of the buildings 
detracts much from its real beauty. On this parade is one of the 
few efforts at ornament introduced in this city; an equestrian' 
statue of- King George II.* The South Mall is, likewise, a well- 
proportioned and handsome street. Cork wears, throughout^ the 
appearance of a commercial town, and its similitude of character 
to many of the large trading places of England has been frequently 
noticed^ and cannot fail *to strike the traveller. Hence^ as well 
as for more solid and estimable reasons^ it is often termed the 
Bristol of Ireland. 

The approaches to the city are confined and uninviting, in 
every direction except that from the north-east ^ in which line the 
river Lee is crossed by a handsome new bridge, erected under the 
care of Mr* Michael Shanahan, of Cork. It consists of three semi* . 
elliptical arches, and was designed partly on the plan of that of 
Neuilly^ near Paris. Patrick Street, to which this bridge conducts, 
has been recently improved, and now forms a wide> appropriate^ 
and pleasing, entrance to a city, which, on a more intimate view, 
is speedily found to possess real importance. 

We have already observed that this southern emporium of 
commerce is but little indebted to the ornamental labours of the 
statuary, or to those of the architect, as regards domestic buildings. 
It will be found that the same penury of tasteful decoration prevails 
in the pnbHc structures. 

* On the die of the pedestal is the following Inscription : '* The citisent 
of Cork erected this statae to the memory of King George the Second, fin 
graUtode for the many blessings they enjoyed during his anspicioai reign. 
A-D. 176«.*' 

VOL. II. A A 



554 BRAUTISS OF lABLAND 

The Ejtchange is aot entirely destitate of pretenaioaB to 
architectural beauty, but is inconveniently situated in the midst 
of crowded buildings, and is quite unworthy of the city to which 
it appertains. The lower, or open part, is of the Doric order. 
The floor above contains a spacious room, and is ornamented <mi 
the outside with Ionic columns and pilasters. This fabric was 
commenced in the year 1708, and completed in 1710. The 
architect was an Italian. 

The inconvenience of the exchange was found to be so great 
in modern times, that a more eligible structure has lately been 
erected foi* the resort of merchants, under the name of Tam 
Commercial Buildings. This edifice is well situated, and is; in 
every respect, judiciously adapted to its intended purposes. The 
principal room is ascended by a flight of stone steps, and la 
seventy-flve feet in length, by nearly forty feet in width. We are 
told that the ground on which these buildings stand, is subject to 
the high rent of 650/. per amount ; a satisfactory proof of the great 
value of property in the central parts of this trading city. The 
proprietorship is vested in oiie hundred shares, of ISO/, each $ 
which now, we believe, sell for considerably more than th^ first 
value. The great room, with the accommodation of new8pq>ers, 
IS open to strangers ; but a small annual subscription is reqoired 
from the inhabitants of Cork and its vicinity. Attached to the 
Commercial Buildings is a good hotel. 

The antient CuaTOM Hovss was calculated merely for the 
infancy of a commercial town, and a fresh structure was erected in 
17S4 5 but this, also, proving undesirable, a fabric of more spa« 
cious proportions, and in a more appropriate situation, has been 
recently completed. The present building is composed of stooe^ 
and is sufficiently commodious, but can scarcely be deemed of aa 
oinamental chamcter. 

The ConN Markbt-housb is a respectable buitding, erected 
by the architect who designed the Exchange. It is supported by 
stone pillars of the Tuscan order ; but is most improperly placed 
in the midst of narrow streets, and a crowd of domestic bnildings* 

Such are the public edifices connected with the trade of tUe • 



[vDN:sT£R.] e9tnn\ or cork. - 

city. Onruotico of its ecdeiiastitial structoret natursHf GmB^* 
mences with an ftCCouiiti>f the 

Cathedral. 

This stmdtttre is situated on a slight eminence^ opon tl^e 
bmdtsr of the southeni branch of the river Lee. A cathedral was 
greeted at this place, early ia the seventh century^ by St. Finbirrj 
who becaoie the first bishop ct Cork, and was iliterred within the 
Trails of his own churchy where his bones^ through many sncceeditig 
ages, were preserved in a silver shrine. 

The cathedmUstmctare thus founded^ was, probably^ reao*- 
vated at diffisrent times^ in conseqneace of the wear of yeiars ; 
ef the isjartes inflicted by the Danes ; and in atteiftionto thd 
inereasiag importance of the city. No pfartlcalars are preserved^ 
c6iidertiing the charscter ef the antient buildings^ at any period ; 
bat we are told by Ware and Smithy Utat, in the early part of 
the seventeenth century, this ehnrch had faUen into a lamentsMe 
state of decay and niin>" and was taken down in the year 1TS5. 
it was rebsdlt; in its present fona> beftwe^n that date and 17d5> 
the expense of ro*edificatlott being dsf rayiri by a psrliamentary tkr« 
of one shilling per ton, laid on all coal and culm consumed witfaia 
the city of Cork. 

This cathedral is quite unworthy of the diocess to which it 
belongs, 'viliether • we consider its dimensions or anMtectnral 
character. It is a massy, but tasteless and dull pAe> Mnposed 
of stone. There is no transept, and at thd west end Is a tower, 
surmounted by an octangular spire, of most inelegant prc^rtiems. 
The done order is affected in the body of thifif baiUHng, but the 
windows have wooden sash frames, and no single IcMore of the 
exterior is calculated to gratify eith^tiieordlifii^ Of the jwdidons 
examiner. The interior is distinguished fr6Ai thiftt ef a parochial 
church, silked to a provincial town, merely by the tiMne and 
stalls, wVUtk are in a sedate and respedtaU^ )AMii of design. At 
the west Mi is placed a good- organ . 

In th«' immediate vicinity of the churdi tWe fftJb^, until 



368 BBAUTlKt OF IRELAND. 

Manufactures^ although of secondary importance, in a cob« 
aideration of the trade at this place^ are cultivated with some 
alacrity and success. They chiefly relate to clothiag for the army ; 
serges ; stdl-cloth ; paper ^ leather j glass ; and glue. . 

The places ^ public amuaement are not so numerous, or on 
so costly a scale, as might be thought likely from the extent and 
consequence of the city. It is, indeed, observable that the 
inhabitants of this, as of most other towns in Ireland, are inclined 
to private rather than public festivities. The theatre, which was 
built nnder the direction of Barry, and opened in 1760, is now 
sinking rapidly to decay. The assembly-room is very large, but 
is more remarkable for sice than f(Nr elegance of decoration. The 
profits arising from the use of this spacious place of recreation, 
are devoted to charitable purposes. 

Whilst we are thus constrained to state the paucity of buildings 
designed for public amusement, we have the opportunity of saying, 
from experience, that the style of living amongst the fmndpal 
inhabitants, and the splendour of private entertainments, are on 
a scale quite commensurate with the presumed opulence of a great 
trading city. We must not quit the grateful themes of gaiety and 
recreation, without observing that there is, on the west side of the 
town, a fine walk, raised above the level of the adjoining fields, and 
planted, on each side, with flourishing elms. This place of public 
promenade is called the Mardyke walk, and is about one English 
mile in length. Dr. Campbell, wriUng in 1775^ mentions this 
walk as the resort of only '* the lower sort** of people 5 and it is, 
at present, less frequented than is desirable, on account of the 
miserable character of the streets, or rather alleys, through which 
it is approached. It is proposed, however, to open a new street 
to this western part of the town. 

Amongst the most eminent Nadoes must be mentioned Jamis 
Babet, the historical painter, who was bom on the llth of 
October, 1741 . This highly-gifted, but eccentric, man was the 
son of a person in humble life^ and his straggles with circumstances 
adverse to the cultivation of genius, commenced at an early period. 



[M0N8TBB.] COVNTT «F CORK. f69 

* His wftyward temper, howerer, predisposed Um to find a sullen 
laxury in the sustenance of miseries. We are toM tliat ** he was 
constitQtionally ascetic^ exhibiting in early yonth a predilection 
forthose hardships and privations in which his subsequent fortunes 
so bountifully Indulged him. He loved to sit up all night, 
drawing, or transcribing from books ; and, whenever he allowed 
himself tie recreoH&n ofileep, he preferred the boards to his bed.*' 
His first patron was Dr. Keogh, of Cork ; and, at the age of two 
and twenty, he attracted the notice of his distinguished countr3rman, 
Edmund Burke, under whose protection he moved to England, 
and visited Rome. The leading drcumstances in his life, after 
be settled in London for the exercise of his art, are well known. 
By the united powers of great natural genius and intense 
iqyplication, he raised lumself to high distinction, as an historical, 
or, rather, as an epic, pmnter. His splendid composition, ** The 
Victers at Olympia,** has been considered as his finest production ; 
but the work of greatest labour, and that, perhaps, by which he 
is best known, is his series of pictures, allegorically illustratire 
of the culture and progress of human knowledge. This grand 
vndertaking he performed, gratuitously, for the Society established 
in London for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures, and 
Commerce 3 and the pictures now decorate the great room of that 
Society, They were exhibited for the benefit of the artist, but 
the exhibition produced no more than the sum of 500/. to which 
mx)/. was added by a vote of the society. Such was the pecuniary' 
recompense for seven years labour, obtained, in the eighteenth 
century, by a genius of the highest order ! The strong prejudices, 
and extreme irritability, of Barry, rendered such parts of his life 
as were not passed in professional pursuits, a continued s^ene of 
warfiuie with society ; and, in alleviation of our regret, whilst 
reflecting on the privations caused by his extreme poverty, it 
may, we believe, be said, with mournful truth, that so gloomy 
and peculiar a cast of mind would not have been calculated to 
extract enjoyment from affluence. He ^ed on the 29nd of 
February, 1806 ; a«d bis rennrins were interred, with due 
selemnity, in St. Paul's cathedral. 

VOL. II. B B 



37a BSAUT1B8 OF IRELAND. 

Jokt Bum, a painter of figures and landaoipee^ was ISKSwise 
a native of this dty . He did not attain macb. eminence in his artj 
and is chiefly known as having been soene*painter> for several, 
seasonsj at Crow-street theatre, when that house was under the 
direction of Spranger Barry. . 

Jama Cavanagk Murphy, if not a native of Cork, resided here 
in the early part of his life^ engaged in the humble occupation of 
a bricklayer. Evincing considerable talents for drawing, he 
obtained snch patronage as enabled him to visit the British 
metropolis. He afterwards passed several years in Spain and 
PoitDgali and, during his residence in those countries, collected 
materials for his valuable- works, the *^ Arabian Aatiqnities of 
Spain," '' Plans of the Church of Batalha," &c. Mr. Murphy is 
stated, in CrQker*s ^' Researches," to have died in London, 
about the year 1814. 

. The.popnlation of Cork has considerably increased within the 
last quarter of a century. In the year 1813, the number of houses 
was 7,659, and of inhabitants 64,394. In 1891, the numbers 
were: houses }2,175; inhabitants 100,535 ^ thus giving an. 
increase of inhabitants, in eight years, to the number of 3^,141. 
The country around Cork^ throughout a district extending 
from three to four miles, in most directions, is termed the 
lAberti^, or County qf the City. This tract is thickly studded 
with villas, dissimilar in size and character, together with houses 
for the-accommodation of lodgers in the summer months. The 
banks of the river afford the most favoured spots, and many of the 
villas there constructed are greatly ornamental to the vicinity of 
the tiPf. 

The whole course of the river Lee, belwoen the city of Cork 
and the Harbour, is replete with animatioii and interest. Tha 
banks of the river, for the two miles nearest to thexity, form into, 
hills of considerable elevation 3 and the handsome dwellinga, 
which enrich their sides, are usually tinted white, and are, in 
most instances, decorated with thriving plantations.* At the 

• Wben Ardmr Toaiif visited diii nsigliboiiffliood, in 1776, thcfre wero 
few bones on the borders of tbe river, but be emphitticany reaMrkcd, 



[1CUN8TER.] COUNTY OF 'CO«K. ^<I- 

dutwide of five milaf aad a half from Cork> the toyagei* on ihlii 
liter aNi?es at Pabiaos. Here ^1 ships^ of more than 200 tons 
kertheQ* unload for the port of Cork, in conseqaenee of a bar In 
the river> which prevents their farther progress. Still faitlMr 
towards the harboar^ we see Monkstowit^ an object of some 
cariosity on acconot of the remains of a castle^ which, however, 
are of no gi*eat antiquity, the bnilding'having been erected about 
the year 1638. This place contuns several houses for the accbm* 
■odation of bathers. 

Thit Harbour of Cork, which is distant from the dty aboot 
eight miles, is one of the most capacious and secore havens in this 
British empire. ** The outward entrance/' writes Dr. Smitlr^ 
'' is scarce half a league over \ but, having passed a bank, called 
the Tnrbot*s bank, oh which are tliirty feet water, in the shoalesS 
places, the entrance narrows to about half a mile.** There are, 
in this great basin, several islands, two of which are nai|ied Spiko 
and Haibowlm. These two islands, continues Dr. Smith, '' are 
BO providentially placed, that they break off all the fury of the 
wind and tide, so that vessels, when they are in, lie land-locked } 
the former sheltering them from the fory of the sea anid southerly 
winds, and the latter breaking off the strength of the ebb and 
land floods, whidi are also much abated by the tides having a^ 
passage out by another channel, on theback of the €(reat Island." 

This fine harbour is now the fixed station of a port admiral, 
and is the freqnent resort of ships of war, and fleets of traders to 
the West Indies. The lands about it are high and bold, 
particularly on both sides of the narrow entrance from St. George's 
ChanneL On the steq> elevations in these directions, are erected 
two forts, named Gamden and Carlisle forts, which are pnyvid<^ 
with lamid.UeteM«ries. Very strong ^ork. M*. «!••, beete 

ff 

" that the country on the harhour be- thi^ught io be preferable, in WMi^ 
respects, for a residence, to any thing be bad seen in Ireland;'* and be 
gave several reasona for this Apialoa, among wbicb are tbe foll^ing : 
'* ,Ffr*t» it is tbe most lonibesly parl.4f tbe kiagdom* B^eoudf there ata 
y«fy great beancies ^f pros|^erU Tkirdy by marb.tbs' most anftanie^y 
VVfyvKepeofsbf^piDgtaiilllralsiul.'* . 

B n 4 



9T% BBAOTIKS or lEBLAlfD. 

eonstnicled^ wUUn the laat few yean, to Spika and Halbowlin 
islands. On the former are extensWe barracks j and on t1i» 
lattor a dock-yard, and yarioos bnildinga compotbg a nayal 
arsenal, on a large scale. 

On the north of the harboor is an insulated tract, of con- 
siderable extent, called the Gbsat Isiamd.* This isle is, in 
general, of a fertile character, and comnmnicates with the main 
land, on the north side, by a bridge. Its southern shores Ke 
open to the noble expansion of the harbour ; and, in this part of 
the island, stands the town of Covn, a place which, daring the 
war, was rapidly increasing in extent and consequence. The 
prindpal proprietors are Lord Midleton^ and Smith Barry, Esq. ; 
and the great augmentations of this sea-port town^ in recent years, 
took place under the auspices of his lordship, and by desire of 
the late Hugh Smith Barry, Esq* Frerions to the interference 
of these spirited proprietors. Goto was a humble Tillage, con- 
sisting, chiefly, of mean cabins. On the part belonging to the 
family of Barry, an extensive quay has been constructed j and 
several good streets have been formed on the lands of both pro- 
prietors. The town is built partly on the maigin of the shore, 
bat ^iefly on diflSnent stages in the ascent of a lofty b31, iriiich 
rises immediately firom the waters of the harbour. A new church, 
and Roman Catholic chapel, haye been completed. The former 
is a commodious and neat building, designed in imitation of the 
pdinted style of architecture. It was finished, and opened for 
difine senrioe, in 1811. 

The Great Island (called formerly ike hkmd of Barrymore, 
on aooonnt of it having been l6ng possessed by that family) 
combines, as a place of residence, the adTantages noticed by 
Mr. Arthur Young, and contains several handsome and well-placed 
seats. Mauino, long the seat of the family of French, is situated 

* Or. taith meatioiM, on the aeHioKity of Keattaf , a ** nemorablo 
boAds, foaght at Afd-KeiaiMdb, l.a. the JQtmi Iiland, between NiaA 
Naaeety and JBngns, noaarch of Irelaadi In wUch eoaflkt Um fonner 
recovered the crown of Maatter from the latter." taitk's Hist, of Cork« 
▼d. ii, p. 19. 



[MUNtTBB.] COUNTY OP GOBK. 371 

al Uie wettern end of the bland^ and commands an extensive 
?iew over the river towards Cork^ and the highly-improved 
country in its vicinity. Bblgbovb, belonging to a branch ot the 
Bagwell family, occupies a fine position^ near the eastern^ 
extremity of the island** In different parts are several pleasing 
modern villas. 

The small Island of Foaty lies to the north of Great Island^ 
and contains the spacious seat of Smith Barry, Esq. enriched 
with extensive and flourishing plantations. This gentleman is 
descended from a junior branch of the family of Barry^ Earls of 
Banrym<n«. 

RosTBLLAN Castlb^ the seat of the Marquess of Thomond, is 
situated on the eastern borders of the harbour, and presents a 
striking object to vessels entering this haven. The antient castle 
was built by Robert Fitzstephende Marisco, and was twice assailed 
and captured in the year 1645. The present mansion was erected 
on the ruins of that fortress, and has been considerably enlarged 
and improved by the late and present marquess. The situation of 
this place is extremely fine, and commands an unequalled view of 
the grand and animated harbour. The grounds are well-planted, 
and are rich in luxuriant evergreens, a sure indication of the great 
mildness of climate in this southern tract of country. Near the 
water is an elevated terrace, from which the views of the harbour, 
its fortifications, and varied shipping, are peculiarly attractive and 
inspiriting. 

* Belgrove U noticed by Smith, writing about 1748, at*' the pleasant 
■eat of John Harper, Esq. of Corlu" The following description, by that 
author, con? eye correct ideas of the embellidied pleasure grounds attached 
to Irish mansions, in the middle years of the last century. ** From a fine 
terrace oyer the gardens is an agreeable prospect of the eastern channel of 
the island, i^lch is here broad and deep, farming a noble basin* This 
terrace is near a quarter of an Baglish mile long, broad and Ugh, adorned 
with yases, urns, Ac. and is the finest of the kind in this comty. Beneath 
the terrace is a pretty bowling*green, with gardens and pleasant walks. 
To the south is a spreading grove, which covers a hUly country, down te 
the water's edge.'' Smith, dec. vol. f. p. Ifift. 



8f.4 BEAVTIBfi or IRBLAHD. 

At a short distance from RoateUan ia CoanEC, the seat of 
Robert Uniacke Fita-Gerald, Esq. built near the roins of an old 
castle, which Smith mentions '' as having belonged, aeoording 
(0 report, to one of the Condons, for whom there is an old tomb 
in the decayed church of Cprkbeg." 

CooLUORE, the handsome mansion of William W. Newenham, 
Esq. is situated on the north side of ihe channel that rons from 
the harbour to Garigaline. This estate has long been conspicuous 
for the exemplary agricultural man&gement of its successive pro- 
prietors. When Arthur Young wrote his Tour in Ireland, 
Coolmore was the seat of Archdeacon Oliver, which gentleman is 
termed by that tourist *'. the capital farmer of all this neighbour- 
hood.*' Mr. Newenham has, likewise, bestowed much successful 
attention on the improvement of agriculture. It may not b^ 
superfluous to observe that, in consequence of the great increase 
in the number of villa-residences in this part of the country, the 
annual value of good demesne land is now not less than ten pounds 
fm acre. 

At the distance of about four miles from Cork is the village of 
Glanmire, situated near the head of a small inlet, on the north 
^ide of the river Lee. The country is here particularly beautiful. 
I'he rivulet on which the village is seated, pursues its brief course 
towards the Lee through several picturesque glens, screened on 
both sides by hills, richly clothed with wood. So agreeable a 
retirement, at so moderate a distance from the city, has induced 
the erection of numerous villas, many of which are truly enviable 
for charms of siti&atioil. Amongst these may be noticed tHe 
following. 



Lota, on the west side of the inlet, was built by a 
Rrchkect, for the late Robert Rogers, Esq. The design is in a 
)>leasing style of architecture, and the grounds, which weA 
formerly more extensive thian at present^ possess great richnesi 
and vaiiety. 



[munstkr.] coumty or cosk. 3>& 

Ntortbe moalh of the inlet, and on tti eastern side, is 
DiTXKSTTLB. A Seat on tliis spot was the residence of Ridhard 
Tonson, Esq. in the middle of the eighteentii century. The 
present handsome mansion was ereeted, a few years baeic, by 
Abraham Morris, Esq. The ground of this demesne, sloping to 
the sooth and we8t> admits of river-Tiews pecoliarly compre* 
bensiTe. It is well observed by Mr. Townsend, that ** M 
the situations on the river Lee are fine, but none of them 
enjoy so extensive a combination of beauties as Dnnlfettle; 
Without standing high, it sees more, and in a better point of 
view 5 and it possesses one advantage which all the others w%nt, 
a considerable extent of weUnshaped and well-planted lawn in 
front. " 

tSLTNTowN, a handsome villa on tlio north side of Olanmire, 
was built by the late Samuel M*€all, Esq. ; and, at the nortliem 
extremity of this attractive neighbourhood, is Rivbrstown, the 
seat of Jemmet Browne, E^. This Iast*named mansion was 
femerly the residence of Dr. Jemmet Browne, bishop of Gork> 
onder whose cave the house and grounds, received their principal 
ornaments. Smith, who was contemporary with bishop Browne, 
mentions the stucco enrichments in several of the apartmentn 
*' as. having been performed by the Franchinis, brothers. The 
river of Gkmmire," adds this writer, '* runs through the gardeosj 
battked into serpentine canals. A plcasa&t park, stocked with 
deer, comes close to the garden^^walls*'* The grounds of. this 
very respectable seat abooad in aged timber^ and- the whole 
demesne weara an air of dignified 



Blagk-Rock> a populons and gay. viUaitb, is situated i>n a 
peninsula of the river Lee, at the distance of about three miles 
from Cork. Kot more than thirty years back, this place consisted 
chiefly of a few fishera* cabins, and the dwellings of officers in the 
revenue dqiartmeat. It is now become a favourite village of 
retirement with the merchants and traders of the neighbouring 
eity 5 and the housea for their aocettmodatioii are very numerous^ 



and, in some ituUncai, o( a pleuing character. Tbc luxwy of 
salt-water bathing adds greatly to the attractioss of these reb:eat|. 
Black-Rock Castle was originally a drcnlar towec, erected for the 
protection of the river, by the IjOrd Dapaty Moan^oy, early ia 
the reign of Jatnes I. In that st»te it nearly resembled the block 
hooMs, built in the time of Henry VIII. for the ddence of the 
entrance to the Sonthampttm w|Uer, and other parts of the English 
^oaat. ' The corporation tt Cork added a large octagoul looai, 
aad Bone other buildings, in 17SS- Here, when Sasith wrote his 
work on this county, the mayors held an admiralty conrt, 
as chartered admirals of 'the harboar; and they still peri- 
o^cally assert their priTikges. Annnally, on the Ist-of Angnstj 
the mayor and corporation sail to the cotrance of the barbonr, at 
which time they throw a dart into the sea, to denote thdr right 
of Jurisdiction. Near fiiack-Rock castle, l^y Cbatterton has a 
handsome rasideaEC, termed Castle Mahon. 

BiiAUtai CASTi-n, sitonted to the north-west of Gorki o^ ^^ 
distance of rather more than three miles from that city, is the scat 
•f Qoorge Charles Jefferyes> £sq. The boUdings consist of the 
remains of an anti«nt castellated pile, with an attached nanaionj 
•f Mfldtni GoonfractM». The castle of Blarney was built abort 
the middle of the fifteentii century, by Cormac Mac Carthy, or 
Gaity, sanMned Lnidcr, or the stroag, a chieftain of great power 
IB thia part of Ireland, whose &mily w«re remarkable for their 
steady adbvcnce to theEnj^h interest, with some &w ezocf>ti<ws, 
indicative of vacillatios mthev than determiaate abandonment. 
The head of this branch of tlM Mac Carthy* aaaamed the tide of 
Lord Mnskery, as lord of the soil, and was summoned to parlia- 
as Baron of Blarney, in the reign of EUaabeth. He was 
id MseooBt Mnskery, and Earl of Clmicarty, in the year 

I the ragn of EliMbeth ttus oastla was described, by the 
r of Pacata Hibemia, as n &bdc composed of four piles 
1 together, bnring wdls eighteen feet in thickmess. Its 
ion on a rock sMned it from ti» eSoita of the ntlaeff, and it 



[uVNtTieR.] QOVtiTY Of CORK. 377 

was strpiigly fl^Qked at Mch.aagle. When Covinac Mac Dwnod 
Carty^ Lord Maskery, was accused of diBaffectioii^ in IWi, he 
was compelled to sonender the CMtle of Blarney to Captain Taafe^ 
for the use of the qaeen. It waSj however^ restored to him on 
bis being again received into fa?our by government j and Ms fiumly 
lived bere> in the exercise of loyalty and the-enjoysient of pesoe> 
nntil called into action by the evil genias whieh prevailed in 1^1. 
iiord Mnskery, constant in his attachment to the crown^ then 
rq^aired to arms in the royal cause. In the year lG46j his csatte 
was captured by Lord Broghill^ afterwards Earl of Orrery ; bat 
waa restored to its aatient owners by King Charles II. Ih the 
civil wars between James IL and King William^ it was at om 
time nsed as a prison for protestants of Cork, orflered into oon« 
finemeat by Lord Clare 3 and was not snrroidered to the foms 
of William, without an obstinate straggle. After the anbrnistien of 
(^ork, in 1691, the Earl o{ Clancarty was sentenced to exile, and 
his title and estate^ were declared forfeited. Blarney Castle, and 
contignotts lands, were purchased from the crown, slu^y after 
the act of forfutnre, by Sir James Jefferyes, in whose desceardaiit 
they are still vested. 

The remains of the castle* consist of one sqnsre and sMSSive 
tower, of large dimensions, having lew regular windows, bat 
ipany apertures for the dischaige of missiles. It is seMed on the 
northern side of a ridge of limestone, rock, which rises froii m 
deep valley, and extends about one mile in length. The rock 4Mi 
which the castle ia placed, is precipitous, and at its base flews the 
Awmartin, a small river of considerable beanty. Much wood 
enridbes this demesne, and adds greatly to the romantic charms 
of the scenery. Attached to the east side of the antient tower is 

* A trlTiAl circamstance ocean, that U. perhaps^ icarcely eatitled to 
the notice of the topograpber* In (he hij^hett part of the castle if a stone» 
osaally pointed oat to the viiiter, which is said to have the power of 
imparting to the perion who kisses it, the un-enviahle privilege of 
haaarding, without a blush, that species of romantic assertion, which 
many term falsehood. Hence the (hrase of Blamsy, appliad to tads 
Tiolations of accnmcy in narration. 



978- BiAUTUS or ikxumd. 

a'spacions manaion, wUdi Coii>ttt«t«a the pretest reaidenee, sod' 
wasenected'bySir JaraM Jeffbryes, thepnrchaeerof tbis eatate, is 
the early part of the eightoeath ccBtnry. The time ma nnAiToitrablA 
to beanty of domestio stchiDectonj or jixtneaa of ietjmf. The 
boildiDg ii, accordingly, dwtiMte of all appropriate aDvafom to 
the oatellated style of the maasive itnictore to which it ia 
attMhed. Among some pictnrea preserved at tUa seat, is ft faU' 
liBglb portrait of Gharlea XII. of Snedeiij which is, jHrobaUy, an 
origiMl, and was broeght hither by Jamea Jelleryea, Esq. son iff 
Sir Jamea, who had been envoy to the court of Sweden. 

The attached grOnnda* are rich in natnrd circnmstaiices, iribea 
jwHcionaty celtiTated. The acenery of areclase rale, termed 
the Rack Clo«e, is so exqvisitely beaatifdl that no jvst ides of ita 
romantic infloence over the feelioga can be conveyed by the 
tamw i eas of proaaic descriptioe. It would, indeed, appearto be 
formed by natare, and nnrsed by art, as a retreat for the poet, 
^•■Inver, and otbw^ " of imagination all compact," To the- 
aonth-weat of the caalle is ft lake, which, although so near to the 
Ivtowiog circnnttaucea of rock and wood, possesaes little (rf the 
pictcroaqne.-t- 

Tbe village of BbmeyhaB, within the laatbalf centnry, 
vndergooe nore vidsritndes dian ere, perhapa, likely to oceor, 
iatbe same nniriwr of years, to any town, or village, oat of 
Irdand. In the year 1765, M» place conaisted merely of a 
few 'mud cabins. Abont timt tide the tote proprietor of the 
estate earamenced a new town, with the laadable and potriotie 

■ In calebration of tUi f Uc* nu written a idBg, wall kftawa la tha 
Mulh of Irel4Bd,aDd called " Tfae GroTei of Bivnej." Thii «tr»ti(e pra- 
"UctioD ii attributed to Ibe pen of ibe l&le Mr. HillikeD,aDdiiuiimitatioa 
f the cobler'i nDg on C>»tle Hjde, la thii count;. 

t Mr. Croket menllotii a tradition, very s^nerall7beIfeTed,aec'Dr<Unf 
twbkt, *' befbye Btaroey inrreDdsred to Kins WUIhm'i farcei. Lord 
HaAOrty'i plate frai fliada apln an oaken cheil, whTcb Wat IhrowoUto tbb 
ike, and hu not ilnce been recovered." Ia tbA lamt pleadbg work on 
10 lODtb of Ireland, li a wood>cal, repreienllilf tbt " dfaet-rlnf of 
■oDogta Mac Garty More, which wa* lately fold b} a peaiant to a watch^ 
iiker la Cork." Reiearchea, Ac. p- SOT. ■■ ' 



[UUNSTBB.] COOKTY OF COBtC. • 9^^ 

tidw. of establithing at Bkrney several BiaDufaMstiii*e8; Agreat 
command of water much favoured this project ; and it wonld> 
probably^ have been attended with more success, if tbt design 
bad been on a less extensive scale; A particular accovmt of these 
undertakings is given in the second volume of Mr. Yoang.*s Tonri 
Ftrom that work, and other sources of information, it i^peavs 
that Mr. Jefibryes, besides expending considerable svms himself 
obtained grants of public money, for the furtherance of ^s wry 
desirable objects. From .various causes, however;, none of wlndi 
were derived from a want of liberality, or fosteriag spirit, in the 
projector, the design has not realized the sangnind expectations 
formed in its infancy ; and, from its present aq^ct, we fear that 
Blarney is not destined to become a permanent manufactaring 
town. 

' The new town, planned and bnilt by Mr. Jefferyes, was, in 
many respects, of a pleasing, though certainly not of an appro* 
priate character. The houses are, we believe, about ninety in 
number. The principal of these were formed into a squarei 
having a statue in the centre. The founder had travelled mndi, 
in the early p&rt of his life, and had imbibed a taste for oma* 
ments on domestic buildings, which he appUed to Uie decoration 
of these dwellings lor manufacturers. The consequence wae 
obvious : — such superfluous circumstances of embellishment were 
derided by the rich, and viewed with indifierence by the tenanis 
and the poor. Many of the dwellings are now dilapidated, and 
the area of the square, prematurely honoured with a statue, waA 
Utely under the operation of the plough or spade, and yellow in 
corn. 

Among the buildings erected by Mr. Jefferyes was « churchy 
of some elegance in design; but it i3 to be regretted that the 
materials and workmanship wore equally indifferent, and such as 
render it unlikely that the structure ivill prove of long duration.* 

* A carlo M iOBtaace of ardoir in coBiaeaciag aa vadortekUiffy wMwal 
perteveraace to canry It loto complete ellbctf It tlini noticed, at Blalrnef v 
by Mr. TowawDdy and Is meBtioned by that writer, as **. a wbiBMieal 
^psriaiea of the let ity of aatiogMl temper/' The town ttaadi a little to 



980 BSAUTIBi or IMBLAMD. 

Clotns^ the lee of a bisbop^ but otberwise a town of no great 
consideration, is sitoated on a gentle emineDce that rises from the 
•oathern yale of Imokilly, at the distance of about two miles from 
Cork harbour, towards the west. We are told that the bishopric 
of Cloyne was founded in the sixth century, by St. Cohnan, who 
was the disdple of St. Finbar, bishop of Cork. It is believed that 
an abbey was also founded here, in the year 707. But, notwith« 
standing these ecdesiastical foundations, the usual harbmgers of 
civic prosperity, it does not appear that Cloyne ever rose superior 
to the character of a large village. The Rt^geralds, seneschals of 
ImoUlly, had a residence here I audit is recorded that a skirmish 
took place near the town, between the seneschal and Sir Walter 
Raleigh, in which the last-named commander behaved with con* 
spicuous gallantry. 

The Cmtkedral is a small building, and acts, also, as the 
parochial church $ it has no tower, or Steele, of any kind. The 
early and simple modification of pointed architecture, of which 
the lancet arch is the prevailing characteristic, pervades the 
eastern and most antient part of the cathedral, with the exception 
of the large east window, which is in a more elaborate style of 
design. The simplicity of this division of the church is, how* 
•ver, not free ftx>m innovation. Ilie choir was repaired in 1776,* 

As northward of the castte, on the west tide of the riTer. To the east it a 
large and IotoI pUia* '* Thronfh this Mr. JeSTeryei had Intended to draw 
the coune of the river, chiefly, perhaps, with a view to improve the 
protpect from hli cattle. A handaome stone bridge was, accordingly, 
hnilt } bat the catting of a new channel, protracted from time to time 
daring the life of the andertaker, still remains to be done. Some years 
ago the place presented the carious spectacle of a river without a bridge, 
and a bridge without a river 1'* Survey , Ac. vol. ii. pp. 148-8. 

* The following discovery, connected with these repairs, is recorded 
by Sir R. Hoare* ** In erecting the present cross-wall, at the entrance of 
the choir, in 17Td, as the workmen dug deep in the nave, to lay the 
iMiadatloBy they discovered a row of graves, of a singular construction, 
consisting of brick cells, exactly salted to the sise and shape of the body 
contained in each y and one of them ended at the shoulders 1 nor were any 
•f the skull booos to be found with the body. It is, theiefors, not ivpro* 



[munstsr.] govntt of cobk. 9M 

midorthe fKrectfon of bishop Agar 3 moA, at thai ^e, Italian 
ornaments were injadidonsly blended with its more anstere 
lineaments. There are no monnmentSj of any high antiquity; 
bnt the following epitaph^ from the pen of the late Mrs. Pioizi, 
demands onr attention : — 

From this Tanlt ahall. 

At the iMt day, ascend 

The reanimated body of 

Soian Adams ! 

More fair, more lovely, and more excellent 

(Since with onr God all things are possible) 

Than when, at 18 years of age. 

She left a circle of admiring firiends. 

To seek the wreath bestowed 

On meekaesi, piety, and yirtne* 

WIdlst, by setting np this snbhmary token of remembrance, 

A moBsentary consolation has been lent 

To her aliicted mother. 

Jum; 1804. BB8TER LYNCH PIOZZI. 

The church yard is large^ and acquires a sednded and grate- 
fiil effect from numerous well-grown trees^ which were chiefly 
planted by Bishop Manle, abont the year 1730. Within the bonnds 
of this (Cemetery are the ruins of a small building, appearing to 
be of considerable antiquity^and locally called Si. Colman^sChapet. 

At a short distance from the church, towards the west^ is a 
fine and lofty ronnd, or pillar^ tower. The height of this tower, 
according to the historian Smith, is 93 feet, and the diameter 10 
feet* 

bable that the head of the owner nwy have been ized on Cork gates. In 
the times of tnrbnlenoe 1 aa they appear^ firom the print fiven ns of that 
clty» in the Paeofa JSHftamia, to be fall of these trophies.*' Sir R. Hoare, 
tKjfmd Cloyne M88. 

* The pillar-tower of Cloyne suHhred considerable damage from light* 
ning, in the night of the 10th of January, 1749. ^* A flash of lightning/' 
writes Dr. Smith, ** passed Irom Vest to east, in a direct line through 
this connty. In its progress it struelc the roand tower of the cathedral of 
Cloyne. It rent the Taulted arch at the top, tumbled down the bell and 
three lofts, and, passing perpendicularly to the internal floor, which Is 



(M9 BB4VTia6 JOP IJIftliilND. 

' The eptscofial resi^esce 19 a plttD> but^spacioos ttd retfitdft 
Me niaB4ion. The attached grounds are oxtenme^ and om* 
iaeoted with mueh wood« The plantations in these grounds nnite 
with those of the cathedral-yard^ in forming a pleiv^i^S ^esJaxt of 
this neighbourhood, from several points of observation. It mail 
be confessed that the town of Cloyne has little of the pictnresqoe 
in its composition ; bnt, when it stands displayed in a favourable 
position, its clnstering woods, surmounted by the stately shaft of 
the pillar-tower; bestow on it a degree of pictorial effect, that 
would not be expected when its component p^rtsare viewed singly. 
Smith, the historian of Cork, well remembered the days in 
which the celebrated Dr. Berkeley resided at the see-bouse of 
Cloyne ; and he thus mentions, with an interesting zeal of respect, 
the elegant taste displayed bj that good prelate and brilliant 
scholar, in this remote part of a country then more n^lected 
than at present. '^ Dr. Berkeley, when bishop of this see, suc- 
cessfully trans|>lanted tlfe polite arts, which before flourished only 
in a warmer soil, to this northern- climate. Painting and music 
are no longer strangers to Ireland, nor confined to Italy. In the 
episcopal palace of Cloyne, the eye was entertained with a great 
variety of good paintings, as well as the ear with concerts of 
Excellent ransic. There were here some pieces of the best mas- 
ters ; as a Magdalen by Rubens ; some heads by Vandyck and 
Knellter ; besides several good paintings, performed in the house.'* 
Dr. Smith concludes with remarking, that this example had the 

about eight feet higher than the outward fonndation, the protfude4 
column of air, or lightning, or both together, by the igneouf matter burst- 
ing, and expanding, and n«>t finding sufiieient room* vented itself by a 
vioieni e]ipl0tk»n» foreed its way through one aide- of the tower, and drove 
the stonei, which, were admirably well Joined, and locked iato each other* 
through the roof of an a^acent stable. The door, thoifgh secured* by a 
strong iron lock, was thrown above slaty yards distant, ioto the church- 
yard, and shattered to pieces 1 which passage for the air greatly eontfi* 
bated to the saving of the tower." Smith's Cork, vol. ii, p. p. 403-4.— 
After the demolition of the conical roof of the tower^ by this stroke of 
lightnings an cmbattlement, which still remains, was placed round the 
top* 



I. 



[1IUN8TBR.] COVNTY OF. €OBIC« SM 

keneficitl efiact of creatisg a spirit of emlation amotg flie^neigh- 
bonriog gentry.* 

We are happy to add Ike tribate of oor perional knowledge 
of the late amiable and eradite Dr. Bennett, to this oommeada-* 
tion of a taste for elegant pnrftuits evinced by the philosophio 
Berkeley. Dr. Bennett was eminent as a dassical scholaf, bnt 
was chiefly distiDgaisbed, independently of studies oonnedcM 
with his ecclesiastical duties, by an attachment to historical and 
antiquarian investigations^ and particalarly snch as related to the 
remains of the Romans in Britain. His deep researches, and 
sonnd jndgment, in this class of antiquities, are evinced in the 
contributions he afforded to the several county-histories which 
appeared in his time. His amiable qnalities^ as a divine and a 
gentleman, must be gratefully remembered by all who had the 
benefit and honour of his acqusjntaiice. We regret that the pre* 
carious state of this prelate^s health, united, probably, with the 
prevalence of long-cherished associations, in a mind peculiarly 
qualified for polite and firiei^ly intercourse, prevented his re^ 
aiding so much in his palace at Cloyne, as was desired by all 
classes within his diocess, that were capable of duly appreciating 
his worth. 

In this town is a charity-school, of considerable utility, 
founded by Bishop Crowe. 

In a part of the episcopal demesne, termed the Rock Mea« 
dow, which constkntes the most elevated part of Cloyne, is a 
very extensive cave, that probably imparted a name to the town ^ 
Vluaine signifying a cavern, in the Irish language. In this exca- 
vation a large arched passage runs, for some hundreds of yards, 
having four openings ; and there are several branches, in diffevent 
directions. There are, also, other caves, of great extent, in se^ 
veral parts of this neighbourhood.f 

• Contemporaiy with Bishop Berkeley, wai Dr* O'Brieo, R. C* 
Bishop of Cloync, author of an esteemed Irish^EnglUh Dietionaiy, printed 
at ParU» in 1768. 

f In an elegant work, recently publiihed (Researches in the south of 
Ireland, by T. Crofton Croker, Esq.) is an interesting afecount of the 



384 ■■ADTItl or IRILAND. 

The dioem of Cloyne lies entirely iritUn this county >~ Its 
extreme lengthj ea stated by Beanfcwt, is nearly 50 Irish mites ; 
ud its breadth ^miles^ Ute chapter consists of a dean; ch&n- 
e^or; treasurer; archdeacon; and fourteen prebendaries. The 
vardenship of (be church of Yooghal is nnited to this bishopric. 

We present a list of the bishops who have sat in tins see, 
rince the arrival of the English. 

Bishops or Glotmc. 

Succ. 

Matthew (died about 119S) 

Lawrence O'Sallivan (died 1S04) 

Daniel (died 1289) 

FlOTOTce 1«24 

Patrick 1«2C 

David Maj£dly (resigned 1838) 

aatbor** deiccnt Into a enve io thU neighboarhood, ciiUed Cttrrtg m 
crmay. Mr. Croker d«Kribet " the daiMnt m being dlflleuU, Ihrou^ a 
aamnr aad iMep ereries of the rock," After proeeediiig far tonoe dii* 
tanoa, tw extend •' a ebtuvber, oT coDildentUa iIMi tbe roof of wbieh 
■Mined lupported by a pondcrooi ■talactkal pillar. Abore appeucd 
floom; (aUcriei, nitb entrance* retenbUng rich golhic arcbwayt." Ano- 
ther part nf the eare " wm adorned with fewer ttalactUei, and wat lome- 
irhat circular in ihipe ; nearly in the centre, a (Ingle stitactical column 
aroaa, with an air of elegant lightneM, out of water, the cod] and iparicliDg 
appearanea of which »n be aMimllatcd only to liquid eryital. Having 
Mceeaded in anailng it, he aicandod a kind of terrace, lo •rasotb and 
leral ai almoit to appear artileial;" from which terrace four or fi»e pai- 
Mget (truck off, which were (iiU of deep water. — Reaearchet, Ac p. p. 
SSl-S. 

• Wben Smith wrote the hiitory of Cork, he could " And ao record, 

ralaOag to tba itat* of thii dloeew, farther hack than the year 166S ;" 

the title deed*, and other papen, belenginglothe tee being kwt, or de* 

atntyad In the ciril wan. A document, of loroe ute and curiotity, hai 

m ilnce accidentally foand, called PIpam Celmani, being a lift of the 

tatat and manon iKlanginr to this bithaprioi in 1364, conipoaed by 

ler of Bithop Swaffbam, Biihop Bennett collected many partlcnlan 

neemlng thit ne, which he beqneatbed to the rt^liti^, for tbe use of 



[jfUNgTBIk] eOUNTTOi: COtK. 39& 

I 

8#cc. 

Alan O'SnlliTan 1«40 

Daniel . ....... .V. - .............. ..... 1^4? 

Reginald 1265 

Alan O'Lonergan 1^74 

Nicolas de Effingliam 1284 . 

Maurice 0*SoiehaQ > ] 320 

• ••• ■ '• 

JoliB ^e Cumba 1335 

John Brid .••••«.,. .r • 4 ••• • - 

JoLaWhittock 1351 

* - * See f^aomti 4wo yeari, 

John de SwaffKam .......•.'.:.... 13G3 

Richard Wye . . . . ... . . . . . ., 137^ 

Gerald Canton .'. 1394 

Adam Pay (died 1430) 

Jordan..........:... \. 1431 

See united to. tkat of Cork for wpumrde. ^ftwo hMn^M gears. . * , 

Geoi^Synge* ....:. 1438 

t>Awatd Bynge <died 1676) : 

Patrick Sheridan. 1679 

. Edward Jones 16S2 

William Palliser . ■ 1692 

Tobiaa^ Pollen. 4 1694 

St. George Ashf 1^5 

» After the decease of tbis prelate la 1653, the see of Cloy ne Ttimnned 
vacant antil the reitoration of King Charles II. when Michael Boyle was 
advanced to it, in conjunction with the Sees of Cork and Ross. The vame 
three bishoprics were also* united In the person of Bdward Syage, anc*- 
cessor of Michael Boyle. Since the death of Bishop Synge (1678) Cloyoe > 
has nnlformly constitated a distinct see. 

f Dr. Ash had been provost and rice-chancellor of the wtiterslfy of ■ 
Dublin. He was translated from tfalv see to Clogfaer, and tfaenci^toDorry.* 
Stedfait in his attachment to the reformed religion, a^d to whig politlcn, 
ho quitted Ireland in the reign of James II. ; bnt retnrned, under the 
most flattering anspices of protection from the conrt, after the accession, 
of King WUliam HI. He was a fellow of Ae Royal Society, and a' 

TOL. II. c c 



SM BKAUTSSS OF IRBUtWD. 

S0CC9 

John Pooky, l!597 

Cliarles Ctoii^€*. . . . . • 17OT 

Henry Mftdle^ 172^ 

Edward Syage, 37St 

George Berketey.f ^7^^ 

James Stopferd, ••....••..•• 17^ 

Robert Johnsonf^ 1759 

Hon. Frederick Hcrvey, Earl of Bristol, . . 1767 

Charles Agar, 1768 

George Chinnery; 1780 

Richard Woodward, 1781 

William Bennett, 1794 

Cbabi^es KioBOAN Wabburton, • • 1820 

At the distance of abont one mile from Cloyne, towards the 
west, is Castlb-maby, a seat of the Longfield family. The 
demesne is extensive, and enriched by iine and renerable plant- 
ations. This p]|M» was formerly, called Carrig CotU, and CorV 
Rock, from the remains. of a cromlech , sHnated sew the house. 
The covering stone is abont twelve feet in length, and Is Bnpfiofted, 
at one end, to the height of six feet above the ground, by two 
stones of less dimensions. In the close vicinity is a smaller stone, 
supported in a slanting position by a single stose. J^r, Smith 

mathematician of c'oosiderable repute. His name is often mentioned with 
respect io the letters of Swift and Addison, with both of which writers lie 
was intimately acquainted. 

* Bishop Crowe expended considerable sums at Cloyne, in rebuildinf 
the episcopal residence^ and other improYoments. He» likewlse« recovered . 
for Ibis see the lands of Donougbraore, containing se?eral tbonsand acres. 

+ This celebrated prelate was a native of the county of Kilkenny, and 
ia our description of that district we notice the place at which it is supposed 
he was bpfrn. The talents as a writer, the enthusiastic benevolence, and 
the solid virtues of Dr« Berkeley have met with due illustration, from 
several biographical authors. For a memoir of this extraordinary person* 
peculiarly intelligent a^d elegant, we refer to Dr. Drake's ** Essays*; 
illastrative of the Tatler, SpecUtor," Ac. vol. ill. 



J 



[MVIftrSB.] COUNTY OP CORK. 587 

obseires tbat tliis cromlech wu called, in IrUh, Cari^ Croith, 
•r the Rock of the Sun; which appellation has been corrupted to 
Carig Cot. 

The seaport-town of Voughal, or Yououall^* is situated on 
the eastern coast of this county, at the distance of 2i miles from 

* Id the years 1706, 1797) and 1801, there took place, near the town 
of Yongbal, lome interestini^ recarrencet of the pbenoneBa which are 
produced by (he refleedon and refraction of the Imagei of terrestlal 
olyecti from fflbti and fogi, and which are best known nnder the Italian 
a|ipellat&Dn of fata mongana* We are induced to present an abridged 
account of a long article upon this subject, In a philosophical Jonmaly 
•specially as phenomena of this hind have been connected with the popular 
any thology and superstitions of Ireland. 

The first of these exhibitions was seen on the SI st of October, 1706». 
at about four o'clock in the afternoon, the sun shining clearly. Thero 
appeared, ou a hlli in the adjoining county of Waterford, a walled town, 
with well-defined houses, a round tower, and spired churck^.the Waterford 
hills being seen distinctly in the back-ground. In a short time the spire 
and round tower became capped with domes, and another tower became a ' 
broken turret; all the houses then became ruins, their fragments seeming 
to be scattered about, and in little more than an hoar the whele disappeared, 
the hill sinking to the level of the real field. 

On the dth of March, 17979 ^ about eight in the morning, a similar 
phenomenon was observed on the sea, to the south-west of the town* This, 
also, presented a hill supporting a walled town ; on one side were houses, 
and a castle in ruins; in the middle were two broken towers, on one of 
which was a flag flying; and between them and the castle were more houses 
in ruins ; the scene was terminated to the south by a round tower and walls. 
The hill was of a green and brown colour ; the buildings were purple and 
brown ; and the whole had a clear and brilliant appearance, like a trans- 
parent painting* How long it continued is not known. 

The most beautiful example of these splendid exhibitions of nature, 
described as occurring here, was seen at about five o'clock on a fino 
morning, in June, 1801. All the coast opposite the river of Toughal, on 
the Waterford side, being covered with a dense vapour, presented on the 
right, next the sea, the objects of an alpine region; in the back-ground 
were snow-capped mountains, while woods and a cultivated country 
appeared in front. The snow was presently seen to roll down the sides of 
the mountains into the subjacent valleys, and disclosed to view the grey 

C ct 



I 



1 



386 BBAUTIKS or ikBLANO. ' 

t&e city of Cork. Tbe'town is pla^e^ at the foot of a long and 
steep liHI, and consists of one street, about a mile in length', with 
several smaller streets branching from the chief line of thorough- 
fare.. The,gr^t commercial influence of Cork prevents Yonghal 
from becoming a place of any considerable ti'ade. From several 
favooring circamstances it is, hoWever, a tdWn' of much irespect- 
a)>ility. The antiquarian visiter will here find some gratification $ 
and many hiatorical recoU^ions add, in no mean a degrecj to the . 
interest of the town generally, as well as of partienlar buildiogs. 

Yonghal wiu under the protection of. the FltEgeralds>< at the- 
earliest p^od concerning which it is noticed in history; Maarice 
Fitzgerald founded a monastery here^ in 1994. Thomas, often ' 
called the Great Earl of Desmond, on account of the extent of his 
peaseonioaa, obtaiaed toi^ th« town a charter of incprporation,. in 
the second yebr of King Ed#aid' IV. . A eoUegiate church, and a 
•eoond monaHtie house, were, also, founded by this powerfid- 
iamily. It will be readily supposed, that a connexion with the 
fortunes of a noble race so turbulent in character, was unlikely 
to be productive of permanent prosperity. In 1579, the Earl of 
0esmond, then in rebeUion, laid siege to the town so long fostered' 
by his fiimilyi and, on the surrender of the place, he gave it 
up to indiscriminate plunder, not excepting even the religiona 
foundations. It was, for a short time, garrisoned, in favour of - 
the rebel earl, by his relative, the seneschal of Imokilly. In the 

•pecks it bad invested ; and, as the solar rays increased in power, Uie 
vapour disappeared with Its deceitful prospect. That which covered the 
river and a4jacent country to the left, exhibited a scene entirely different. 
It represented a country laid out in lawns and pleasure-bounds, in which 
were situated three gentlemens* seats, which were well-defined, and even - 
appeared in detail, with some of their windows open, and knockers on 
the doors. Before the houses Were clumps of fine forest trees; behind 
them were beautiful shrubberies, which were succeeded by forests of pines* 
and the view was closed by distant mountains. In about half an hour, two 
of the houses vanished, the clumps in front also disappearing, and a fine oak 
sprang up; which, upon the rarefaction of the vapour by the augmenting 
activity of the sun, was the last to fade away of all the constituents of this 
aerial picture. Abridged from Beauford: Philos.Mag. vol. xiii. p. 336. 



[UUN^TKR.] COUNTY OF CORK. 389 

confasion of the plunder all the inhabitants^ save one poor friar 
alone, had fled from the town ; and the senesehal was soon and^r 
the necessity of relinquishing the place, throogh a want of pro- 
Tisions. It was then garrisoned by the Earl of Ormonde ; and 
Copplnger, the mayor, who had surrendered to Desmond^ was 
hanged at his own door. 

In 1582, the seneschal of Imokilly endeavoured to regab this 
place, and succeeded in scaliag the walla, but was ultimately 

.repulsed, with the loss of fifty of his followers. 

Richard, first Earl of Cork, chose Youghal for his quarters^ ItL 

. the dvil wars which commenced in 1641 ; or, in the language used 
to the public, was appointed by government to preserve this town 
from the enemy j for which service he had an assignment of oaei 
thousand foot and sixty horse. In a letter to Lord Goring, he 
cottiplains of being weak and infirm when he entered on this dutyj 
and he died here, in September, 1643. • An army^ in the Irish 

> interest, under the command of the Earl of CastlehaveUi lay-before 

.Youghal for nearly ten weeks, in 1645; but the assulants were 
i|ot prepared for a regular siege, and they retired ,on succour 
arriving to the town from Lord BroghilU It was here that Oliver 
Cromwell concluded his terrific progress through Ireland. The 

' pl^ce yielded to him without any effort at resisti^nce, and he 

•embarked from this port for England. 

This was a walled town, . and considerable remuns of the 

. walls, and the, towers by which they were strengthenectj, are still 
to be seen, although in a ruinous condition.* These. are chiefly 
found as lines of boundary to, ^tbe gardens, of some booses of, a 
supuenor descripti(ui, built on ithe rise of the bill. It has bees 
noticed^ as a proof of the mildness of climate on this part of the 
coast, that the myrtle grows with great luxuriance in these gar- 
dens, and, in some instances, attuns the' height of twenty feet. 

. * Graato to the corporation, for (he repair of the walls, were made 

io the reif Oft of Heary VII, Elizabeth, aad Jamei I. li would appear, 

-irom some obeervaUoDi of Dr. Smith, that repairs were also effected in 

• ihe early part of the eighteenth century. The wall, en the west side, 

ranged aloag tberhillf and extended to (he whole aatieat length of tho 

town« 



390 BCAUtlBS OF IRKtAND. 

Yoiighdl will be viewed with warm feelings of interest^ by 
most visiters^ as the town in which Sir Walter Raleigh occasioir- 
Mj resided. It will be recollected that this bright ornament of 
the age in ti^hich he ffourished^ and eminent contributor to the 
comforts of his country, was actively engaged in the Irish wars 
under Elizabeth. From the transactions of those sanguinary wars, 

* * * 

few names have escaped unsullied ; and it is actnowledged, by hit 
most zealous advocates, that Raleigh was a ready instrument of 
the vengeful spirit tha't was then abroad, and whicfr appeared to 
have rendered men, of all parties, callous to human suffering, in 
whatever form it stood presented, if within the sphere of military 
action. Considerable estates in Ireland constituted his share of 
the spoil ;* which, in the exigencies attendant on an outfit for 
his foreign adventures, he sold, for a sum compacratively small^ 
to the sagacious and thrifty Richard, first Earl of Cork. The 
house in which Sir Walter is said to have resided, when at Youg* 
hal, is still standing, and in good preservation. It adjoins the 
church-yard, and is at present in the occupation of Sir Christo- 
pher Musgrave. It is a mansion of long and low proportions, 
not remarkable either for beauty or peculiarity of architectnre. 
Several of the apartments are of rather spacious dimensions, and 
finished with oaken panels, and large chimney-pieces, well 
carved. In a garden attached to this residence, it is believed that 
Raleigh planted the first potatoes grown in Ireland. According 
to a current tradition, the man intrusted with the care of the 
garden, in the absence of Sir Walter, supposed that the apple, 
or seed, was the esculent part of the novel production ; and, 
finding the taste unpleasant, bestowed no further thought on the 
plantation, until, upon digging the ground for some other crop, 
the root was found to yield a wholesome and palatable species of 

* The estates obtained by Sir W. Raleigh formed part of tlio forfeited 
property of the Earl of Desmond, and coniisted of three seignories and a 
half, in the counties of Cork and Waterford. Among these estates were 
the manors of Ballynatra; Strancallie ; Lysfinneen i Mogeyley i Shean^} 
and Lismore. Also the town of Tallow, and the Abbey of Molana. This 
large property he sold to the Earl of Corkf for the sum of 1500^ 



i 



[MirysTsn.] comrrY or oomK. 391 

food J of more importaiioeto the fotiire ooodhioii of Ireland tiiaii 
all the political echemes, wars, and eacroaching settlemeatSj of 
<)Qeeii Elizabeth, her coaaeeliora and armies.* 

The name of Sir Walter RaUigh oocors as mayor of Yooghal, 
for the year 1588. He sailed from the harbour of Cork» on his 
last Toyage of discovery, Aogost 6th, 1617, and some carions 
partkmlars concerning his departvre are prints in Smith's History 
of Cork, on the aotherity of certain manuscripts, said to* have 
been the» existing in the Castle of Lismore. 

The Pwochud Chmtek of Yooghal was formerly the chnidi of 
ftcoUq^iate institotion, fonnded in 1464, by Thomas, Earl of 
Diesmoiid, for a warden, eight fidlows> and the. same number, of 
choristers ; which establishment was endowed with several l)e&e- 
fices, and a considerable landed estate. After passing throogfa 
many hands, saiiseqnent to the dissolution, the* greater part of 
the property belongiog to this coHege was finally obtuned by Sir 
Kchard Boyle, afterwards first Earl of Cork« . The wardenahip, 
with the tithes* of Yoaghal parish, and three hundred acres of 

* Dr. Campbell (Polit Ssrrey, vol. 1. p. 9&) asserU tkat Sir W. 
Raleigh first planted the potatoe in Ireland, A. D. 1610. But an exami- 
nation into the leadinif.ocearrences in the life of Raleish, will show that 
this assertion mast be founded on error. In 1603, he was tried for high- 
treason; and, on conTictioa, was confided tb the Tower of lAoddotffor 
fonrtoen years. It was in' 1586, that he obtained the grant of Ihreo 
seignories and a half of land, as mentioned in our previous note | and ho 
appears^to have resided at Toaghal in years near that date, as we find 
him serving the office of Mayor in 158S. It will, therefore, bo proper (o 
ascribe the introdaction of the potatoe to about the same period } a time 
at which he was tranquilly living in Ireland, probably engrossed by 
schemes for the improvement of the vast extent of land he had recently ac- 
quired in tbisconatry . Itis well known that two kinds of potatoeare notlcod 
In Gerard's Herbal (date 1597) one of which ho torms the Vhrginian 
potatoe, and describes in terms strictly applicable to the potetoe now la 
common use. It is said that Spanish Potatoes were planted in Ireland, 

I 

so early as 1565, by the navigator Hawkins, who brought them from 
Santa Fe. We leave to statistical writers a discussion of the ve^y prdble- 
aHatlcal question, as to whether the use of potatoes, for the sole food of a 
popolation, be condsclve to the prosperity of a country, or otherwise. 



^' 



M2 BBA.IJTIB« OF ULMhMXD, 

laiid anheiedy ib now in tlie gift of the crowQj and baa boeo united 
to the bishopric of Cloyne since the time of Charles L Some 
domestic parts of the collegiate buildiDgs \t'ere repaired^ and 
altered as a dwelling honse, for the first Earl of Cork^ bot were 
alienated by his family^ many years back. 

' The Charch is % spacious building, in the pointed style of 
architecture. The parts used for divine worship, or as places of 
family bnrial, are in a good state of preservation ; bat the antient 
chancel has been, for many years, in a decayed and .roofless 
condition, and is now separated from the body of the fabric by a 
wall, which runs accoss the churdi, and meets the eastern sides 
of the transepts. There are two side-usles, which are divided 
from the nave by rows of pointed arches^ resting on massive 
piers. 

The laq^e eastern window of the ruinous chancel presents the 
finest architectural feature of the church buildings. The lower 
.part of tikis window is now built up, but the original graceful 
proportions are appareiit. The lights were divided by stone 
nmllioos, and the head is filled with tracery, of pleasing but not 
elaborate involutions. Placed centrally in the upper compartment. 
Is the figure of a St. Catherine's wheel. 

The southern transept was formerly a chantry, dedicated tor 
the Blessed Saviour. In the year 1606, it was purchased, of the 
mayor and corporation, by the Earl of Cork, and was repaired 
by that nobleman^ as a mortuary chapel, or tomb-house, /or 
himself and fismily. Here, .in his life-time, he erected a goigeona 
monument,' loaded with effigies and escutcheons, and illustrated 
by inscriptions, so copious and explicit, that the monument may 
be truly said to present heraldic and genealogical memoirs of the 
founder and his family. The taste in which it is executed cannot 
be commended \ but a redundancy of decoration, rendered pro- 
minent by gold leaf and gsindy painting, was an error of the times, 
from which few costly monuments of Lord Cork's s^ra are entirely 
exempt. We present, in a note, a brief account of this monument, 
and are indebted for most of the particulars there aiibrded, to the 
full description published by Dr. Smith. The chi^l in which it 



[munstbr.] county of coek. 399 

18 pieced is kept closely locked^ and is not opened, for the 
inspection of the curious^ unless by especial permissioa.* 

• The architeotnral parts of the moirameBt are chie6y composed of 
ttiarble^ and the figures are of alabaster. The principal figure represented 
is the effigy of Sir Richard Boyle, Knt Baron Boyle of Yoaghal, 
Yiscoant Dungarvan, and Earl of Cork. He is figured in armonr, lying on 
his left side, his head being supported l)y his left hand. Below are 
represented nine of his children, with the dates of their births on the 
pedestals. Among numerdns inscriptions, on different parts of the 
monument, we copy the following, which relate immediately to the first 
Earl of Cork and his children : 

*^ Richard, Earl of Cork, married two wives, thq, first Joan, one of 
the two daughters and coheiresses of William Apsly, Esq. who died in 
travail of her first child, which did not survive her. The second wife was 
Katherine, the only daughter of Sir Oeoffry Fenton, Knt. secretary of 
state in Ireland, by whom he had issue, seven sons and eight daughters.^ 

On the right side, issuing from the above inscription, in the manner 
of a genealogical table, are the following memorials : 

'^ Sir Richard Boyle, Knt. son and heir apparent of Richard, Earl of 
Cork, married Elisabeth, eldest of the two daughters and co-heiresses of 
Henry, Lord Clifibrd, Earl of Cumberland, and haih issue. 

'' Sir Lewis Boyle, Knt Lord Boyle, Baron of Bandon-Bridge, and 
Lord Viscount Boyle of Kinalmeaky, second son of Richard, Earl of 
Cork, married the lady Elizabeth, daughter of Sir W. Fielding, Knt. Lord 
Baron of Newenham Padox, Viscount Fielding, and Earl of Denbigh. 
91ain in the battle of Liscarrol, Sept Srd, 1642. 

<< Sir Roger Boyle, Knt. Lord Boyle, BaronofBroghill, third son of 
Richard, Earl of Cork, married the lady Margaret, daughter of Theo- 
philus. Lord Howard of Waiden, Earl of Suffolk. 

** Francis Boyle, Esq. fourth son of Richard, Earl of Cork, married 
Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Robert Killigrew,. Knt late vice-chamberlain 
to Mary, Qneen of England. 

*^ Robert Boyle, Esq. fifth son of Richard, Earl of Cork. 

'< Roger Boyle, eldest son of Richard, Earl of Cork, being a scholar at 
Peptford, in Kent, died there, the 10th of October, 1615, and lies there 
intombed* 

« Oeoffry Boyle, third son of Richard, Earl of Cork, died young, on 
theaothofjannary, 1616, and lieth here intombed."t 

To each of the above inscriptions are escutcheons (those of the married 
sons impaled with the arms of their ladies) with proper differences for 

t Ocol^ Boyle vasic€kle&tsIl3r4ro«iiedtetttColllgs-ir«lI,lAtkU«9wa. 



I 



^^ 



594 BBAI7T1M or IBBLAND. 

When Lord Cork purchased the south transq;>t as a family 
burial-place^ it was coyenaated that be shonhi not molest any 
aotient intermeDts, or monoments, of which there are several in 
this chapel. One ioscription, uDcoanected with the Boyles, is 
now partly hidden by a walT, bot tfte lines still fegftle are worthy 
of transcription^ if only as a remarkable instance of infelicity in 
arrangeipeBt. The epitaph appears to be designed for Sir Edward 
Villers, lord president of Mnnsterj who died in 1626, 

Mnnster may cone the time that Villen came,. 
To make vs wone^— — by leaving such a name 
Of ftoble parts^ as none can imitate, 
But those whose hearts are married to the state/ 
Bat, if they press to imitate his fame. 
Monster may bless the time that Villers came. 

In the flooring of ther north transept and the nave^ are many 
monumental stones, of considerable antiquity. Several of these 

the several sons. On the left band are the inscriptions copfed beneath, 
with the several coats of arms of the earl's daughters, impali^d witii the 
bearings of their husbands : 

<' David, Lord Barry, Lord Visconnt Bdtlevant, €rftt Earl of Barry- 
more, married the lady Alice Boyle, first daughter of Richard, Earl of 
Cork. 

** Robert, Lord Bigby, BaroU of Oeashill, married the lady Sarah 
Boyle, second danghter of Richard, Earl of Cork, being then the widow 
of Sir Thomas Moore, Knt son and heir to Garret, Lord Moore» Lord 
Viscount of Brogheda. 

<' Colonel George Goring, son and heir to Sir George Godiiu, Kat Lord 
Baron Goring, ofHurst-Pierpoint, married the lady Letfle^jpoyle, ^Ird 
daughter of Richard, EarlofCoriu 

** George FItEgerald, Earl of Klldare, married tiie lady Joan Boyle, 
fonrth daughter of Richard, Eari of Coric. 

** Arthur Jones, Esq. son and heir of Sir Roger Jones, Knt Lord Vis- 
coont Ranelagh, married tiie lady Katherine Boyle, fiflh danghter of 
Richard, EarlofCoi^ 

** Sir Arthur Lofbus, Knt. son and heir of Sir Adam Loftns, Knt vice- 
treasurer, and treasurer at wars, in Ireland, married the lady Dorothy 
Boyle, sixth daughter of Richard, Earl of Cork. 

** Charles Rich, Esq. second son of Robert Lord Rich, of Leeie, Earl of 




r 



[munster.] county or cobk. d9f» 

are enriched with ornamented croeses ; and there are two recnm- 
betit figures, now separated from the tombs to which they formerly 
belonged. There are, alsb, some remains of antient monnments 
among the ruins of the chancel. 

Two religions houses were founded in this town ; one being 
placed near its northern^ and the other near its sonthern extremity. 

Towards the north stood the DommkaH Friary, called the 
Friary of Si, Mary of Thanks ; which was founded, about the 
year 1^68, by Thomas Fitzgerald, nicknamed Nappagh, Shniaem$, 
or the Ape.* General chapters of the order were held bere^ in 
the years 1281, and 1304. The founder was buried in the church 
of this friary, either in 1 296, or 1298; Some unimportant rem«tts 
of the buildings are still in existence. 

On the south stood a Monastery for Franciscans, founded in 
1924, by Maurice Fitzgerald, twice lord justice of Ireland, The 
cause of the foundation is traditionally attributed to the following 
romantic ch-cumstancc^-Maurice was about to erect a castle oa 
this site, and the workmen, who were employed in digging the 
foundation, begged, on the eve of some festival, a piece of money, 
to be spent in drinking to the welfare of the new undertaking. 
He directed his eldest son Jto grant their request, but the son, 
instead of so doing, abused the workmen. Maurice, says this idle 

Warwick, married the lady Mary Boyle, seventh daughter of Richard, 
Earl of Cork.'* 

In the upper part of the monument is the effigy of the Earl of Cork's 
mother, Joan Naylor, lying on her left side, her arm leaning on a bible. 
At the head and feet of the principal statue are effigies of the cart's two 
wives, both represented in the attitude of prayer. 

* Thomas Fitzgerald is said to have derived this sobriqaet from the 
following circumstance* When he was about nine months old, an apot 
which was kept in his Other's family, took him from the cradle, and 
ascended with him to the top of the castle, or, according to some traditions, 
of the friary, of Tralee ; and, after playmg with him there for some time, 
safely descended, and restored him to the cradle. The Fitxgeralds of the 
house of Lelnster, as principal and immediate descendants of this Thomas 
the ape, bear monkeys for their supporters and crest, in gratefal reAem« 
brance of his prtservatioa. 



396 BXAUTiEs or zbsland. 

tradition, was bo greatly coDcerjoed, or disheartened, by such air 
impediment to the good wishes of the work-people, that he altered 
his design, and founded a monastery where he had intended to erect 
a castle ! It is more certain that the pious founder experienced 
disappointments in the service of King Henry III. ; and assumed 
the habit of St. Francis. He died in this monastery, on the 5!0tli 
of May, 1257, ^d was here buried. 

This was the earliest foandation in Ireland for the order of St. 
Francis, and several provincial chapters of that order were held at 
Youghal. The buildings were completed by Thomas, the second 
son of the founder, who was also buried within these walls i as 
were several other noblemen of the house of Desmond. No traces 
of the structure are now remaining. 

An almshouse and a free-school were founded here by Richard, 
Earl of Cork. An almshouse, for six poor widows, was alsa 
fopnded by Mr. Maurice RonayQe, The trade of Youghal is nearly 
confined to the coasting business. Good bricks^ and earthenware 
of a coarse quality, have long been made here, and sent, in con- 
siderable quantities, to Cork. 

Youghal is noticed by Smith, writing near the middle of the 
last century, as an eli^ble place for the retirement of persons 
having confined incomes } and it still continues to hold forth the 
inducement of a comparative cheapness in provisions. We may- 
add, that, whilst it is thus favourable to economy, it likewise 
forms a very agreeable place of residence. Many of the houses 
are good, and are respectably occupied. In the summer and 
autumnal months, numerous visitants, for the purpose of sea- 
bathing, impart a pleasing air of fashion and animation to the town. 
«— The harbour is sufficiently spacious, but a bar at its entrance 
' denies admission to vessels of kqge burthen. The river Black- 
water here ent^s the ocean. Beyond the harbour is an extensive 
bay, with a fine beach of smooth sand,- forming a very desirable 
place of exercise and amusement. 

Youghal is governed by a mayor, burgesses, and commonalty, 
wlio act under a charter granted by James I. It sends one 
member to the imperial parliament, and gives the title of b9nm$ in 



[UUMSTBR.] COUNTY OP CORK. 397 

the Irish peerage^ to the family of Boyle^ Earl of Cork and 
Orrery. 

We cannot conclude onr notice of this town^ without some 
cursory remarks on the character, and singular prosperity, of 
Richard Boyle, first Earl'of Cork, whose costly tomb we have 
mentioned iu onr description of the collegiate church. This 
nobleman was the second son of Mr. Roger Boyle, who was 
descended of a Herefordshire family, but who lived, in circum- 
stances of no great • affluence, near Feversfaam, in Kent. The 
son Richard became a student in the Middle Temple ; but *^ finding 
his means unable to support him at the Inns of Court,** he entered 
the service of Sir Richard Manwood, lord chief baron of the 
exchequer, as one of his clerks. Perceiving, to use his own 
words, '' that this employment would not raise a fortune," he 
repaired to Ireland, then the scene of enterprize with many 
Englishmen, who had more courage and talent, than property^ or 
prospect of success, in their native country. He arrived at 
Dublin on the 23rd of June, 15d8 j at which time his whole 
ivealth consisted of £^7« 3«* in money ; two tokens given 
him by his mother^ namely, a diamond ring and a bracelet of 
gold 3 his wearing apparel ; and his rapier and dagger. The 
lera was propitious to adventure, but he quickly found that more, 
for his personal advantage, was to be done by politic schemes, 
and cool speculation, than by the rapier and dagger, in a country 
torn by faction, and in which defeat was invariably followed by 
forfeiture, * 

The manner in which. an adventurer, so destitute of connex- 
ions in his own country, and possessing no more than ^9,7 : 3«. 
and his rapier and dagger, when he landed in. Ireland j could, 
without a profession, amass a fortune so large as that of the Earl 
of Cork, is one of the wonders of the times in which he flourished. 
He has left, written by himself, what he terms his true remem- 
branca, or some account of his life, up to the year 1633. From 
this account we find that he acquired with his first wife, who 
died shortly after her marriage^ an estate of £500 per annum } bat 
this slender, though carious, piece of auto-biography, throws 



398 BBAVTIBi OP IRXLANP* 

little light OB the netofl by wbkh bo obtained any other partf 
of his great fortune. By certain law-officers^ and officers of 
state^ in Ireland^ be was accused to Queen Elizabeth of having 
** used the purse of some foreign prince to supply him with 
money.*' But this accusation was not made good ; and we are, 
therefore, in justice, to suppose that the suspicion arose merely 
from the very natural surprise, generally expressed, that a man, 
apparently without resources, should be enabled to make purchases 
so extensive.* 

After his triumphant justification of himself against jthis 
serious charge, employments of state, and titles of honour, fell 
thickly upon him. In 1G16, he was created Lord Boyle, baron 
ofYoughall; and in 1620, Viscount Dungarvan, and Earl of 
Cork. His great estates in this county will be noticed in several 
future pages. We have already adverted to the numerous manors 
purchased by him, for the sum of jCISOO, of the ill-fated Sir 
Walter Raleigh, His activity in the defence of his large terri- 
tories, like most efibrts at individual benefit, assuredly proved of 
service to the public cause. The improvements he effected, at 
his different towns, would have been equally valuable in them-' 
selves, and useful as examples, if they had not been made in a 
spirit of intolerance, as regarded religious opinions, that was 
discreditable. to him as a man, and was chiefly calculated to foment 
fresh wars and new forfeitures. For a part of the success with 
which he maintained his great power, and acquired, indeed, a 
continuous augmentation of political and personal consequence, be 
was indebted to a circumstance that would have oppressed him, 
if confined to the humble sphere of life in which he commenced 
bis career ; — that of having a numerous family. His sons were 
chiefly of a martial character, well suited to the temper of the 
times ; and we have seen, from his monumental inscriptions, that 
his daughters strengthened the roots of his prosperity, by mar- 

* In a letter to the Earl of Warwick, Lord Cork suitei, that, prior ta 
tile breakinif oat of the rebeliion in 1641, his revenue " beiideshis boatet» 
deBMtaet, parks, and other royalties," yielded him iSSO a day rent. 



[ituiftTm.1 conmnr ov ceuc. 399 

rying into noble and powerftil h<mses. His fifth bod^ Robert 
Boyle, 18 the favosrite of posterity, as an experimental philo- 
aopber of the highest class ; and many descendants of this 
'' great eari*' have reflected lostre on the peerage. 

The Earl of Cork had formerly an extensive park, in the 
pacish of Ardagh, at the distance of about three miles from 
Yonghal 4 bnt the land was disparked nearly a centnry ago. The 
principal proprietors in this neighbonrhood, at the present time, 
are the Dake of Devonshire, who enjoys a great part of the 
Burlington estate^ the Earl of Shannon; and Lord Ponsonby. 

At KiLLKiOH,* a small village, distant four miles from 
Youghal, towards the north-west, an abbey was founded by Sf. 
Abban, who died A.D. 650. Idttle is known concerning the 
history of this institution, but we are told that the first abbess, 
appointed by the founder, was ** the holy virgin," St. Conchenna. 
In the neighbourhood of this village \z Mtmnt-Uniacke, the seat 
of the elder branch of the Uniacke family. Several other mem- 
bers of this respectable family have, likewise, seats in this part 
of the county. 

. CASTLsafABTTn IS a neat and very agreeable town, or rather 
village, situated on the road between Cork and Yonghal, at the 
distance of xather more than eight miles from the latter. The name 
of this place was formerly Ballymartyr, and it is said to have 
been also called Lepers' ^toum, from an hospital in its vicinity for 
persons afflicted with leprosy, a disease once dreadfully prevalent 
in most parts of Munster. The Fitzgeralds, seneschals of 
Imoki]ly,t were seated for many ages at this town« It afterwards 

* It may be scarcely wortby of notice, but still may be neatioaed, 
tbat the precocious scholar, and pleasing poet, Dermody, was placed for 
two years in this Tillage, under the care and tuition of the Rev« Hugh 
Boyd. The residence of genius iroparis so powerful a charm to a rural 
neighbourhood, that a recollection of this circumstance may chance to call 
up some grateful associations, in the mind of the traveller or visiter. 

f James, Earl of I>esmond, was constituted, for life, in the year 1480, 
seneschal of the baronies of Imokilly and Inchiqnin, and the town of 



400 BBAITTIES or IRBLAKD. 

became the property and residence of a junior brancli of the enno- 
bled family of Boyle^ in which it is still vested. Many parts of 
the town and estate afford memorials of the distingtii:$hed Roger, 
Lord Broghill, first Earl of Orrery. In the year 166S, the towa 
was intorporated^ through the interest of that nobleman^ who 
erected it into a borongh, with the nomination of the chief ma- 
gistrate, recorder, town-clerk, clerk of the market, aad other 
officers, to him and his heirs for ever, together with the privil^e 
of sending two members to the Irish parliament. He, also, founded 
almshonses for six poor men and the same number of women. 
There is a charter-school, built in 1748, on ground given for 
that purpose by the Right Hon. Henry Boyle^ afterwards Earl of 
Shannon. This place has' not returned members to parliament 
since the Union. It gives the title of baron, in the peerage of 
Ireland, to the family of Boyle, Earl of Shannon. 

Although provision was made by the Earl of Orrery for the 
continuous exercise of corporate franchises, Castlemartyr has 
never risen superior to the character of a village ; but, in the 
attractions proceeding from a neat preservation of buildings, and 
general respectability of character, it is not exceeded by any 
village, or rural town, in the province of Mnnster. 

In the immediate vicinity of the village, but screened from 

it by thick plantations, is the fine demesne of the Earl of Shannon. 

The buildings on this noble territory consist of some vestiges of 

the antient castle, and a contiguous large but irregular mansion; 

built at different times, and evincing little heauty on the exterior. 

The remains of the castle are now completely enveloped in 

ivy, and other foliage. This structure was founded by the 

de Carews, and afterwards constituted, as we have observed 

above, the fortified dwelling of the FUzgeraldti, senesdtials of 

Imokilly. The modern oHuiaion was partly erected by tiie fint 

Lord Orrery, but was greatly enlarged in the middle y^rs of the 

* • 
Youghal, by tke Earl of Oraiond« l«rd Uealenaat of Ireland, . A Immdi 
of the FUsgeraldi, seated at Castlemartyr, suceenively aMumed the IkOn 
of seBeachal, on the authority of this grant to the Earl of DeMODd. 
Saith, vol. i. p. 125, &c. 



[MUNSTBIt.] COUNTY OF CORK* 40l 

eigfateeiith century, by the rigibt hon. Henry Doyle^ speaker of 
the Irish house of commons, created, in 1756, Earl of Sbannon, 
Viscount Boyle, of Bandon, and Baron Ctuiletnartyr, 

The history of this castle and mansion implicates many cir* 
comstaaces, far from being devoid of interest. We pass over the 
torbulent events connected with the times of the Fitzgwalds ; 
but the attention is unavoidably arrested, when we view this as 
the occasional residence, and^ast retirement of the first Earl of 
Orrery. The name of this nobleman appears so frequently in our 
work, that we need scarcely remind the reader he was third son 
of Richard Boyle, the Arst Earl of Cork. As Lord Broghill, and 
acting under the advice and excitement of his crafty and grasping 
father, we see him displaying^ martial qualities oi a brilliant cha- 
racter, sullied by a severity, capable of no other palliation than 
that of being the common vice of the age in which he bore 
command. We know not whether the great prevalence of dis- 
simnktion, among the public men of that factions period, may be 
named as a sufficient apology for Che adoption of many crooked 
measures in the prosecution of his undertakings. A spirit of 
religious proscription had been exercised by the father, probably 
from motives of worldly policy: it was as a profitable mantle, which 
the son caught, and he throve by it. 

Variety is the excellence of Lord Orrery's biography, as 
regards the consideration of it in a literary point of view.. 
Ameliorating in character with the times, we behold him, in 
the declining years of life, engaged in poetical and dramatic 
composition, to assuage, here by his blazing hearth at Castle- 
martyr, the pains of gout and other gathering diseases. His 
metrical tragedies of '* the Black PMUce," and " Henry V.," 
were much praised at the time of their appearance, but have long 
since lost their celebrity. The unfinished romance of '' Parthe- 
nissa** was, at least, an inoffensive employment for the soldier 
divested by age of his once appalling ferocity. His time^ in the 
last years of his life, was chiefly devoted to literary composition, 
at this place or at Charleville 3 and he died here, on the 16th of 
October, 1 679, in the 59th year of his age. 

VOL. II. D o 



40^ BKAUTIRS OF IRELAND. 

Lord Orrery was succeeded at Castlemartyr by his second sod, 
the hon. Henry Boyle, whose sod, captaia Henry Boyle, was 
besieged at this place by a force uDder general Mac Carty, in 
February, 1688. The enemy were provided with two field- 
pieces 5 %ind captain Boyle, although be had collected 140 gentle* 
men and servants for his defence, was induced to surrender the 
castle, on the general's promise that neither person nor estate 
should suffer injury. In violation of this contract, the house was 
plundered, and the castle dismantled. Henry, the son of captain 
Boyle, was a statesman of much activity and distinction, and, as 
we have already observed, was created Earl of Shannon in 1756. 
1*0 this nobleman the house and grounds are indebted for the prin- 
cipal features, in their present modes of disposal. The mannon, 
although irregular and destitute of external ornament, possesses 
several spacious and fine apartments. The drawing-room is. Id 
dimensions, a double cube of 2S feet, being 50 long, 35 broad, 
and ^5 high. The dining-room is 32 feet in length, by 29 in width. 

The attached grounds are very extensive.^ They present no 
bold or grand scenery, but abound in combinations of beauty more 
generally attractive. The surface is agreeably diversified by 
gentle undulations, and the whole demesne is particularly rich in 
wood, often of a noble growth. A canal, of great extent, formed 
by the first Barl of Shannon, encompasses the principal parts of 
the grounds, and spreads, in some places, to a width emulating 
the character of a lake, whilst in others it glides through masses 
of wood, in graceful meanders. On the banks of the canal, in 
the vicinity of the mansion, is a considerable length of gravelled 
walk, edged with plantations 5 and many other walks and rides^ 

* Mr. Tovrnsend statei *'*' the w^le of the gronads in hit lordihip*B 
hands to anooot to ISOO acres, a demesne of immense value* when it is con- 
sidered that a very large proportion of it is rich arable, meadow, or pasture, 
and that all which is not, bears a crop of almost incalculable worth in this 
country at present, timber. Of the demesne, properly so called, and 
consisting of BOO acres, 60 to 80 are generally under tillage, 80 to lOO 
under meadow, 300 in wood, water, and pleasure grounds, and the 
remainder in pasture.'* Agricultural Survey, vol. ii. p. 104. 



[munstrb.] county or cork. iOS 

of the same description, lead tbrongh differeat parts of the 
demesne. The whole of the pleasarc-groond is highly dressed, 
and preserved with extreme care. On the north side of the 
town is the Deer-park, consistittg of abont 400 acres, well 
stocked with red and &llow deer. Some points of scenery in 
this fine park are more bold and romantic than any presented in 
the home-gronnds, and it is enriched by mnch wood^ of luxnriant 
beauty. The gardens are on an extensive scale ; and in these, 
and the spacious conservatories, are many rare and estimable 
plants and Oowers. 

MiDLRTOK is sitaated tJiufiMy between Cork and Youghal. 
This town consists of one long street, which extends from north 
to south, and terminates, in both directions, with a bridge. The 
domestic buildings are in general good, and the town wears an 
inviting air of neatness and respectability. The antient name of 
this place was Ca9ire*ni*ekara ; the Castle of the Ford. An abbey 
was founded here, under the name of the A6^ of Si. Mary of 
Chore, in the year 1180, either by the Fitzgeralds or Barrys. 
Independent of this foundation, the town appears to have attracted 
little notice, until Sir St. John Brodrick, who had entered Ireland 
in the sanguinary year 1641, fixed his seat here. It is recorded 
by Lodge, that, in 1670, *^ the castles, towns, and lands of Castk- 
redmond^ Corrabby, and divers others in the baronies of Barrymore, 
Fermoy, and Orrery, were erected into the manor of Midleton,*' 
and granted to Sir St. J. Brodrick, ** with power to set apart 800 
acres for demesne, and to impark 800 more." Castle-redmond 
and Corrabby were, at the same time, made a free borough and 
corporation, under the name of Midleton, the privileges of which 
were to extend over 100 acres, lying every way round the middle 
of the town. The church, and much the greater part of the town, 
were rebuilt, about the time of this grant, under the auspices of 
the Brodrick family. 

The Church is a neat and commodioas building. In the attached 
burial-yard is a place of sepulture belonging to a branch of the 
Brodrick family. 



404 BEAUT IRS OF tHV.IsASO, 

Here is a free^school^ once of some eminence, founded aocl 
endowed, in 1709, by Lady Elizabeth ViUiers, who was maid of 
honour to Queen Mary, when Princess of Orange, and was after- 
wards married to Lord George Hamilton, created Earl of Orkney. 
The buildings were erected by this lady, at a considerable expense. 
The master has a salary of gSiOOper annum; and, according to 
the terms of foundation^ the sum of fifty pounds is to be annually 
distributed, in exhibitions to scholars of this house, entered at 
Trinity College, Dublin. At this school John Fhilpot Curran 
passed some time^ and here, to use his own language, '' his young 
capacity received the first stimulus of effective advancement, to 
which he was indebted for all his better fortune in life.*' 

The Market-house is a useful and substantial fabric, and the 
markets are well supplied with provisions. An Infirmary and 
Dispensary, on a liberal scale, and judiciously conducted, are 
recent institutions highly creditable to the humanity and good 
sense of the inhabitants. The town is governed, under. its charter 
of incorporation above noticed, by a sovereign and two bailiffs. 

Midleton gives the title of Viscount, in the Irish peerage, to 
George Brodrick, descended from Sir St. John Brodrick, whose 
successful entry into Ireland daring the troubles of 1641, has been 
already mentioned. His lordship's ancestor was created Baron 
Brodrick, of Midleton, in 1715, and Viscount Midleton in 1717* 

The town of Midleton is the property of the nobleman to whom 
it affords a title. Lord Midleton has an old family residence, 
about one mile distant from the town, which is now occupied by 
his agent. Amongst several other haudsome seats in this neigh- 
bourhood, must be mentioned Mioletok Lodojb, the residence of 
Marcus Lynch, Esq. ; the demesne belonging to which is well- 
planted, and greatly ornamental to the borders of the town. 
Ballysdhond, the elegant modern villa of Robert Courtenay, Esq* 
is situated on high ground, commanding extensive and beautiful 
views, at the distance of one mile from Midleton, towards the north. 
The stream called the Midleton river winds through a romantic 
glen near this well-placed seat ; and the demesne is finely orna- 
mented with wood and thriving plantations. 



[mvnsteh.] county or coak. 405 

On the twaks of the river Bride, which runs to the north of 
the two la8t*noticed towns, are the ruins of several castles, that 
belonged to the Desmond family. At Moobaly, on that small 
river, the Earls of Desmond had a principal seat. Here Thomas, 
usually called the '* Great £arl of Desmond," chiefly resided.* 

The small village termed WATxaoBAss Hill, distant eight 
miles from Cork, on the road to Fermoy, is thought to stand upon 
the highest cultivated ground in Ireland. The ascent from Cork 
is, however, so gradual, that the traveller is by no means aware 
of the great altitude he has attained, until he deliberately views 
the nearest mountains, and compares their degrees of elevation 
with that of the eminence on which he is placed. The prospects 
from this lofty hill are equally comprehensive and grand. f 

• 

* Ail anecdote, related by Smith, ooucerniug this Earl and his castle 

of Mogealy, forcibly illustrates tlie rude, but hospitable, character of 
the times in which the building was at its zenith of prosperity. The 
steward of the " great Earl," without consulting his lord, invited 
nomarous chiefs of Monster, with their followers, to spend a month at 
tills castle. Crowds, accordingly, flocked in, to the surprise of the Earl, 
and, also, to his chagrin, as he was not provided with viands for the 
entertainment of so large a party for many days. The steward, mean- 
time, absented himself; and the Earl, finding tliat his provisions were 
nearly exliansted, resolved to save his credit at the expense of his castle. 
He led his company to a hunting match, at some distance from home, and 
ordered a trusty servant to set fire to the castle, and afterwards to say 
that It was bui-nt by accident 1 Throughout the morning of the hunt he 
cast many a look towards ' Mogealy, under the earnest hope of seeing 
flames burst from his paternal towers. Bat no such conflagration was 
displayed ; and it eventually appeared that the steward had returned, 
jnst in time to prevent the destruction of the building, and had brought 
with him a large prty of com and cattle, sufficient to subsist the *^ great 
Earl'' and his friends, for a longer time than it was intended thdr revelry 
should last. 

t Mr. Townsend remarks that ^ a singular visual deception attends 
this prospect. To the traveller who has so lately quitted the level of the 
sea at Cork, and imperceptibly gained an unsuspected elevation, the 
flats about Fermoy appear vastly lower than (hose he has just lefl behind» 
He finds it difficult to conceive even an ecjuality of horizontal level, and 
feels prepared to pronounce a decided opinion upon the much greater 



^ f 



406 BEAUT] B8 OP IREI/ANZ>. 

R4TH4iORMucx> ou the same road, is a neat and pleasing 
tillage. The street is of a desirable width, and many of the 
houses are agreeably ornamented in a rnral taste. This place is 
seated on the river Bride, which is here crossed by a stone 
bridge, commenced in the year 1734. This town was for many 
ages the property and seat of a branch of the Barry family. By 
Redmond Barry, Esq. who died in 1750, the estate, comprising 
manorial rights over 10,000 acres, was sold to the family of 
Tonson. Before the union this was a borough, sending two 
members to the Irish parliament. William Tonson, Esq. patron 
of this borough, and one of its representatives in parliament, was 
created Baron Riversdale, of Rathcormuch, in 1783. 

The Church is a respectable building, in the pointed style, 
gratefully shaded by trees, and enlarged by the late Lord Rivers- 
dale, who added to it a chapel and gallery, for the use of his 
lordship*s family. In this Church are buried the Barrys of Bally- 
clough (the house of Mac Roberts) and those of the extinct line 
of Lisnegar. In the churchyard is a monument to Redmond 
Barrtf, of Rathcormuck, Esq. who sold this estate to the 
Tonsons. He died Sept. 5th, 1750, aged 63. Here, also, is 
interred his sister, Mrs. Mary Barry, who survived him -a few 
days only, and died on Sept. 95th, 1750, aged 64. There are, 
likewise, inscriptions to Richard Barry, of Rathcormuck, died 
1770, aged 55$ and James Barry, of Corroghpeneyne, chief of 
the sept of Mac Roberts, died 99nd January, 1744, aged 65. 

The Roman Catholic Chapel is a spacious building of stone, 
having a square tower at one end. This chapel was erected in 
1818. 

At a short distance from the town is I^isnegar, the handsomd 

depression of the northern vale. A little reflectioD, however, oonvinceff 
him that the contrary is the tme fact, and that he has been deceived by 
the gradaality of ascent on one side, and the suddenness of the fall on 
the other. Fermoy stands high ahpve the level of Cork, and from 
Mitchelstown, situate nearly in the same plane with tlie former, there is 
a regular descent to the city of Waterford, on the east side of the 
ilj^and/' Agri. Survey of Cork, vol. ii. pp. 45-6. 



i 



[munstkr.] coi;nty of cork. 407 

seat of the ennobled family of Tooson. It may be noticed^ to 
the credit of this part of the county^ that the hon. and rev. 
Charles Ladlow Tonson^ of Lisnegar, has the reputation of being 
one of the best Irish antiquaries and topographers of the present 
time. 

ft 

Castle Lyons^ situated on the north side of the river Bride, 
at the distance of two miles and one quarter from Rathcormuck, 
is a small market town, formerly of some celebrity.* This town, 
and a large contiguous tract of country, were possessed, at an 
early period, by the sept of 0*Cullane, or Collins, and were 
granted, under the name of O'Leihan (pronounced O'Lehan) by 
Robert Fitzstephens to his nephew, Philip de Barry. In this 
place the de Barrys had a castle, and here John de Barry founded 
a monastery, in the year 1307. This religious house appears to 
have been for Dominican friars, and was dedicated to the Virgin 
Mary. Considerable parts of the buildings are still remaining. 
After the dissolution of monasteries, the possessions of the Do- 
minicans at this place were granted to Richard, first Earl of 
Cork, who bequeathed them to Alice, his eldest daughter, 
married to David, first Earl of Barrymore. With an affected 
pontempt for the value of this bequest, perhaps most likely to 
occur in a man with whom great we^th was not hereditary, the 
Earl of Cork specifies in his will *' that he bequeaths the rents 
and profits of this house to his daughter Barrymore, to buy her 
gloves and pins. ^^ 

* Smith, Seward, and some other writers, derive the name of this 
place from the ** O'Lehans, an antient Irish sept that possessed it, and 
who gave their name to a great part of the country," Bat sach a deri- 
vation cannot be deemed satisfactory, as the antient possessors were, 
more properly, the sept of O'Cnllane, or Collins. Olethan (pronounced 
O'Lehan) is the name used in the grant from Fitzstephens of this barony 
to the de Barrys ; but the word Leathan (having various significations In 
the Irish, all relating to qualities, as broad, strong, Sec) was probably 
applied to the individual chief of the sept of O'CnUane, or to the character 
of the territory, rather than meant to signify the appellation of a sept 
generally. Montmorency MSS. 



iOB BEAtTlfiS OF IA&LA1V0. 

It is believed that a monastery for Carmelites^ or White Friars y 
was, likewise, founded here by the family of de Barry. 

On the confines of the town the Earls of Barrymore had st 
'' strong and stately house,** built on the foundation of what 
Smith terms '' the OXehan Castle/* but which may be, more 
properly, considered as a castle erected by the de Barrys, and 
probably soon after their obtaining a grant of this territory from 
Fitzstephens.^ This honse was burnt to the ground, through 
the negligence of workmen employed in repairing the roof, a(foout 
the year 1771 > and has not been rebuilt. It is described by con* 
temporary writers, as a large square building, with a court in the 
centre. On one side of the square was a spacious hall, and on the 
north side a gallery, 90* feet long, which, however, had not been 
completed. It contained some family pictures, inclndtng orig^als 
of the first Earl of Cork and his second lady. 

Amongst the monumental inscriptions in the cemet^ of this 
place, is that of the Rev, TAadeus O^Brien, many years parish 
priest of Castle-Lyons and Rathcormuck, who died on the 20th 
of Sept. 1747, aged 76. We are induced to notice this funeral- 
memorial » as Dr. O'Brien was a writer of some distinction, oh 
polemic subjects, and is mentioned as such (under the name 
of Timothy O'Brien) iu Ware's Writers. In that work are 
many particulars concerning Dr. O'Brien, who had formeriy 

* Dr. Smith asserts, that, '' in throwing down some of. the old walU 
of Castlc-Lehan, a chimney piece was discovered, with this inscription : 
Lehan O'Cullanb Hoc Fecit. MCIIII;" which he adduces as an 
instance of stone boildings being of much earlier use in Ireland, than is 
generally supposed. But the informants of that writer were, certainly, 
either under mistake or guilty of imposture. The letter A is miknown in 
the Irish alphabet ; and we have tlie authority of all contemporary his- 
torians, native Irish and Anglo-Norman, for believing that, at the period 
of the Strongbonian invasion, not even the ruling tribes of Mac Carthy, 
O'SuUevan More, Sec. dwelt in towers, or fortresses of stone. It isy 
surely, then, not credible that the petty and dependent sept of O'Collane 
should inhabit such buildings? In all probability this castle was erected 
by Philip de Barry, about the year 1204, nearly at whieb time he aU<> 
built the castle of Barry's-court. Montmorency MSS. 



[MUNStea.] COUNTY OF COBK. 409 

*^ goverbed laudably, for sine years> the Irish coQ^e of 
TholoQue;* 



The town of Febmoy, situated on the river Blackwater, at 
the distance of 113 miles from Dublin and 14 from Cork, 
affords the most striking iDstance, to be seen in Ireland, of the 
local improvemeut, and public benefit, to be derived from the 
enterprisiog spirit of an individoul, when gnided in its operations 
by correctness of judgment, and rendered valuable by perseverance. 
Thirty years ago Fermoy was a small village, composed solely of 
wretched cabins -, nor is it on record that buildings of a superior 
character were ever erected here, in antient times, with the 
exception of those appertaining to a monastic foundation. Whilst 
thus humble, it gave the title of viscount, in the Irish peerage, 
to the Anglo-Norman family of Roach, or Roche, now extinct, or 
so entirely fallen to decay that the chief of the house is unknown. 
An abbey for Cistertian monks, under the invocation of the Virgin 
Mury, was founded at this place, in the thirteenth century. This 
is* called, by Alemaade, L'Abbaye de Chateau Dieu. The 
families of Roche, Condon^ and Fitzmaurice aj^ear to have 
been the principal bene£Bu:tors. The abbey-church was used, 
after the suppression, as a place of public worship in the establish* 
meat, but no vestige of the monastic building is at this time 
remaining.^ 

I Fermoy, now one of the best inland towns of Ireland, owes its 
present improved appearance to the late Mr. John Anderson, 
a native of Scotland^ who formerly resided, as a merchant, at 
Cork. Previous to' his undertakings at Fermoy, Mr. Anderson 
had distinguished himself for enterprize and public spirit. To him 
is Munster indebted for the improvement of its roads, and for the 
establishment of mail and day coaches, on various lines between 
this province and Dublin. In the year 1789, and in conjunction 

* Some part of the monastery walls was standing within the last thirty 
yearsy on the site of Abbey -street. The materials of the abbey and its 
ohiircb, together with the tomb-stones of the cemetery , were used by the 
masons, for the principal inn, and some other domestic buildings of the 
new town. 



410 BKAUT1B8 OF IBWUAND. 

with Messrs. 0*Donoghne and Fortescae, merchants of Cork, he 
contracted with government for the introduction of mail-coaches, 
on the English plan $ and the first coaches started from Cork and 
Dublin on the 5th of April, in the same year. The activity, 
indeed, with which Mr. Anderson carried his plans into execution, 
forms a conspieuoos and memorable feature of his character. 

The estate of Fermoy was purchased, by this gentleman, from 
one of the co-heiresses of the Forward fomily. Its subsequent 
improvement demands circumstantial notice, in a* work on Irish 
topography j and we profit by sources of original information, on 
which we can place implicit reliance. — When Lord Carhampton 
visited the south of Ireland, in 1797» for the purpose of selecting 
fMToper situations for encampments at that important juncture, he 
first chose a piece of ground on the Fnncheon river, near Kilworth $ 
but so extravagant a price was demanded for it by the proprietor, 
that the treaty was abruptly broken oS, Mr. Anderson then 
proposed a plot of ground on bis newly-purchased estate of 
Fermoy; and, on being questioned as to the price, promptly 
reined that it was at the service of government, without pur- 
chase. On examination the ground was highly ^proved, and the 
troops were encamped upon it.* 

On the approach of winter, Mr. Anderson contracted to 
provide temporary barracks, for a certain number of raiUtary; 
for which purpose he hastily built a range of houses, forming the 
south side of King-street. The town now began to increase, <m 
the southern side of the river; and, in 1801, a serious aug- 
mentation commenced on the north side, in consequence of the 
foundation of permanent barracks. The east barrack was b^un 
in that year. The west barrack was not commenced until some 
years after ; and the royal hos{NitaI, which building lies to the 
north of the barracks, and is equidistant from both, was not 
completed until about the year 181&. 

Thus, the eirly prosperity of the new town of Fermoy was 

* The spot of encampment was a hill, of small elevation, between the 
new and old Castle-Lyons roads. It is now finely-clotted with well- 
grown trees, chiefly Huvh and Scotch fir. 



(^^MUNiTSm.] COUNTY OF OOBE. 411 

dependent on military arrangeinentft^ and^ therefoce^ lilBely to 
fade, on the oecarrenoe of such a state of public tranqnilUly as 
would prove the harbinger of plenty to towns under differ- 
ent circnnstances. Mr. Anderson's superiority of talent wa» 
chiefiy shewn in the able measures he adopted to provide against 
this contingency, by endearonrs to introdnee mannCsctures and 
commerce^ and by such mvnicipal regulations as were calculated 
to render the place a secure^ and eligible, resid^ce for a trading 
p<^laHon. Human effort is confined to wisdom In project and 
perseverance in execution. If the schemes thus brilliantly con- 
ceived, and judiciously reduced to practice, have not been 
decisively crowned with success, it must, in justice, be sud, that 
the disappointment was not to be anticipated, or evaded, by any 
ordinary powers of fpresight. 

Fermoy is situated on the north and south sides of the 
Blackwater^ which is here crossed by a stone bridge of thirteen 
arches.^ This bridge was widened^ in the general improvemente 
of the place^ and is the only building of the old town that haa 
been suffered, even in part, to remun. The barracks, which 
are very extensive, and contain accommodations for horse and 
foot^ are seated on rising ground, upon the north side of the 
river^ and are so well designed, that they present a noble object. 
The whole town, on its interior, wears the aspect of a fortified 
place 3 and from situatioD, regular distribution of streets, and 
other points of similitude, bears (as we are informed by the Chev. 
de Montmorency) a considerable resemblance to the town of 
Manheim, in Germany. 

We have intimated above that Mr. Anderson entirely levdlled 
with the ground all the domestic buildings of the former town. 
He profited^ satisfactorily, by the peculiar opportunities thus 
afforded. The streets of the new town are spacious and well 

* The present bridge of Fermoy was built in the year 1689, ^t the 
expense of £7,500. It appears, from the will of Richard, first Earl of 
Cork^ that a wooden bridge had previously been erected here, towards 
which that nobleman contributed/' 800 tons of choice timber." The 
wooden bridge was carried away by an extraordinary flood. 



\ 



413 BBAUT1E8 OF IKBLAftD, 

arranged. The honses are^ in general, uniform in height and 
prevailing character, and are occupied by traders of nearly every 
description. Among the chief trading establishments may be 
mentioned a porter brewery, on an extensive scale 5 linen and 
woollen manufactories 3 together with large flour and paper mills. 
The matl-ooaches, for several lines of road, are built here ; and 
there is, also, a manufactory of agricultural implements. 

Fermoy affor(|8 a stage to all carriages travelling this road, 
and the principal inn is unrivalled on the line between Cork and 
Dublin. The adjacency of the military, and the various classes 
of travellers on this great line of tkoroughfare, have cau:sed the 
erection of numerous inns (we believe not less than forty) of a 
minor description. 

The public buildings, although necessarily few, are uniformly 
respectable. 

The Parochtai Church is a handsome and commodious structure, 
erected, at a considerable expense, under the auspices of Mr. 
Anderson, aided by the liberality of several contributors, in- 
cluding Mr. Hyde, of the neighbouring sent termed Castle Hyde. 
The architect was Mr. Hargrave. The design is imitative of the 
pointed style of architecture, and a tower rises at the west end, 
surmounted by a spire, of pleasing proportions. Fermoy, newly 
erected into a parish, is ecclesiastically united to the contiguous 
parishes of Downmahon^ and Litter, or Castle Hyde. 

The Roman Catholic Chapel is spacious, and is tastefully 
ornamented. The ground on which it is built was given by Mr. 
Anderson, subject to a nominal rent. He also gave £oilO 
towards the erection of the chapel, on condition that the further 
sum of J^ISOO should be contributed by the persons for whose 
accommodation the building was designed, or by gentlemen 
inclined to encourage the undertaking. These terms met with 
general approbation ; and the name of Mr. Hyde also appears 
in the list of contributors to this fabric. 

The Court Howe is neat, but small. Two sessions of the 
peace are annually held here. The regulations for the mainte- 
nance of the laws, at this place, are, indeed, particularly deserving 



[mUNSTBB.J COUKTY of CHMtK. 4lS 

of praise. Among tbese it may be mentioned that a regular 
police was instituted^ by act of parliament. Mr. Anderson was, 
himself, acting chief magistrate. His firmness and impartiality, in 
the administration of justice, are warmly commended by persons 
capable of the nicest discrimination, fiy the exercise of equity 
and kindness, he won the hearts, and with them the hands, of 
the first settlers in his new town. 

The Ciasiical School is not an endowed establishment, but 
has attained a considerable^ and deserved, degree of celebrity. 
The late Rev. Dn Adair, who enjoyed the benefice of Fermoy, 
was formerly at the head of this institution, and was succeeded 
by the Rev. Thomas Dix Hinckes, author of the well-written 
articles on Ireland in the Cyclopaedia edited by Dr. Rees. 

Here is a Theatre, but the present time is not favourable to 
this place of gay resort, which must, obviously, depend much for 
eocouragement on the military, A race-ground, also, forms one 
of the attractions designed by the founder of this town. 

The mansion erected by the late John Anderson, Esq. as a 
residence for himself and family, is a handsome and- costly 
building, situated on the banks of the Blackwater, which are 
extremely beautiful in the immediate vicinity of Fermoy. We 
must be allowed to express our regret, that a man of so enlarged 
and benevolent a mind is not still living to occupy this mansion, 
and blessed with that prosperity to which his warmth of public 
spirit, and liberality of sentiment, were so well entitled. We 
should not quit this subject without observing that Mr. Anderson, 
very properly, received the pecuniary aid of government, in fur- 
therance of several <^ his projects for public improvement. His 
son. Sir James Caleb Anderson, was created a baronet, March 
9^d, 1813. 

Richard Parr, D. D. was born at Fermoy, in I617> His . 
father was a clergyman, and it is recorded that his mother was 
fifty-five years of age at the time of his birth. Dr. Parr was, for 
many years, chaplain to Primate Usher, and dhtinguished himself 
as the biographer of that learned and amiable prelate. He was, 
likewise, author of the work termed '^ Christian Reformation,'* 



414 BKAi7TIS8 OF IRELAND. 

and a volame of sermons. He died at CamberweUj in Suney, of 
wbich place he had long been vicar ^ on the Snd ofNoyember^l^l . 

The river Blackwater affords much exquisite scenery^ aa it 
pursues a devious course from Fermoy towards the town of 
Mallow. Its banks possess a lovely and captivating variety of 
hills, often clothed with wood, and in other [rfaces ezhibitiiig the 
contrasted tints of heath and verdure > bold projections of lime- 
stone rock, assuming forms greatly conducive to picturesque 
effect ',* and vales, expanding into spreads of soft and pastoral 
country, rich in cultivation. The antient chieGtain, insensible to 
the charms of nature, or indifferent to their inflaence, bnilt ibr 
security alone among these rocky fastnesses ; and the mine of 
several castles present 6ne artificial objects, amidst this glow of 
natural scenery. To the credit of modem taste, nnmerovs seats 
have been erected on these inviting banks, in hfippier times,— ages 
in which the adjaoency of acclivitous rock and deep water has been 
valued only as an adjunct of the picturesque. We regret that our 
limits prevent us from bestowing merited attention on more than 
a few of these demesnes. 

Castle-Hyde, the seat of John Hyde, Esq. is situated at a 
short distance from Fermoy, on the n<Mrthem bank of the filack« 
water. Dr. Smith informs us that '' this place was formerly 
named Cariganedy, i. e. the rock of the shield, where formerly 
stood a castle, said to have belonged to the Mahonys." Sir 
Arthur Hyde, ancestor of the present proprietor of this estate, 
raised a regiment in England, when the country was threatened 
with invasion by the Spanish armada, and was made a Knight 
Banneret by Queen Elizabeth. Her Majesty afterwards granted 

* Mr. Townsend, writing upon the subject of this district, observes, 
that ^' one of the most singular" of the projections of limestone on these 
banks, is that termed '* Killavullane rock^ near half-way between 
Mallow and Fermoy. It bangs over the Blackwater, which has onder- 
worn it in such a manner, that, from some points of view, it seems abso- 
lutely pendulous. Limestone rocks, various and unequal in the solidity 
of their texture, derive great irregularities of form from thfe co^nstant 
attridoo of water." purvey of Cork,' &c vol. i. p. 478. 



A^ 



[UUNSTER.] COUNTY OF C'OltK« 415 

to bioft nearly 6^000 acres of land hi the county of Coi-k> which 
came to the crown on the attainder of Gerald^ Earl of Desmond.'*^ 

The mansion at tkAa place appears to have been erected in the 
seventeenth century, bot it has been recently mnch enlarged and 
modernissed ; and, when viewed in conneuon with its attached 
gronnds, now ^ takes rank amongst the finest seats in Ireland. 
The house occupies a low, but sheltered and pleasing site, on the 
immediate margin of the river, having on the north side a pro* 
tecting rock, now covered with trees and shrubs of various kinds $ 
which rock evidently bestowed on this place its antient and 
appropriate appellation. The whole of the demesne comprises 
not less than 1100 acres, and is prolific of beauties in every 
direction. The river flows through the park, between lofty banks, 
finely clothed with wood, and here rolls its waters with peculiar 
and animating rapidity. These extensive grounds, particularly 
on the south side of the river, are rich in wood, of natural growth 
and mature age. The plantations, also, are numerous and well- 
disposed. 

Adjoining the demesne of Castle Hyde is Gbaio^ the seat of 
Colonel Stewart. This place fully participates in the charms of 
the neighbouring district. The gardens and grounds are kept in 
excellent order, and present, in conjunction with the more exten- 
sive contiguous territory, a tract unusually a£9nent in natural 
beauties judiciously cultivated. 

The Church of Castle Hyde has been lately rebuilt, alter a 
design of considerable elegance, under the auspices of Mr. Hyde, 
the respected patron of the benefice, with the sdd of 450/. granted 
by the Board of First Fruits. 

Still further westward, in the direction of Mallow, is Conva- 
MORE, the seat of Lord Ennismore, one of the representatives of 

* Smith's Cork, v. 1. p. S48. In another part of the same work it is 
stated that Sir Arthur Hyde, the first of this family that obtained a grant 
of lands in the coonty of Cork, lived in the Castle of Cahirdriny^ about 
one mile south of Mitchelstown, which was built by the Roches. In this 
fortress be was often attacked by his Irish neighbours. 



Aid RKAV^IRS op lRRt«AND. 

this county in parliament, and eldest son of the Earl of Listowcl. 
This very handsome mansion is of recent erection, and is highly 
ornamental to the fine scenery amidst which it is placed. The 
view from the front of the honse is trnlv admirable. Here the 
Blackwater is seen^ winding through noble masses of wood, and 
conducting the eye to the picturesque spectacle of a decayed 
castle, seated on a lofty eminence upon the border of the waters. 
Whilst the views from the grounds are thus attractive to the lover 
of nature, the interior of the mansion abounds in objects calcu- 
lated to gratify the admirer of the arts. The collection of paint- 
ings here reposited is, we believe, unrivalled in the county of 
Cork, and ranks amongst the best in Ireland. We regret that 
our limits, and opportunities, do not permit us to do more than 
mention a few of the most striking pieces. We subjoin the names 
of the principal masters, in order to convey due ideas respecting 
the character and value of the remainder of the collection. 

Marriage of St. Catherine. Correggi^, 

Holy Family. Tibaldi. 

Virgin and Child. Carlo Maratti, 

Sea View. Fanderveide, 

Assumption of the Virgin. Luea Giordano, 

Spanish Gardener. Muriiio. 

Holy Family. Rubens, 

Magdalen. Ani. Caracci. 

Poultry. fFeeninje^ 

Other paintings in this collection are by Rembrandt ; Ryckaert; 
Seboiiian Ricci ; CaualetH ; Pouum ; Fernet ; Ferdimmd Bol; 
Poeiemburg; fFatteau ; Gerard Hoet ; Perugino ; Tintoretto; 
FhckenbooTM ; and Roland Saveri 

Amongst pictures by the English masters are : 

A large and fine Landscape. FVilson, 

Midnight Conversation. Hogarth. 

Sleeping Girl. Hoppner. 

Shepherd's Boy. Gainaborough, 

The Cradle Hymn. Northcote, 



1 



[munstkb.] county of cork. 417 

There are^ also^ some portraits by Sir P. Lefy ; several 
landscapes by Marland; Pither ; Barrett; nnd Ralhdone; and 
figures by Opie ; fflkeailey ; and Pococke, . 

At the confluence of the Awbeg and Black water ^ a tract in 
which the conjoined rivers run through a rocky glen^ very romantic 
in character, are some remains of the Pkiory of Bridge Town, 
of which building (connected with the family of Roche) we give 
an account in a future page. 

Near the same confluence is Castle-Widenbam, the seat of 
Charles Widenham, Esq. 

Glakworth, a small village on the river Puncheon, at the 
distance of about four miles from Fermoy, towards the north- 
west, is entitled to consideration chiefly on account of its decayed 
castle, which was formerly a building of great extent and strength. 
There is reason to believe that this structure was erected by the 
Roches. It was certainly an antient seat of that family, and was 
inhabited by Lord Fermoy so lately as the year 1601, but was 
forfeited, by his descendant, in 1641. The ruins are large, and 
show the building to have been designed in that irregular mode 
of castellation that united some splendour of internal arrangement 
with the security of the fortress. In this vicinity (two miles uortli 
of the Blackwater) was the ^bbey of Olanworih, or Glanore, 
founded, according to Smith, by the Roche family, in 1£S7^ for 
Friars of the order of St. Dominick ; but Bonrke makes the 
foundation to. have taken place at a later period. 

Glanworth is now a mean village, having no other modern 
ornament than a very handsome glebe house, built by the Rev. 
Dr. Woodward, and constituting the residence of that gentleman. 
From thi§ pleasing abode are obtained delightful views over the 
contiguous country, in which the ruined Castle of Glanworth 
form^ a principal object. 

Near Glanworth is a cromlech, of large dimensions, locally 
called Lahacolly, the hag*s bed. There were originally two 
covering stones. The larger of these is placed at the west end, 

VOL. II. E E 



1 



418 BEAUTIEB OF IRELAND. 

and 18 of a wedge-Hke form^ having underneath a level, and on 
the top a slanting surface. It is nearly sixteen feet in lengthy 
six feet six inches in width, and three feet in thickness, towards 
the centre. The second covering stone is smaller, and has fallen 
from its original position. The supporters resemble large "flags, 
and are in double rows. The room formed by this rude and pon- 
derous structure appears to have been about twenty-five feet long, 
and six feet wide; The monument stands nearly east and west ; 
and, at the west end, is a stone, closing the entrance in that 
direction . Near the cromlech is a tumolas, called by the conntry 
people the kUl ofLabacolly, 

In the neighbourhood of Fermoy are the ruins of numerous 
castles, besides those already noticed. These fortresses are 
generally found on the banks of rivers, and formerly belonged to 
different members of the once powerful families of Condon and 
Roche. Amongst them may be noticed the strong Castle of 
Cabrickab&icky, situated on the river Bricky, at its confluence 
with the Blaekwater. This structure belonged to the Condons, 
and is boldly seated upon elevated ground, commanding views of 
the surrounding country, to a considerable extent. Towards the 
river the former confines of the castle-ward are on a predpitons 
cliff; and in this direction are some traces of the onter wall. 
The ruins principally contain parts of the lofty and circular 
keep. In the walls are traces of passages having round-headed 
entrances. Three vaulted floorings of stone still partly remain; 
and in the outer walls are many loop-holes, but no windows. 
Round the top are remains of machicolations. The building is, 
altogether, of a harsh character, and depends for its interest with 
the examiner chiefly on the associations proceeding from a view 
of the desolate remains of apartments, formerly tenanted by races 
so dissimilar in manners from those now prevalent. We look in 
vain for pictorial effect j and, whilst disappointed in the search 
after such gratification, feel strongly the trath of the remark, that 
few structures are picturesque in ruin that were not designed in 
a good style of architecture. 



N 



[munstbr.] county of cork. 41r9 

At a ihort and commniueable distafite fram the ruins aboyo 
noticed^ are tbote of Lyclath CaHle, sitaated on the Bricky. 
Jt^tMy, in this vicinity, also belonged to the Coodons. . Duneen 
Ciutie, on the river Fancheon, Is likewiae claimed by the same 
family. 

Mallow, titoated in the northern part of this county, is distant 
117 miles from Dublin, and 16 from Cork. This i& sometimes 
called the Bath of Ireland, on account of its tepid medicinal 
waters, which attract hither much gay company, as well as many 
iaralids.* The town is of a moderate size, and is finely situated 

* It is said that the warm spring of Mallow were first notlceil about 
the commencement of the eighteeotb oeatnry i bat they werenot brought into 
laedlclaal use notil nearly thirty yean after that date, whea they were reeom- 
■leaded to public atteation by Dr. Rogers, of Cork* It is certain, howe?er, 
that ooe tpring at this place had been esteemed at a much more early period, 
as a reputed holy well, dedicated to St. Patrick. Dr. Smith informs us, that 
** by repeated trials, he found this water raised the mercury, in Fahrenheit's 
thermometer, to the degree of sixty-nine ; the a^oinlng brook sank it to 
fifty. Dr. Ratty, coming directly from Bristol, and trying the same 
thermoiBtfter in Mallow water, as he bad done in Bristol water, found tbe 
lacrpury , ia the latter, to stand at seTeaty-siz, in the former at sixty-eight* 
when, in a neighbouring cold spring, it stood at fifty." Tbe following 
experiments, made by the same author, (vide Hist, of Cork, vol. ii. p. 383) 
afford the best information that we have it in our power to communicate, 
respecting the nature and contents of tbe Mallow water. ** Two gallons 
of tbis water being evaporated ia a wetl glaaed pan, soon after it was 
taken from the well, deposited a residuum o€ twenty jgrains of a grey 
powder* which, altboogh when removed ffom the fire was perfectly dry, 
the same night being rainy, and not taken from the pan, it began to grow 
moist, so that it was again set over tbe fire before I took it from tbe vesselj 
This calcareous matter (for such I deem it to be) exhibited the following 
appearances. — It made an effervescenco with spirit of .oil i being thrown 
on an hot iron it acquired an extf«me sharpnesa, like ^uick-lime ; with 
alkalfas, as oil of tartar and spkU of sal armoniac, no change ensued ; }i 
•Iterod syrup of violets a little greenish, but syrup of cloves made no 
ffiaage in it." The spring issues from a limestone rock, and is believed 
to discharge about twenty gallons in every minute. The waters are consi- 
dered to be of eifikacy to debilitated constitutions, and in consumptive 

complaints. 

E E "Z 



4W BEAUTIES OF IBELAND. 

on the Blackwater^ which is here crossed by a stone bridge^ noticed 
by LordOrrery, in1666^ as being the only bridge then overthis river. 

The comparison between this place and Bath, holds good merely 
as to the circamstance of both possessing warm springs of a 
sanatire qaality ; for Mallow, although visited by many genteel 
families, not only of the sonth, but from other parts of Ireland, 
is greatly deficient in elegance of baildings and accommodation. 
Some considerable improvements have recently taken place in the 
western part of the town, where several good honses have been 
erected; but the domestic b«ildings, in the more antient parts, 
where many visiters are lodged, are mean and nninviting. Here 
is no pomp room, and the fountain is merely enclosed in a rnde 
stone fabric, aptly said, by a native writer, to be '' not very nnlike 
a pig-stye.*' The approach to the spa is, however, extremely 
pleasing, it being conducted along walks lined with fine trees, on 
the border of a canal. Assemblies are held in a building ill-suited 
to the company with whose presence they are frequently honoured 
There are also races, and other amusements incidental to places 
of this description, which usually thrive by those who are in pursuit 
of pleasure, rather than by the drooping applicants to the goddess 
of the fount. The summer is the fashionable part of the year for 
visiting this spa. 

We are told by Smith, that the manor of Mallow formed a 
distinct seigniory, which belonged to the earls of Desmond. 
Upon the attainder of the great Earl of Desmond, it was granted 
to Sir John Norris, lord president of Munster, celebrated for his 
services in Portugal.* Sir John Jephson, of Moyle, in Hampshire, 
married the heiress of that distinguished general, and obtained 
with her this estate, which still belongs to his family, who have 
a handsome demesne in the neighbourhood. 

The town was formerly protected by t\^o castles, one of which 
was erected by the Earls of Desmond, and is still to be seen, but 
in a state of ruin. Mallow was the scene of two severe skirmishes, 
in the civil wars of the seventeenth century. On the 11th of Feb. 

• Spencer presented Sir Jolin Norris with a copy of kis Faer j QueeB, 
accompanied by some complimentary verses. 



[ui7NgT£R.] GOUMTY OF COBK. 491 

1641-2> Lord Movntgarret entered this place^ with some Irish 
troops. The defence of the sooth castle was then committed by 
its owner^ Capt. Jephson, to Arthur Bettesworth and a garrison 
of 200 men^ who successfully muntained that fortress^ after the 
inferior^ or northern, castle had surrendered. In the year 1690> 
Mac DoBOOgh, who was one of the governors of this county for 
King James, then recently defeated at the Boyne, assembled some 
forces, and appeared before the town, iutent on fire and plunder. 
The garrison, aware of his design, had procured a reinforcement 
of Danes, who encountered, in a meadow near the bridge, the 
ill-disciplined bands of Mac Dooough, and routed them with 
considerable slaaghter. 

This town returns one member to the imperial parliament. 
The church is a respectable structure, containing many sepulchnd 
memorials, among which are several to the Rvby family, who 
resided, in the early part of the last century, at Mount-Ruby, in 
this neighbourhood. The following may, also, be ooticed : Captain 
George Dillon, 1668; Cornet Charles Siburgh, only son of Lieut. 
General Siburgh, 6th of April, 1740. Beneath an urn, bearing 
the arms of King, is a tablet of white marble, inscribed to the 
memory of the Rev. fFUliam K'mg, twenty-nine years rector of this 
parish, who lived beloved by all who knew him, and died as univer- 
sally lamented . ' * This tribute of their affection and esteem for his 
virtues, as a minister, as a friend, and as a man, has been erected 
by his parishioners, to whom he was endeared by his pure religion, 
his gentle spirit, and amiable deportment in every situation of life. 
He died the 3rd of March, 1806. Mt, 70.** In the church-yard 
is a tomb, sacred to the memory of Mrs. Champagne, wife of 
the Rev. Dean Champagne, who died at Mallow, Slst of August, 
1784, in the 63rd year of her age. This lady was mother to the 
Countess of Uxbridge, and grandmother to the present Marquess 
of Anglesey, his brothers and sisters. 

In the close vicinity of the town, on its southern side, is the 
seat of the Jephson family, surrounded by an extensive and well- 
wooded demesne, which is disposed in the best manner of the 
ferme orni. The grounds are divided into spacious fields^ 



Wi BBAOTIBS OF IHBLAND. 

nrtoniidad with double hedg» of qirick, friMii wUch riM vtrj 
namerons and weU-grown trew. BettrecR the qnkk fonees 
gnvel walks ara formed, opening na ngreemble oominunication 
between the wbole of the groandB. 

At a ihort diitance from the ho«e, are the decaying remaini 
of the cattle foraerl; be)oii|^Dg to the £>rli of DeBmond, 

The coDBtry, in Mveral dirMtioni round Mallow, is emincit 
for natnrii chtriua and salubrity of air; — circnmstanCeB greatly 
bvoarable to the convaleaoence of invalid viaiten of the spa. 
Wnlka and rides, in a fine and enlWening tract of conntiy, an, 
indeed, powwM auxiliariei to most medicinal waters, which will 
ever be nrgently recommended by jodicions physidans; and acsnery 
more calcnlated to soothe the sfArits, or breezes more inngorating 
than those of the conntay in the neighbourhood of Mallow, are 
not readily to be fonnd in either of the Iriah provinces. This fine 
district contains nnmerons seats, several of which, being placed 
cm the borders of tbe Blockwater, are described in onr acconnt of 
tbe progreia of that river between Fermoy and thia place. In 
addition to those mentioned as otijects locally connected with 
the former tows, mnat be noticed, whilst we are in tbe 
•ei^bovrhood of Mallow, RoczroMST, the mansion of Sir Janes 
CoUw, Bart. This honee is situated on rising gronod, upon tbe 
sontb bank of the Uadcwater, The demeane is richly orasmentei 
witk wood. 

The Castle of BAi.TCLoon, aituated in a pleasing demeine, 
o^joiBiDg the village of that name, to the north-west of Mallow, 
was tbe chief seat of the sept of Mac Roberts, or Mac Robert Barry . 
This is now the eatate of the Coote family; Robert Coote, £aq. 

having married tbe heiress of Purdon, Esq., a former 

prupriotor. AmoDg monamental iascriptions in tbe church, are 
inemorials o[ ihe Purdon^ Coote, and Lgaaght (Moiliea; also of 
Hemy fVtiion, of Blossomfort, Esq., died 30th of March, 177E^^ 
i^ed 73 ; and Joht Longjieid, Esq., of Longneville, died \7SS. '-' , * 

BAtVGiBUN^ in this neigh bonrliood, is an elegant seat of the 
Wrixon fniaily. 



..J 



[hUNSTEB.] county op GOftK. 483 

MouNTNOBTB M the teat of John Lysaght^ Lord Lisle. This 
lunily is said (but we know not on what aathority) ta be descended 
from the house of 0*Brien. They are first recognised in Irish 
history, for activity in assistance rendered towards suppressing 
the rebellion of 1641 . John Lysaght (then seated at Mountnorth) 
was a cornet, nuder the command of Lord Inchiqain, at the 
battle of Knockinoss, in this ndghbonrhood. Nicholas, the eldest 
. son of that officer, commanded a troop in King William's own 
regiment of dragoons, and greatly distinguished himself at the 
battle of the Boyne. John, the eldest son of Captain Lysaght, 
sat in parliament for the neighbouring borough of Gharlevilie, and 
was created Baron Lisle, of Mountnorth, on the 18th of Sept. 
1758. Near the high road is an obelisk, erected by the first lord 
Lisle. It resembles, in architectural character, the steeple of 
a church, the lower part opening into four arches, from one of 
which we look down on the house and woods of Mountnorth. A 
flight of stone steps leads to the upper part of the building, where 
is a latin inscription, of which we present a verbatim copy.* 

LoGHORT Castlb, now the property of Lord Arden, is usually 
said to have been built in the reign of King John. This building 
consists of a circular tower, about 80 feet in height, which was 
strongly machicolated, and had few apertures for the admission 
of light and air. The walls are ten feet thick, and the castle is 
surrounded by a moat. Loghort was an antient fortress of the 
Mac Carthys, and was garrisoned by Sir Philip Perceval, in the 
rebellion of 1641. The Irish gained it by stratagem, and heki 
it, much to the annoyance of their opponents, until May, 1650, 

* Georgio Secundo,re^ optimo, 
Primo etiam Patre ejus, atqae patria haad obllto 
Tertioqne magna ipel commeDorato 
NecDon Galielmo apad CoUoden armls prieclaro 
^j^. Ob Religionem, Libertatem, et preprieiatem, 

In Hibcrnia precipae reititatam et conBerratum 
Hunc Obeliscom erexit subditus fidelU, e( gratissimui 
Johannes Lysaght de Mountnorth Armiger. 
Tricessimo die Octobris A. D. 1751. 



424 BEAUTIKS OF tRBLAXU. 

at which tipie it surrendered to Sir Hardress Waller. Aboot the 
middle of the "Eighteenth century the building was repaired and 
rendered habitable, by the Earl of Egmont. It was lately the 
residence of Mr. Porcell. 

At a short distance from Loghort Cattle is Knockinoss, the 
scene of a celebrated battle, fonght on the 13th of November, 
1647, between the English, under Lord Inchiquin, and an Irish 
force, commanded by Lord Taaf. A victory, important to the 
fortunes of Munster, was, on this occasion, gained by the En^ish 
army. 

Balynamona, distant about two miles and a half from Mallow, 
is the seat of Garret Nagle, Esq. and is situated near the ridge of 
mountain named after this antient family, which is said to be a 
younger branch of the house of Naogle, Barons of Navan and of 
Costelloe.* On rebuilding the church of Balynamona, in 1717, it 
is recorded by Smith that the workmen '' found a large spur, and 
the head of an antique spear, probably belonging to one of the 
knights buried here in his martial habiliments.** 

Near Balynamona are the ruins of a building, termed the 
pRECEPTORT OF MouRNE, foundcd, or at least principally en- 
dowed, by Alexander de St. Helena, in the reign of John. ** The 
possessions of this preceptory," say Smith and Archdall, *' were 
granted to Tiege Mac Carty, whose descendants forfeited them 
in the rebellion of 1641, yet they are still called by the name of 
Masters of Mourne.*' The foundation-walls of these ruins 
enclosed several acres of ground; and, in addition to the present 

* A principal seat of the Nagle family was at Mooeaoyiiiyt in the 
Barony of Fermoy. Richard Nagle» often termed Nagie of Moneanymy, 
and John Nagle, Esq. his son and heir, resided there in 1610. Sir Richard 
Nagle, of Moneanymy, Knt. was secretary of war, 10 1690, to James 
II. whom he followed into exile. It is said that the weak James, o^er 
hit abdication^ had created Sir Richard Nagle, with other of his mined 
adherents, peers of Ireland! Lord Kingston is» at present, lord of this 
manor. Montmorency MSS. 



[mUNSSTKR ;[ COUNTY OF COftK. 4^ 

remains^ a castellated bnildiog upon the sontb^ and two towers 
towards the west^ were standing in the early part of the last 
centory. 

In the vicinity of Mallow is likewise^ Aohnakisha^ the seat 
of Pierce Nagle^ Esq. chief of that name. 

The Castlb or Ballyncolly^ a strong and spacioas pile, 
was erected by the Barrets^ from which family a barony in this 
coonty derives its name 3 bnt the chief seat of this antient family 
was at Castlemore, in the northern extremity of the Barony <^ 
Barrets.* BallynooUy was garrisoned by Cromwell^ and was 
also pat in a state of defence for King James II. 

The river Awbeg, which takes its rise to the west of Bnttevant, 
and enters the Blackwater in the vicinity of Bridgetown, greatly 
ornaments that part of the country through which it pnrsnes its 
brief coarse. This river has a winding and desultory progress, 
in a district replete with charms. Its coarse is pladd, and it 
glides in dimpling eddies, worthy the celebration of the muse. 
This is the river poetically termed by Spencer the GetUie Muila, 
and on its borders is Kilcolbian, the now ruinous castle in which 
he once resided. 

Although placed in a region eminently attractive for beauties 
of a soft and pastoral character, the immediate vicinity of Kilool- 
man must have been chill and dispiriting, even in days of the 
castle's greatest prosperity. The buUding.is situated on the 
north-side of the Awbeg, or Mnlla, at the distance of rather more 
than two miles from the village of Doneraile. It is surrounded 
by an extensive plain, which terminates, to the east, « the 
mountains of the county of Waterford. On the north are the 
Ballyhoura mountains, termed by Spencer the mountains of Mole. 

* It is recorded that O'Nial, Earl of T;yroDe, when marcbini; by 
Castlemore, in the year 1600, on his progress to Kinsale, for the support 
of the Spaniards, enquired who lived in that castle? On beinji; told that 
it was Barret, who was a good catholic, and whose family had been pos- 
sessed of the estate for 'above 400 years, he exclaimed, with an oath, ** No 
matter \ I bate the English churl as if be had landed only yesterday.*' 



496 BBAUTWS OF IBBLAND. 

The Nagle nuNiotaiiis rise towards the soath; and^ on the west, 
are the moantains of Keiry. When the uplands were adorned 
with wood, this scenery may have received some amelioration of 
character^ but, nnder all drcomstances, it wonld appear that 
Spencer must have porsned the meanders of the Malla in hannts 
at some distance, from home> for objects to enrich his descriptive 
pages. It may, indeed, be observed that whilst he bestows the 
fondest terms of admiration on '^ Mnlla fair and bright," he says 
little concerning *any pretensions to beantyin his own pecollar 
domain. 

The rains present the remains of the principal tower, in a 
castellated boiling of some strength and extent. The ootlines 
and vestiges of several apartments may still be distinctly traced. 
Tlie lower of these rooms spears to have been used as a hall, or 
kitchen, and is arched with stone. The stairway of the tower 
still exists, and leads to the decaying remains of a small chamber. 
Little can be added, concerning this interesting rain, except that 
the remaining windows command extennv^ prospects* Over 
the adjacent groand are spread many fragments of bnilding. 

Kilcolman Castle formerly belonged to the Earl of Desmond, 
and was granted to Edmand Spencer by Qoeen Elisabeth, together 
with 3028 acres of land in this oonnty , being part of the forfeited 
estates of that earl. The biography of Spencer is of socfa 
familiar access, that it cannot be necessary for ns to enter into 
even a brief analysis of it, in this place. It may, however, be 
desirable to present some few memoranda, relating to his con- 
nexion with Ireland. 

He appears to have first entered this conntry in 1580, as 
secretary to the lord deputy. Lord Grey of Wilton | bot he 
returned to England with that nobleman, in 1583. He received 
the grant of Kilcolman in 1586, and commenced his residence at 
this place in the following year. In 1590, he accompanied Sir 
Walter Raleigh to England, for the purpose of publishing the 
three first books of " The Faery Queen.*' He returned to Ireland 
i n 1591 3 and, about that time, married a woman whose real 
excellencies are said to have substantiated the good qualities he 



J 



[munstbe.] covwtt^f gokk. 4dT 

Wwl ascribed t9# the '' RoMlindA" df his yonthAil hncf. Here, 
with coBJagal tendeniets to brighten the blaae on the hearth of 
hb recluse castle, and the mnse to bestow unearthly tints on the 
verdant banks of the Muila, he passed between three and four 
years, which, probably, notwithstanding his distaste for Ireland, 
may be reckoned among the most agreeable of his life. 

In 1595, the disturbed state of the ooontry cansed him to 
takerefiige in Engbsd^ whence he vetemed to Kilcolman in 
1597> and staid here until the following year. A calamitous 
termination was then effected to all his hopes of tranquillity in 
this island. In 1598, the rebellion of Tyrone distracted the 
kingdom, and acts of ontrage^ under the name of iietaliation, were 
levelled, with particular ferocity, at the aettlers on the forfeited 
estates of Desmond. Spencer fled, with his wife, to England 3 
but his castle was partly destroyed by fire, and his property 
plandered. It has been said that his ivfont child perished in the 
flames $ but such an assertion appears to rest on the authority of a 
conversation between Ben JonsoB and Drnmmood, published in 
the works of the last*named writer. It is well known that 
Spencer did not long survive this scene of diatress. 

The few anecdotes ceonected with his residenoe at Kilcolman, 
impart an irresistible charm to the ruins, and to the country in their 
vicinity. It was here that he wrote the Faery Queen, a work 
exhibiting some of the highest powers of a poetical imagination. 
Several of his other poems were, also, composed at this place > 
and it has been jostly concluded that he was indebted to the 
neighbouring country for much of his rural imagery, and most of 
his allasions to natural scenery.^ At Kilcolman he received, in 
1589, a visit from Sir Walter Raleigh, who had also obtained 
from the crown a large grant of Irish land* In '' Colin Clont'a 

* Particular and direct allasions to the riven, moontains, and promi- 
sent points of ecenery in tlie neighbonrhood of Kilcolman, will be found 
in different parts of the Faery Qneen, and chiefly io the sixth canto of that 
poem, in ** Mutability*' he, likewise, celebrates the barony of Fermoy, 
or Armoy, under the name of Armilla. In '* Colin Clont's come home 
again" the river Mnlla i» made a conapicnou object. It is observable 



i 



4S8 BEAUTlSt OF IBBLANO. 

come home again/' he celebrates this visit j and describes Sir 
Walter under the title of '' Shepherd of the Ocean :" 



•I'satey as was my trade, 



Under the foot of Mole, that mountain bore ; 
Keeping my sheep amongst the cooly shade 

Of the green alders, by the Mulla's shore. 
There a strange shepherd chauncM to find me out. 

Whether allnr'd with mj pipe's delight, 
Whose pleasing sound yshrilled Car about, 

Or thither led by chance, 1 know not right ; 
Whom when I ask'd, from what place he came ? 

And how he bight ?~ himself be did ycleep, 
The Shepherd of the Ocean by name. 

And said he easM ihr from the main^sea deep* 

However favourable might be the retirement of this place to 
the indalgence of poetical speculations^ it is too evident that^ 
when the muse failed to bestow an air of romance on the sur- 
rounding scenery, Spencer viewed his residence in Ireland as a 
painful banishment. The reign of Elizabeth was, indeed, a 
most unfavourable juncture for a poet, in search of rural peace, to 
settle in this island. He has very unequivocally expressed, in 
his '' View of the State of Ireland," his dislike of the people among 
whom his lot was cast. Such antipathies are generally mutual. 
We have often had occasion to notice the tenadtv with whidi the 
peasants of this country cherish, either sentiments of affecti<m or 

■ . * 

that be describes Ireland as a country deriving much of its picturesque 
attraction from wood^ a well as from its numerous streams : 

Whylome, when Ireland florished in fame 
Of wealths and goodnesse, far above the rest 

Of all that beare the British Islands namei 
The Gods then ns*d (for pleasure and for rest) 
Ofl to resort thereto, when seem*d them best : 

But none, of all, therein more pleasure found 
Then Cynthi'a, that is soveraine Queene profest 

Of moods andforresttf which thtr^in abound. 

Sprinkled with wholsom waters, more then most on grsund. 



[MUN8TKR.] COUNTY OF COBK. 439 

« 

feelings of ayersion. 'A recent pedestrian tonrist (Mr. Trotter) 
who, from the mode of his travelling, had particular opportunities 
of mixing with the peasantry in the neighbourhood of Kilcolman, 
affirms that '' the name and occupation of Spencer are handed 
down traditionally among them^ but that they seem to entertain 
no sentiments of respect^ or affection^ for his memory.'* 

Little is known concerning the descendants of the poet. It is 
said by Chalmers^ that''' two sons are reported to haye surYived 
him, Sylvanus and Peregrine. SyWanns married Ellen Nangle, 
or Nagle, eldest daughter of David Nangle, of Moneanymy> in 
the county of Cork; by whom he had two sons, Edmund and 
IVilliam Spencer. His other son. Peregrine, also married, and 
had a son Hugolin, who, after the rest<H'ation of Charles II. was 
replaced, by the Court of Claims, in as much of the lands as 
could be found to have been his ancestor's. Hugolin attached 
himself to the cause of James II., and, after the revolution, was 
oQt-lawed. Some time after, his cousin William, the son of 
Sylvanus^ became a suitor for th& forfeited property, and recovered 
it, by the interest of Mr. Montague, afterwards Earl of Halifax, 
to whom he had been introduced by Congreve." 

The estate has long since passsd away from the Spencer 
family, but it is said that a lineal descendant and namesake of 
the poet was living, about thirty years back, at Mallow, it is 
stated by Dr. Smithy that when he compiled his work on this 
county, an original portrait of Spencer was preserved at Castle 
Saffron, near Doneraile -, but this curious picture is now gone 
from that seat, nor does the owner of the residence know where it 
can be found. 

BuTTBVANT, a dccaycd town, seated on the river Awbeg, was 
once a place of considerable celebrity, under the patronage of the 
Barry family, to which house it gives the title of viscount in the 
Irish peerage. Its antient name is said to have been Kilnemul- 
iaghj to which Spencer alludes, in his poem of Colin Clout : 

MaUa, the daogfater old Mole to bight 

The Nymph which of that water coarse has charge, 



490 UBAUTIB8 OP IRBLAND. 

That, tprlnfiDg out of Mole, doth ran down rif ht 
To Butte vant, where, spreadini^ forth at lar|;e, 
It givetb name unto that antient cittie 
Which KilnemuUah cleped is of old. 

General Vallancey> with a spirit of refinement that adds oo 
credit to antiqnarian investigations^ is desiroos of dedaciog the 
etymology of Bnttevant from the Indo-Scythian; but ordinary 
inquirers find no difficmlty in attributing it to the genuine Gallic 
BatUeg'ttvant, Push forward ! which is the motto of the Barrymore 
fi&milyj and is said to have been the ipori^usedln a battle fought in 
this neighbourhood, between the Barry s and Mac Carthys. 

The family of Barry had a strong castle here, and they 
enriched the place by seyeral monastic foundations. The remains 
of these buildings, however, constitute the principal memprials 
respecting the history of Bnttevant, in the early ages of Anglo* 
Norman ascendancy. The chief military events, on record, relate 
to periods comparatively recent. Sir Henry Sydney, lord 
deputy of Ireland, took this town firom the Irish in 1569; and, in 
the campaign of 1691, it was burnt by the English. 

Bnttevant is now reduced to the character of a mean village; 
but the traces of walls, by which it was formerly surrounded and 
fortified, are still apparent. Among its humble tenements are 
ceen, in mournful and impressive prolusion, the wrecks of monas- 
teries and churches, which must have once imparted to its streets 
an unusual degree of ecclesiastical splendour. 

The chief ruin is that of a Monastery far CoHve9Umai Francii* 
cant, founded by the family of Barry at an unknown date, but 
certainly prior to the year 1273. The remains of the buildings 
are still of some extent; but a handsome and well-executed square 
tower, which rose from the centre, and formed their principal 
feature, fell down, a very few years since, and its disjoioed 
materiak now incnmber the interior. The walls of the choir and 
nave, together with various dependent parts of the strncture, 
are standing, and display many traces of former architectural 
labours, in the pointed style of design. 

It is said by Smith and Archdall, that the tomb of the 
founder, David de Barry, lord chief justice of Ireland, usnally 



[munstbr.] county of cork. 431 

styled the first Viscoant of fiottevant^ is still to be seen in the 
choir^ opposite the great altar ; bnt this monomentis now mntl- 
lated^ and the fragments are of no interest.* On the sonth side 
of the nave is a chapel, dedicated to the Virgin Mary^ that 
contains nnmerons monnments and inscriptions, seyeral of which 
are ior the families of Barry, Fitzgerald, and Batler. Some 
'^ remains of fine paintings in firesco, on the walls of thb mooas* 
tery,'* are mentioned by Archdall i bat the traces now Tisible are 
far from being entitled to the commendation bestowed on them by 
that writer. Beneath the chancel is a crypt, sapported by a 
claster of pillars, having ornamented capitals. This is a very 
nnnsnal featnreinthe ecclesiastical buildings of Ireland, and arises, 
in the present instance, from a pecnliarity of site, the chancel 
being erected on the bank of the river Awb^. At the entrance 
of the abbey is a large pile of sculls and bones, said to be those 
of persons who perished at the battle of Knoddnoss, noticed in a 
previous page. 

At a short (Ustance from the abbey-buildings, towards the 
north-west, and within the limits of the burial ground, is a square 
tower, which, probably, was used as a place of security for the 
inmates and valuables of the monastery, in times of violence. It 
is traditionaDy said to have been erected by an £ar| of Desmond, 
who retired hither. 

Near the abbey are some unimportant vestiges of a building, 
thought to have been a nunnery^ concerning which no authentic 
intelligence has been discovered. 

The present parochial church is a modern strnctDre,f but 
there were formerly two more churches in this town, one dedicated 

* A modern tourist in the south of Ireland states that ** the vault of 
DaWd de Barry being recently opened, to inter a descendant* a man, who 
went down with the coffin, described the interior as lined with the figures 
of different saints, the name engraven under each, and having at the upper 
end a tablet, on which was a long inscription." — Researches in the South 
of Ireland, p. 114. 

f Over the church door is an inscription, importing that the steeple 
was erected in the year 1806. In the church is a monumental inscription^ 
of considerable length, to the family of Watkintf of Baljpmee and Water- 



V 

« ■ 



439 BBAOTIKS OF inBLAN'P. 

to St. Bridget, and the other to the Virgin Mary, both of which 
stood in one chnich-yard. 

Here is a free^school, founded by Frances Lady Lanesborongh, 
sixth daughter to Richard, Earl of Dorset. 

On the banks of the riyer Awb^, to the east of the toirn, is 
Cofile Bony, a former defensible residence of the £Eimily after 
whom it is named. This building occupies a bold and rocky site, 
bnt does not appear to have been of eminent strength or magnitnde. 
Within the court a modem house was erected, early in the last cen- 
tury. This estate was purchased from Richard, Earl of Barrymore, 
by the late John Anderson, Esq. of Fennoy, who repaired a part 
of the castle buildings, but without any attention to their former 
architectural character. 

At the distance of about one mile from Bnttevant, are the 
lemains of the Peiort of Ballybso, founded by Philip de Barry, 
about the year 1989, for canons rq^lar following the rule of St. 
Augustin, and dedicated to St. Thomas. This priory possessed 
lands to the extent of 8060 Irish acres, besides valuable tithes. 
In the diurch was erected an equestrian statue of the founder, 
executed in brass. The ruins shew the buildings to have been laige, 
bnt there are no traces of architectural beauty to be discovered. 

DoNSKAiLx, seated on the river Awbeg, at the distance of 
rather more than three miles from Bnttevant, depends for its 
interest with the visiter on the contiguous mansion belonging to 
the ennobled funily of St. Leger. The village, though agreeably 
situated, and containing some respectable houses, is not remarkable 
for beauty. The church is a commodious and eligible building, 
completed in 1816, with the aid of 2000/. lent by the Board of First 
Fruits.* A grant for a weekly market at Doneraile was procured 

park. In the church-yard, amoDf other faneral- memorials, are several 
to the families of Norcott ; Blood ; Crofts ; Harris ; and Banworth. 

• The church of Doneraile was first built by Sir V^illiam St. Lej^er, io 
I883f but that fabric, together with the principal part of the town, vraif 
burned by the Irish in 1646. It was rebuilt by Arthur, Lord DoneraUe, 
in 1796. 



£llUN8TBR.] COUHTY OF OOBK. 438 

by Sir WilMaa St. Leger, in 1^4; bat the mtrket has loog tinee 
ffMmt into disuse. In 1679, n patent was obtained^ grantittg that 
Ike freeholders of the same town shooKd reiuf a bnrgesses to 
parlJaniait ; and this nominal privilege they possessed until the 
date of the Union. 

Doneraile has f<Nrmed the seat of the St. L^ger famUy> since 
the early part of the seventeenth oentnry^ at which time Sir William 
St. Leger held here his court of presidency for the province, of 
Manster. Few families have risen to wealth and honours^ through 
serving the state in Ireland^ with more claims on the esteem of 
posterity. Sir Anthony St. *JLieger^ lord deputy in the reigns of 
Henry VI 11.^ Edward VI. « and Mary^ was one of the wisest and 
most useful governors placed over this oonntry in the siit^enth 
century. His grandson. Sir William, was appointed lord president 
of Mnnster^ by Charles I., in 16^7, and exercised, with fidelity 
and moderation^ the duties of this high office> in times peculiarly 
trying. The rebellion of 1641 called into active exercise his 
talents, as a statesman and a soldier. He rendered important 
service in both capacities i but his growing infirmities would not 
enable him long to sustain the hardships and anxieties to which 
he was then exposed, and he died in July» 1649. Arthur St. 
Leger, his descendant, was created, in 170S, Baron of KUmaydon 
and Viscount Doneraile. The titles became extinct in 1767> 
through failure of male issue; but St. Leger Aldworth, Esq. 
descended from a female branch of the St. Leger family, assumed 
the name and arms of St. Leger, and was created baron Doneraile^ 
of Doneraile, in 1776, and viscount of the same in 1785. 

Near the present bridge of Doneraile stood, formerly, a massive 
building, by some writers denominated a castle, in which Sir 
William St. Leger held his presidency court. This spot will 
scarcely be viewed without a train of recollections, and much 
exercise of the fancy, concerning the momentous transactions of 
past days. Near the court was the dwelling of the president, 
which was burned by the Irish, in the year 1645. 

The present seat of lord Doneraile is a large and handsome 
building, situated in a paric of great extent and beauty. The 

VOL. II. F F 



434 BBAUtfBS OF IRKLAND. 

Iid0$e is placed ob ritilig gfoand^ and ^ommaiMlB a (ine hmne-^ew^ 
in whicii the river Awbeg^ nvbteb wind^ tbrongb tins demeaacT^ 
tbnatitntes a principal feature. Tliere is, also, an extensrre pi^ee 
el artiftcial water, and the whole of the grennda are enriched widi 
a profasion of wood, tmly ornamental ia growth and arraDgement. 
The snrface is varied by bne and graceful sweHS; and the wide 
•preads of lawn appear to bte of velvetty softness . Althoogh ^ese 
grounds, like those at Castle Mdrtyr, are destitute of grand and 
eotnuandlDg objects, with the exception of tiieir venerable weed 
aldoe, they are of a stronger character than Hiose, and are decidedly 
more pleasing, as they evince less obvious efforts of art.* 

The village of CASTLnrowic Rocbb is situated upon the thickly- 
hooded side of a rocky hill, that overhangs the river never viewed 
by ns withont an eihotion of meianchdy pleasure, — the " gentle 
MuUa*' ef lancer, but the Awbeg of prosaic writers. The 
village has little todetain the examiner ; but, seated near the summit 
of the eminence, is a massy square tower, forming the remuns of 
a castle, long inhabited in baronial splendour, by the family of 
Roche, viscounts Fermoy. 

* It it a circointtaiice partlcaUriy gratifying, in the ditpoaal of modeni 
pleatare-^oonds, that, wbere ejrtnmeoat embelliiliiBeatB are latrodaced, 
the ttatoei and temples, fashionable a century ago, git e place ia buildings 
of the simplest kind, and, generally, to such as ha?e a rural allusion. The 
Irish excel in such tasteful introductions, as may be instanced by several 
parts of the demesne at Doneraile. A cottage commanding fine sylvan 
views, has been noticed, in terms of admiration, by every tourist that has 
visited this place* The romantic wUdness of Mr. Trotter*s genius was 
wall-auit^d to this subject, and we present his ardent and fiowery descrip. 
Uon.— *' The cottage is situated on a small island, round which flows, 
with melodious gurgling, Spencer's «' Mulla.*' It is shaded by some noble 
ash trees, that bend over the sacred stream, which poetry has consecrated 
to distant time. The cottage is environed by a garden of sweets and ever- 
greens, and designed in the chastest rural ityle. The interior conuuits of 
a very elegant and commodious apartment, where the harp may pour Its 
trembling notes along the MuUa's responsive waves.'* Walks thrtiugh 
Ireland, p. 906. 



) J 



[UI7NSTBR.] oomnyar o»b«. 4d5 

One of the neil tdikii^ pwigto is the ttods of lUs €a»tle« 

Mlales «» tiM vara mfo filiadbdh.— Ii<vd ft«clM> fdlisf uikUc 

•otpicion of ditloyatef, istke year ISBD, tbe onliterj commAftdev 

tttflioiuKlaeCMk, Mrdeced Gaptem (afterwarda Sir Walte) Raleigh, 

te aeiae that Dobknum aod Ua lady, and ooavey ihem directly tA 

head qpiOTten. RaU^h quitted Corkg with aiioafe niorty meaj 

At te» o'clock al night, and readied Caatk Roche ia safety | 

lAhoigh the seneuhal ol IflNkiliy (aa old oppoaisnt and persoiNil 

eaemy of Ralrigfa) hairiag notice ol tfaia deaga, had aaaamided 

•t^eral hnodrtd men^ for tha pwpeeo ol intereepfcing hin^ either 

te his oarch or on bis retorn. 

Raleigh arrived at an early hoar of the morning, and marched 

4Hnctly np the hill to die entrance of the eaatle. The wieigk* 

boaring peasants flew to armei hot, having dmwn Qp . hie 

small force, he took with him his attached adhereet, Nicholas 

Wright, and fi^e others, and demanded admittance. With 

some dificalty, be and bis six attendants entered 5 and, after he 

had iotrodaced himself to Lord Roche, be contrived, by degrees, td 

collect more of bis men, some of whom be directed to guard the 

iron gate of the court lodge, aod suffer no man to pass. Others 

he placed in the ball, with their arms ready. With constrained 

politeness. Lord Roche begged bis company to dinner; and, after 

the repast, Raleigh explained the object of bis visit. The baron 

demurred, and at length positively refused to move. Bat, when 

informed that force must be used if he persisted in such a refusal, 

he yielded^ and the whole party set forward. The night proved 

dark and stormy, with torrents of rain ; and their road was, in 

many places, rocky and dangerous. But the gloom of the season, 

and noises of the tempest, preserved them from worse perils. 

They eluded the seneschal and his armed numbers, and reached 

Cork by break of day. It was subsequently proved that Lord 

Roche was innocent of the treachery with which he was ohcrged; 

bnt lor the raabness of the seianre Raleigh was by no meanf 

accountable, as he had merely obeyed the command of a superior 

officer. 

F r 2 



43C BKAUTIM or IRSLAtTD. 

Tlie family of Roclie was less fortunate ia the ctril wart tfliicli 
commenced in 1641 • In tfao«e times of trooble, Maurice, Loi4 
Roche, was attainted, and forfeited his estates. In 1649, his lady 
bravely defended this castle for some days, bat was compelled to 
surrender, in consequence of the destroctive fire from a battery, 
erected by the assailants on a field npon tiie opposite side of the 
riyer, still termed the camp«field. Notwithstanding an ard^t 
personal, as well as political, attachment evinced by Lord Roche 
to Charles II. it is known that he, with his lady and six children, 
depended for subsistence, at a time subsequent to the restoration, 
on the bounty of their friends. The late Sir Boyle Roche, many 
years a member of the Irish parliament, in which he was ludicrously 
eminent for his continual blunders, was supposed to be the next 
<>f kin to the last viscount Fermoy. 

At Bridge-town, seated near the confluence of the Blackwater 
and the Awbeg, are the remains of an abbey, founded by the Roche 
family for regular canons of the order of St. Augustine. These 
ruins possess little architectural interest, and consist chiefly of the 
vestiges of the abbey-chorch, together with those of an attached 
chapel. The cloisters, and the outlines of a room tliought to 
have been the refectory, may also be traced. Many of the Rodie 
family were here interred, and two of their monuments are still 
discernible. One of these is situated near the former site of the 
high altar, and is, consequently, supposed to be that of the founder. 
Among some rude ornaments on this monument, is a shield, charged 
with one fish 5 but no inscription is now to be seen. The second 
monument of the Roches is in the adjoining chapel, and is merely 
inscribed A. D. 1634. Thbobald Rocb. Several architectural 
fragments, dispersed over the ground, prove that the interior was 
once abundantly, if not richly, ornamented.^ 

The straggling and mean town of Kilworth, is situated at the 
foot of the bleak tract, usually denominated the Kilworth mountain. 

* Some food wood-cats, representing several of these arcbilectnral 
vestiges, and four antient monumental stones, are given in Mr. Croker*s 
*^ Researches in the South of Ireland.*' 



[mctnstkr.] county or coax* 437 

The town is watered by tlie Dosglass^ wUch here foUs into the 
Foncheon 5 and the united rivers join the Blackwater^ after a pro- 
gress of about one mile. This place gires the title of baron to 
the family of Moore, Earl of Monntcashell, whose fine demesne^ 
termed Moorb Park, adjoins the town. It is mentioned in the 
pedigree of the family, that tUs estate was porchased, in the year 
1684, by Stephen Moore, Esq., ancestor of the present Lord 
Monntcaahell, for the sam of 5600/., of Henry Fleetwood, Esq. 
The honse h commodious rather than elegant, in an architectural 
point of view. The park and grounds are extremely fine, and 
acquire manycharms of sceneryfr6mthe flow of theriverFuncheon> 
which here pursues a winding course through a channel skirted by 
limestone rocks, often adorned with wood, and producing a great 
variety of beautiful forms. 

Within the demesne of the Earl of Mouutcashell, stands the 
aatient Ga8Tx.r or Cloolvaoh, placed in a commanding situation, 
near the conflux of the Fundieoii and Araglin. This was a castfe 
of the Condons. Fatrick Condon, of Clogleagh, having been 
actively engaged in Desmond's rebellion of 1588, forfeited his 
estate. A considerable part, however, (including, we presume, 
the demesne at present termed Moore Park) was restored to 'him. 
But we ibid it to have been, soon after, in the possession of aa 
English fiunily. Sir Richard Fleetwood was proprietor in 1641 ; 
but, on the breaking out of the civii war, the ok! proprietor, 
Condon, was reinstated in this castle, through the means, as is 
sud» of Arthur Hyde, of Castle Hyde. He fortifled and garrisoned 
Clbgleagh for the royal cause; but^ on the 33rd July, 1643, the 
castle yielded to a force under Lord Barrymore. It was soon 
alter retaken by Condon ; but was besieged, a second time, in 
1643, by Sir Charles Vavasour, and, after a gallant resistance, 
was taken by storm. In the absence of Vavasour, the garrison, 
men, women, and children, were massacred by the soldiery! 

Near the jonction of the Foncheon and Blackwater is CAany's 
Vjllb^ the seat of Peter Carey, Esq. . 



f3B BBAVTISS or JBSLAND. 

liiffcsBLftTOwir, dihtant h^m KihMith fhrao nihfe, to«rafd» 
4be Doitii^ had inr cbitot on ooAridflrMlM, antilipiprtiwdt* ^HlU* 
4be last half ceotory, bj the fiunily of KiBg, Earl of Kmpt^n, kf 
poprietors and palvoiii. Under tiba care of Ibia iiDUeiiiaiily» H 
MMv wean, in its priacipal parta, an air of reapectahiUljy* bat ia 
ai'dl aifiaoe of little tOMfe or iaipaiteiae. The chardi ie aliaiid* 
Bome new boilding, erected cfaieAf ihroogh the aMndficent aid eC 
hkdf Kingaton, who, also, betftoared on it a -fiae aervice^ silver, 
doably gilt, far the nae of tbe tBomnmnion-table. The Roiaaa 
Catholic Chapel it, likewiae, a faandaome boUSBg. Hie groond 
for tldB stmotore waa given, and, we faeUcv«, tbe«xpenae of the 
boiliting partly defrayed, by t^ late Lord Kiagston. 

Ad Hospital, termed the Cf^ege ofMkeMmown, waa <fovnded 
by the Kingston family, for the comfortable maiateaaBee of twelve 
decayed gentlemen, and the same number of gentlewomen, the 
latter of whom have been rcoenthr increaaed to aiiteen. Each 
inmate has a small hoase and garden, and an atraaalsriary of 40f. 
fttid 4)narterly. Axfaapd appestams to this estaUialiBeaEt, and 
tbe chaplain has a aalary of IMil per aannm, with a good 
Irauseand garden. 

Several schools bave been kiatitvted by Lady Kingston, 
together with a village Hbrary, and acvme other judieioos eet«- 
blishments for amefiorating the condttioo ef 'the 'poor. Among 
these we mnat not omit to notice pnUic aluq», for tbetaale of the 
necessaries off life, on prompt payment, at wbcdeaale prieea. We 
bave had an opportonity of witnessing the aoeeessliil proseeation 
of a similar plan for rescuing the homble parts of aodety^rom the 
rapacity of petty dealers, and from the temptation o€ incuiring 
debts, under the anspiees of Dr. Barrington, bishop of Durham, 
IB the neighbom-hood of bis lordahip's seat at Mongewell, nt 
Oxfordshire, and we thiiilc that it cannot be too warmly 
recommended to frequent adoption. 

Dr. Smith says that there was formerly a round or pillar tower, 
which stood SOyards from thesonth- westaugle of the formerchurch^ 
and which fell to the ground in the early part of the eighteenth 
century. He adds that the bailding was^ attributed to St. Fma- 



[munst&b.] covmty .or cobk. 49P 

skMUp whose fi^lival is k«ptj^ere on the VA ^f |<0TiMabi»r. As 
«u iji^ta^^:^ of kuifevity, it may Kiie mf ntiom^d thtt John Newell, 
4pr«id8on of ThoopHW P9rr> died at Af itch^l^w^n, at the age ^ 
1^7 years. It may be> lili^^^riie, ^tjced» as^^other inemorable 
ina^oce of lengthened life in fhe Parr funily, that iPat)iarine Parr^ 
great*panddau|^ter of Thomfs^ /di^d in Skiddy's Al^^^onaep, 
fy>t}i, in 1792> aged 108 year^. 

The mansion of the Ki¥^l>oroagh family is contiguous to the 
jtown, and is a spacious strnc^re^ finely situated on an eminence 
commanding a grand display of mountain scenery. It was erected 
by Robert Lord Kingsborough, afterwards second earl of King- 
9t<Hi, abont the year 1778. Bat, since our inspection of this 
neighbourhood, the design of a new mansion has been formed by 
the Earl of Kingston, the aite of which, we believe, is not to be 
Isr distant from that of the present house. 

The pieasare-gfounds and gsideas are very fine, and the whole 
•of this noble demesne contains not less than 1300 English acres, 
enclosed with a wall, ten feet in height. Large plantations were 
fi^adfi by Lord King^b<^rongb, when he erected the house, and 
the whole of the grounds are much indebted to Che improvements 
the